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English

vertaal die woorde na engeZiziphus mucronata, or as it is more frequently known, the wag-'n-bietjie tree represents life as we know it. The young twigs are zigzag, indicating that life is not always straightforward. Two thorns at the nodes are also significant; one facing backward represents where we come from and one facing forward, represents where we are going. Thorns and twigs Description Ziziphus mucronata is a small to medium-sized tree, 3-10(-20) m high; with a spreading canopy. The main stem is green and hairy when young; year old branches often zigzag; the bark is reddish brown or roughly mottled grey, cracked into small rectangular blocks, revealing a red and stringy under-surface. Young stems are reddish brown. Bark Leaves are simple, alternate; ovate or broadly ovate; vary enormously in size from tree to tree, 30-90 x 20-50 mm, tapering or often mucronate apex, base strongly asymmetrical, cordate to rounded on one side; margin finely serrated, often badly eaten by insects, glossy green above, slightly hairy and paler below; 3- to 5-veined from the base; veins covered with fine hairs when young; petiole up to 20 mm long; stipules, when present, take the form of small thorns at the nodes, one straight and one hooked. Leaves turn golden yellow in autumn. Flowers are borne in dense clusters in leaf axils; green to yellow; ± 4mm in diameter; inconspicuous (October-February). The fruit is a smooth, shiny, leathery, spherical drupe, 12-20 mm in diameter, reddish-brown or deep red when ripe, slightly sweet, the pulp is dry. The fruit sometimes stays on the plant long after the leaves have fallen (March-August). The seeds are usually solitary, elliptic and compressed. Fruits Red Data status : Not evaluated (NE). Geographic distribution The buffalo thorn is distributed throughout the summer rainfall areas of sub-Saharan Africa, extending from South Africa northwards to Ethiopia and Arabia. Natural habitat Ziziphus mucronata grows in areas dominated by thorny vegetation in both temperate and tropical climates. It is also found in a wide range of habitats such as woodlands, open scrubland, on rocky koppies, open grasslands, on a variety of soils along streams, nutrient-rich valley bottoms and forest margins. It reaches its largest size on the margins of scrub forest and on deep, alluvial soils near water. Its presence is said to indicate the presence of underground water. Derivation of name and historical aspects The ancient Greeks called the tree zizyphon, from the Arabic zizouf, a name for the mythical lotus. This was taken into Latin as zizyphum, or zizypha for the fruits. The species name mucronata is Latin meaning pointed, probably referring to its thorns or the apex of its leaves. The stipular thorns at the nodes give the tree its common Afrikaans name of wag-'n-beetjie. For all their smallness, these thorns are extremely vicious, and all those who have come into contact with them,will know that you have to wait-a-bit if you want to free yourself from them. There are 49 genera and 900 species in the family Rhamnaceae (Simpson 2006). The genus Ziziphus includes some 86 species, of which the one discussed here is among the commonest and best known trees of southern Africa. Another well-known species in this genus is Z. mauritiana, the ber or jujube tree, the fruits of which are often found in shops which sell Asian foodstuffs. Historically, the genus is of interest. Christ's crown of thorns is supposed to have been made from Ziziphus spina-christi Willd., a species which closely resembles Z. mucronata but which grows from central Africa northwards (Palmer & Pitman 1972). Ecology Although the fruit of Ziziphus mucronata cannot be counted as very tasty, the tree itself plays an important role ecologically. The leaves and fruit are sought after by birds of many species, wild animals and domestic stock. Giraffes are known to be especially fond of the leaves of this tree. Impala often feed on the dead leaves lying under the tree. Its inconspicuous, green to yellow flowers produce abundant nectar and often yield a good honey. Flowers. Photoc Geoff Nichols © Geoff Nichols Medicinal and cultural uses A decoction of the glutinous roots is commonly administered as a painkiller for all sorts of pains as well as dysentery. A concoction of the bark and the leaves is used for respiratory ailments and other septic swellings of the skin. Pastes of the root and leaves can be applied to treat boils, swollen glands, wounds and sores. Steam baths from the bark are used to purify and improve the complexion (Palmer & Pitman 1972). In East Africa, roots are used for treating snake bites (Hutchings et al. 1996). All of the above can be attributed to the peptide alkaloids and antifungal properties isolated from the bark and leaves. The berries are edible and were used by residents in the former Transvaal in making porridge or as a coffee substitute. The fruit can also make a beer if fermented properly. During the Anglo-Boer war, the seeds were ground and used as a coffee substitute. Africans have many beliefs and superstitions attached to this tree. Zulus and Swazis use the buffalo thorn in connection with burial rites. It was once customary that when a Zulu chief died, the tree was planted on his grave as a reminder or symbol of where the chief lies. Hence the name umLahlankosi- that which buries the chief. A twig from the tree was and is still used to attract and carry the spirit of the deceased from the place of death to the new resting place. When a stock owner died, and was buried according to custom, within the cattle or goat kraal, some branches were placed on the grave so that the animals nibbled on leaves and twigs, and so understood that their master had died (Palmer & Pitman 1972). In other parts, Africans drag a branch round the village to protect it from evil spirits, as it is believed to keep evil spirits away. In Botswana as well as most parts of South Africa, the residents believed the buffalo thorn to be immune against lightning, anyone standing under one in a storm would be safe. It is also believed that if it is felled in summer, a drought, hail or lightning will certainly follow. Wood from this tree is used for timber, wagon making and fence posts as it yields a yellow, fine-grained, heavy wood which contains 12.2-15.7% tanning matter (Watt & Brandwijk 1962). The elasticity of the shoots makes it suitable for bows and whip sticks. Some African tribes use the thorny branches to make kraals or hedges. This protects their livestock from lions and other predators. Growing Ziziphus mucronata The species is very easily raised from seed or cuttings, growing in just about any soil type and withstanding heat and cold equally well. The seed however has poor keeping properties and should be sown fresh. After cleaning the nut, it can be placed between the jaws of a vice or a normal nutcracker and closed gradually until the nut cracks and seed is released. The seeds can then be covered with hot water, allowed to cool, soaked for two days and sown. Seedlings should appear within one to two weeks. Seedlings and small plants need moderate water, full sun and efficient drainage or they will damp off. Even though this plant is said to be one of the most adaptable trees, growing in all types of soil and having the ability to withstand intense heat, cold and drought, the same cannot be said for the seedlings. As with most plants, immunity is acquired with increased stature. Small trees are often available at nurseries selling indigenous plants. While slow-growing (0.3 m or less per annum), it makes a pleasant shade tree and gives life to the garden by luring birds and insects such as butterflies, beetles and bees.ls

Afrikaans

translated the words into English

Last Update: 2016-01-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Aids!What is Aids? Aids is the virus that starts of with HIV.The HIV virus attacks and weakens a persons immune system.HIV/AIDS can be contracted from a HIV/AIDS positive person due to direct contact of the HIV positive persons body fluid eg.if the blood of a HIV positive person gets into an open wound of a HIV negetive person,that person can get infected with the virus.One of the most common ways is unprotected sex.HIV/AIDS cannot be spread by just simply touching a person.There is no cure for HIV/AIDS however an infected person can live long and remain healthy if they take the correct treatment as required

Afrikaans

MIV

Last Update: 2014-05-13
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

From Rundu airport head east towards the B8 for 5.7km turn left into E Kakakuru. After 2.4km turn right onto Ovusi street , take the second left onto Sarasungu road and, then take the third left into Ngandu Safari Lodge. Continue towards the river stream. Sarasungu river lodge situated on the banks of the Kavango river bank.

Afrikaans

Vertaalkunde

Last Update: 2013-09-19
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.

Afrikaans

En die Gees en die bruid sê: Kom! En laat hom wat hoor, sê: Kom! En laat hom wat dors het, kom; en laat hom wat wil, die water van die lewe neem, verniet.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And the voice which I heard from heaven spake unto me again, and said, Go and take the little book which is open in the hand of the angel which standeth upon the sea and upon the earth.

Afrikaans

En die stem wat ek uit die hemel gehoor het, het weer tot my gespreek en gesê: Gaan, neem die geopende boekie in die hand van die engel wat op die see en op die land staan.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:

Afrikaans

En neem aan die helm van verlossing en die swaard van die Gees--dit is die woord van God--

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;

Afrikaans

Toe sing hulle 'n nuwe lied en sê: U is waardig om die boek te neem en sy seëls oop te maak, want U is geslag en het ons vir God met u bloed gekoop uit elke stam en taal en volk en nasie,

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? God forbid.

Afrikaans

Weet julle nie dat julle liggame lede van Christus is nie? Sal ek dan die lede van Christus neem en dit lede van 'n hoer maak? Nee, stellig nie!

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room.

Afrikaans

en hy wat jou en hom genooi het, kom en vir jou sê: Maak plek vir hierdie man. En dan sal jy met skaamte die agterste plek begin inneem.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Thou shalt take the bullock also of the sin offering, and he shall burn it in the appointed place of the house, without the sanctuary.

Afrikaans

Dan moet jy die sondofferbul neem, en hulle moet hom verbrand in die daarvoor bestemde plek van die huis, buitekant die heiligdom.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

The bellows are burned, the lead is consumed of the fire; the founder melteth in vain: for the wicked are not plucked away.

Afrikaans

Die blaasbalk blaas hard; wat uit die vuur gereed kom, is lood; tevergeefs hou hulle aan met smelt, maar die slegtes word nie afgeskei nie.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.

Afrikaans

Ek sal hom stuur teen 'n roekelose nasie, en Ek sal hom bevel gee teen die volk van my grimmigheid, om buit te maak en roof in te samel en om hulle tot 'n vertrapping te maak soos modder van die strate.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And I will take the remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; they shall even be consumed by the sword and by the famine: they shall die, from the least even unto the greatest, by the sword and by the famine: and they shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach.

Afrikaans

En Ek sal die oorblyfsel van Juda wegneem, wat hulle aangesig gerig het om na Egipteland te trek, om daar as vreemdelinge te vertoef; en hulle sal almal in Egipteland omkom. Deur die swaard sal hulle val, deur die hongersnood sal hulle verteer word, groot sowel as klein; deur die swaard en die hongersnood sal hulle sterwe; en hulle sal 'n voorwerp van verwensing, van verbasing en van vervloeking en smaad word.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh:

Afrikaans

En Ek sal hulle een hart gee, en 'n nuwe gees in julle binneste gee; en Ek sal die hart van klip uit hulle vlees verwyder en hulle 'n hart van vlees gee,

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And it shall be, if they refuse to take the cup at thine hand to drink, then shalt thou say unto them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Ye shall certainly drink.

Afrikaans

En as hulle weier om die beker uit jou hand te neem om te drink, moet jy vir hulle sê: So spreek die HERE van die leërskare: Drink sál julle!

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

And it came to pass after many days, that the LORD said unto me, Arise, go to Euphrates, and take the girdle from thence, which I commanded thee to hide there.

Afrikaans

En ná verloop van baie dae het die HERE vir my gesê: Maak klaar, gaan na die Eufraat en haal die gord daarvandaan wat Ek jou beveel het om daar weg te steek.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
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English

And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.

Afrikaans

En toe hulle teruggegaan het, verskyn daar 'n engel van die HERE in 'n droom aan Josef en sê: Staan op, neem die Kindjie en sy moeder en vlug na Egipte, en bly daar totdat ek jou sê; want Herodes gaan die Kindjie soek om Hom dood te maak.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Thy tacklings are loosed; they could not well strengthen their mast, they could not spread the sail: then is the prey of a great spoil divided; the lame take the prey.

Afrikaans

Jou toue hang slap, hulle hou die voetstuk van hulle mas nie styf nie, hulle ontplooi nie die banier nie; dan word roofbuit verdeel in menigte, selfs die lammes maak buit.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs.

Afrikaans

Maar Hy antwoord en sê: Dit is nie mooi om die brood van die kinders te neem en dit vir die hondjies te gooi nie.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
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English

But Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it unto the dogs.

Afrikaans

Maar Jesus sê vir haar: Laat eers die kinders versadig word; want dit is nie mooi om die brood van die kinders te neem en vir die hondjies te gooi nie.

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:

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