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China

Bengali

গণচীন

Last Update: 2015-05-12
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English

China

Bengali

China

Last Update: 2013-11-15
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English

China rose

Bengali

জবা ফুল

Last Update: 2015-12-29
Subject: General
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English

Later China got in on the act

Bengali

বিং

Last Update: 2014-02-09
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English

Do earthquakes occur in the upper mantle or only in the crust of continental lithosphere? In the Himalayan convergence zone, a bi- modal distribution of brittle strength in the crust and upper mantle with a ductile transition in the lower crust has been used to ex- plain the existence of subcrustal hypocentres under the southern Ti- betan Plateau (e.g. Chen & Molnar 1983; Chen & Kao 1996; Zhu & Helmberger 1996; Chen & Yang 2004). Other authors have sug- gested that elastic thicknesses of continents are less than or equal to the seismogenic thickness, that both are less than the crustal thick- ness, and that continental earthquakes occur in the crust while the upper mantle deforms as a weaker ductile layer (e.g. Maggi et al. 2000a; Jackson 2002a,b; Jackson et al. 2004; McKenzie et al. 2005; Mitra et al. 2005). Both sides of this controversy use the hypocentres and focal mechanisms of many of the same earthquakes in their in- terpretations of the continental lithosphere in the Himalayan region. Determining the source parameters of additional earthquakes and careful analysis of their focal depths near the crust–mantle boundary provide further fuel for this controversy. Studies using P -wave first motions, synthesis of body waves and moment tensor inversions of earthquakes show largely under- thrusting, east–west and north–south extension in the shallow crust beneath the Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau (Chen & Molnar 1983; Baranowski et al. 1984; Molnar & Lyon-Caen 1989; Randall et al. 1995; Kumar 1998) as well as strike-slip and east– west extension at depths > 70 km under the southern Tibetan Plateau (Chen et al. 1981; Molnar & Chen 1983; Zhu & Helmberger 1996; Harvard University Department of Geological Sciences 2005). These solutions represent much of the focal mech- anism record in the Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau (Tables 1 and 2). Analysis of earthquakes recorded by a local seis- mic network can provide Himalayan deformation information which might be missed by analysis of intermittent earthquakes detectable teleseismically. The Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic experiment (HIMNT) was a seismic network of 29 broad-band stations deployed in 2001–2003 (Fig. 1). In this paper, we analyse earthquake source parameters for 17 of the best quality events recorded by the HIMNT network (Fig. 2). We supplement the HIMNT data with data from the broad- band experiment in western Bhutan in 2002–2003 (Velasco et al. 2007), data from the Global Seismic Network station LSA in Lhasa, China, and short period vertical component data from the permanent seismic network of the Department of Mines and Geology Nepal. We determine fault parameters, which are cross checked with first motion polarities, and focal depths using a moment tensor inversion 718 C  2007 The Authors Journal compilation C  2007 RAS Earthquake processes of the Himalayan collision zone 719 Ta bl e 1 . Fault Plane Solutions from previous studes. No. Date Lat ◦ N Lon ◦ E Depth km Mag. P az. P pl. T az T pl. Source 1 1/12/1965 27.4 87.84 15 5.9 M b a 180 30 0 60 No. 3 Baranowski et al. (1984) 2 8/1/1973 29.59 89.17 85 4.9 M b a 184 37 89 6 No. 8 Molnar and Chen (1983) 3 3/24/1974 27.73 86.11 16 4.8 M b a 185 43 5 47 No. 9 Baranowski et al. (1984) 4 9/14/1976 29.78 89.54 90 5.4 M b a 185 72 290 5 Chen et al. (1981) 5 6/19/1979 26.74 87.48 21 5.2 M b a 103 86 341 2 No. 23 Ni & Barazangi (1984) 6 11/19/1980 27.39 88.80 44 6.0 M b a 166 15 73 12 No. 59 Ekstr ̈ om (1987) 1 7 1/10/1986 28.66 86.57 85 5.5 M b a 348 40 96 20 No. 134 Ekstr ̈ om (1987) 1 8 8/20/1988 26.73 86.59 51 6.4 M b a 209 35 65 49 No.T9 Chen and Yang (2004) 9 12/21/1991 27.90 88.14 70 4.7 M w 157 6 252 3 No.355 Zhu & Helmberger (1996) 10 3/7/1992 29.44 89.37 80 4.2 M w 210 27 303 3 No.67 Zhu & Helmberger (1996) 11 4/4/1992 28.15 87.98 80 4.8 M w 6 31 277 3 No.95 Zhu & Helmberger (1996) 27 1/31/1997 28.06 85.34 13 5.9 M L b 312 30 181 58 Kumar (1998) Note: Summary of the focal mechanisms from 1965 to 2005 within our study region. We replaced the hypocentres of the moment tensor solutions from the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalog with the hypocentres labelled DEQ from the EHB catalog (Engdahl et al. 1998). a From Chen & Yang (2004). b From Pandey et al. (1999). Ta bl e 2 . Harvard CMT events with hypocentres from the EHB catalogue (Engdahl et al. 1998). No. Date Lat ◦ N Lon ◦ E Depth km Mag. P az. P pl. T az T pl. 12 10/29/1988 27.87 85.65 13.7 5.2 M w 205 16 353 71 13 4/9/1989 29.16 90.06 11.2 5.1 M w 155 70 260 5 14 3/20/1993 29.01 87.36 14.1 6.2 M w 355 68 92 3 15 3/20/1993 29.02 87.36 16.1 5.1 M w 273 60 83 30 16 7/3/1996 30.08 88.14 5.3 5.6 M w 356 82 90 1 17 7/3/1996 30.12 88.21 45.2 5.0 M w 249 72 80 18 18 7/31/1996 30.20 88.16 12.1 5.4 M w 25 58 258 21 19 11/3/1997 29.05 85.41 9.5 5.5 M w 61 72 276 15 20 7/20/1998 30.17 88.22 11.6 5.7 M w 85 76 281 13 21 7/21/1998 30.27 88.18 10.3 5.0 M w 124 88 304 2 22 8/25/1998 30.25 88.17 20.4 5.8 M w 2 74 268 1 23 8/28/1998 30.26 88.26 25.0 5.0 M w 0 90 289 0 24 9/30/1998 30.05 88.11 12.0 5.1 M w 285 71 65 15 25 10/5/1998 30.24 88.26 38.8 5.2 M w 85 72 286 17 26 3/26/2005 28.44 87.846 78.0 4.7 M w 331 19 68 20 Note: Summary of the focal mechanisms from 1965 to 2005 within our study region. We replaced the hypocentres of the moment tensor solutions from the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue with the hypocentres labelled DEQ from the EHB catalogue (Engdahl et al. 1998). 80 ̊ 80 ̊ 82 ̊ 82 ̊ 84 ̊ 84 ̊ 86 ̊ 86 ̊ 88 ̊ 88 ̊ 90 ̊ 90 ̊ 92 ̊ 92 ̊ 26 ̊ 26 ̊ 28 ̊ 28 ̊ 30 ̊ 30 ̊ 0 100 200 km NEPAL CHINA INDIA BHUTAN BANGLADESH Kathmandu BIRA BUNG GAIG HILE ILAM JANA JIRI NAMC PHAP PHID RUMJ SIND THAK TUML SUKT LAZE SAJA ONRN SSAN SAGA DINX RBSH NAIL MNBU XIXI RC14 MAZA DOCH CHUK PA R O BUMT TA S H LSA 60 ̊ 60 ̊ 70 ̊ 70 ̊ 80 ̊ 80 ̊ 90 ̊ 90 ̊ 100 ̊ 100 ̊ 110 ̊ 110 ̊ 10 ̊ 10 ̊ 20 ̊ 20 ̊ 30 ̊ 30 ̊ 40 ̊ 40 ̊ 50 ̊ 50 ̊ CHINA INDIA 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 meters Figure 1. Station locations of the Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT), a Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) broadband seismic project of the University of Colorado at Boulder, Binghamton University, the Department of Mines and Geology of Nepal, a nd the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Chinese Academy of Science. Triangles are HIMNT broadband station locations, circles are broadband st ations from the 2002 to 2003 Bhutan experiment (Velasco et al. 2007), diamonds are stations of the National Seismological Network of Nepal, and the square is GSN station LSA. Grey scale signifies topography in meters. C  2007 The Authors, GJI , 171, 718–738 Journal compilation C  2007 RAS 720 T. L. de la Torre et al. 83 ̊ 83 ̊ 84 ̊ 84 ̊ 85 ̊ 85 ̊ 86 ̊ 86 ̊ 87 ̊ 87 ̊ 88 ̊ 88 ̊ 89 ̊ 89 ̊ 90 ̊ 90 ̊ 91 ̊ 91 ̊ 92 ̊ 92 ̊ 26 ̊ 26 ̊ 27 ̊ 27 ̊ 28 ̊ 28 ̊ 29 ̊ 29 ̊ 30 ̊ 30 ̊ 0 100 200 km 0 20 60 100 Hypocenter Depth km Kathmandu MF T MB T MC T THE HIMAL A Y A TIBE T AN PL A TEA U Br ahmaputr a V alle y Gang es Plain THE HIMAL A Y A Figure 2. Subset of seismicity from 2001 October to 2003 April located by HIMNT (Monsalve et al. 2006) (large circles) and earthquakes from 1964 to 2005 of the EHB catalogue (Engdahl et al. 1998) (small circles). Note three distinct groups of seismicity: (1) along the Himalayan Front 60 km depth. Barbed lines along the Himalayan Front represent approximate locations of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), and the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Normal faults on the Tibeta n Plateau are spiked lines. Red line denotes cross section in Fig. 4. method. These results are combined with previously published fo- cal mechanisms to describe the seismotectonics of the Himalayan region (Figs 3 and 4). Nine of the earthquakes presented here were at focal depths near the crust–mantle boundary and the hypocentres and deformation styles of these earthquakes are examined in detail. 2 MICROEARTHQUAKE PATTERN UNDER THE EASTERN NEPAL HIMALAYA AND SOUTHERN TIBETAN PLATEAU Earthquakes recorded during the 2001–2003 HIMNT deployment range in magnitude from M L 2.0–5.0 and have hypocentres in three distinct spatial groups (Fig. 2) (Monsalve et al. 2006). The first group is a narrow band of earthquakes at hypocentral depths 60 km trending WNW to ESE beneath the High Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau. The hypocentres are close to the crus

Bengali

হিমালয় ভূমিকম্প পিডিএফ উপর প্রবন্ধ

Last Update: 2017-01-07
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

essay on earthquake Earthquake is one of the natural calamities. Its origin can be traced to the early days of earth formation. It is responsible for a lot of damage to living and non-living beings. For many centuries man didn’t know why earthquakes occur and how they occur and to what extent they would damage. He only felt that mother earth was angry with him and so caused the earthquake and he always feared it. It was left to Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher, to relate the phenomenon of earthquake to physical factors. According to Aristotle, when the air compressed within the arch escapes, it shakes some part of the land. This emission is called volcanic activity. When the volcano bursts, lots of lava, gas etc come out of the earth and fail out. This causes pressure and imbalance and results in producing earthquake waves in the surrounding areas. It was thus identified that volcanic activity is one of the reasons for earthquakes. The volcanic activity results in faulting. To fill up the new faults the movement of earth takes place. This causes tremor. The second reason is isostatic adjustment. The surface of the earth has certain raised up blocks and certain depressed blocks. They keep the balance of the earth, when it moves revolving on units of axis. These raised up blocks are washed down due to various reasons and cause imbalance. Then also the earthquakes occur to regain and maintain that balance. We could therefore see that earthquakes commonly occur in volcano prime areas and under the feet of hills and mountains, no well settle Earthquakes frequently occur in China, Japan, Philippines, southern parts of the Himalayas, volcano prime parts of Europe and western parts of North and South America. They are also likely to occur in Rajasthan in India and Arabian countries. One cannot say that earthquakes do not occur in other places. They may occur in any part of the world at any time. We are not very sure of the underground movements of the earth and its pressure points. So one can only identify areas, where they are likely to occur. All earthquakes do not cause severe damage. Those which are of severe intensity are really dangerous. There are scales to measure the intensity of the earthquake. The first one was Mercall’s scale. It is qualitative scale and not a quantitative scale and so not useful to measure the intensity. The second one is Richter scale. Richter scale is released from within. It is measured with numbers. If the earthquake measures 7 points on Richter scale it causes severe damage as it is of severe intensity. Those measuring 5 and less points may not cause much damage. The scientists are now able to study and define the secondary waves and tertiary waves also in earthquakes. Scientists are able to study the underground movements of wave’s with the help of a machine called Seismograph. With its help one can also predict the likely possibility of earthquakes’ occurrence as to where and when they are likely to occur. In India most of the earthquakes occur in the Himalaya zone, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra valleys. Only a few earthquakes have occurred in the Deccan Plateau. The earthquake of 1967 at Icwyna and the earthquake of 1993 at Latur in Maharashtra are the recent ones in this area. In the matter of natural calamities man cannot be a master unless he becomes a master over nature completely. That is not possible for man with the limited knowledge of nature he has at his command.

Bengali

ভুমিকম্প প্রবন্ধ Earthquake is one of the natural calamities. Its origin can be traced to the early days of earth formation. It is responsible for a lot of damage to living and non-living beings. For many centuries man didn’t know why earthquakes occur and how they occur and to what extent they would damage. He only felt that mother earth was angry with him and so caused the earthquake and he always feared it. It was left to Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher, to relate the phenomenon of earthquake to physical factors. According to Aristotle, when the air compressed within the arch escapes, it shakes some part of the land. This emission is called volcanic activity. When the volcano bursts, lots of lava, gas etc come out of the earth and fail out. This causes pressure and imbalance and results in producing earthquake waves in the surrounding areas. It was thus identified that volcanic activity is one of the reasons for earthquakes. The volcanic activity results in faulting. To fill up the new faults the movement of earth takes place. This causes tremor. The second reason is isostatic adjustment. The surface of the earth has certain raised up blocks and certain depressed blocks. They keep the balance of the earth, when it moves revolving on units of axis. These raised up blocks are washed down due to various reasons and cause imbalance. Then also the earthquakes occur to regain and maintain that balance. We could therefore see that earthquakes commonly occur in volcano prime areas and under the feet of hills and mountains, no well settle Earthquakes frequently occur in China, Japan, Philippines, southern parts of the Himalayas, volcano prime parts of Europe and western parts of North and South America. They are also likely to occur in Rajasthan in India and Arabian countries. One cannot say that earthquakes do not occur in other places. They may occur in any part of the world at any time. We are not very sure of the underground movements of the earth and its pressure points. So one can only identify areas, where they are likely to occur. All earthquakes do not cause severe damage. Those which are of severe intensity are really dangerous. There are scales to measure the intensity of the earthquake. The first one was Mercall’s scale. It is qualitative scale and not a quantitative scale and so not useful to measure the intensity. The second one is Richter scale. Richter scale is released from within. It is measured with numbers. If the earthquake measures 7 points on Richter scale it causes severe damage as it is of severe intensity. Those measuring 5 and less points may not cause much damage. The scientists are now able to study and define the secondary waves and tertiary waves also in earthquakes. Scientists are able to study the underground movements of wave’s with the help of a machine called Seismograph. With its help one can also predict the likely possibility of earthquakes’ occurrence as to where and when they are likely to occur. In India most of the earthquakes occur in the Himalaya zone, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra valleys. Only a few earthquakes have occurred in the Deccan Plateau. The earthquake of 1967 at Icwyna and the earthquake of 1993 at Latur in Maharashtra are the recent ones in this area. In the matter of natural calamities man cannot be a master unless he becomes a master over nature completely. That is not possible for man with the limited knowledge of nature he has at his command.

Last Update: 2016-02-19
Subject: General
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English

essay on earthquake Earthquake is one of the natural calamities. Its origin can be traced to the early days of earth formation. It is responsible for a lot of damage to living and non-living beings. For many centuries man didn’t know why earthquakes occur and how they occur and to what extent they would damage. He only felt that mother earth was angry with him and so caused the earthquake and he always feared it. It was left to Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher, to relate the phenomenon of earthquake to physical factors. According to Aristotle, when the air compressed within the arch escapes, it shakes some part of the land. This emission is called volcanic activity. When the volcano bursts, lots of lava, gas etc come out of the earth and fail out. This causes pressure and imbalance and results in producing earthquake waves in the surrounding areas. It was thus identified that volcanic activity is one of the reasons for earthquakes. The volcanic activity results in faulting. To fill up the new faults the movement of earth takes place. This causes tremor. The second reason is isostatic adjustment. The surface of the earth has certain raised up blocks and certain depressed blocks. They keep the balance of the earth, when it moves revolving on units of axis. These raised up blocks are washed down due to various reasons and cause imbalance. Then also the earthquakes occur to regain and maintain that balance. We could therefore see that earthquakes commonly occur in volcano prime areas and under the feet of hills and mountains, no well settle Earthquakes frequently occur in China, Japan, Philippines, southern parts of the Himalayas, volcano prime parts of Europe and western parts of North and South America. They are also likely to occur in Rajasthan in India and Arabian countries. One cannot say that earthquakes do not occur in other places. They may occur in any part of the world at any time. We are not very sure of the underground movements of the earth and its pressure points. So one can only identify areas, where they are likely to occur. All earthquakes do not cause severe damage. Those which are of severe intensity are really dangerous. There are scales to measure the intensity of the earthquake. The first one was Mercall’s scale. It is qualitative scale and not a quantitative scale and so not useful to measure the intensity. The second one is Richter scale. Richter scale is released from within. It is measured with numbers. If the earthquake measures 7 points on Richter scale it causes severe damage as it is of severe intensity. Those measuring 5 and less points may not cause much damage. The scientists are now able to study and define the secondary waves and tertiary waves also in earthquakes. Scientists are able to study the underground movements of wave’s with the help of a machine called Seismograph. With its help one can also predict the likely possibility of earthquakes’ occurrence as to where and when they are likely to occur. In India most of the earthquakes occur in the Himalaya zone, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra valleys. Only a few earthquakes have occurred in the Deccan Plateau. The earthquake of 1967 at Icwyna and the earthquake of 1993 at Latur in Maharashtra are the recent ones in this area. In the matter of natural calamities man cannot be a master unless he becomes a master over nature completely. That is not possible for man with the limited knowledge of nature he has at his command.

Bengali

ভুমিকম্প প্রবন্ধ

Last Update: 2016-02-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Essay on Lotus Flower (Indian Lotus, Sacred Lotus) – National Flower of India On July 27, 2015 By Ankit Sharma Category: Essays, Paragraphs and Articles Lotus Scientific name: Nelumbo nucifera. National flower of India: Lotus (also Indian lotus, sacred lotus) is the national flower of India. It has received this recognition because of its Indian origin, its long association with our culture and also due to its usefulness. It is a beautiful flower with appealing color and fragrance. From very ancient time, we have been using lotus in one way or the other. Habitat: Lotus is an aquatic herb with floating leaves. It is found growing in shallow water of ponds, lakes, ditches. Occasionally it is cultivated in small pools in the gardens (lily pool). Though it is an absolutely Indian flower, nowadays it is also found in countries like China, Japan, Australia and tropical America. Nature: Lotus is a flowering plant. Characteristic features The characteristic features of its stem, leaf and flower are as follows: Stem: The stem of Lotus is fleshy and thick and is called rhizome, which grows in the mud at the bottom of water sources. It gives off bunches of roots to keep the plant anchored to the soil. Leaves develop from the nodes of rhizome. The rhizome can be used for propagation of Lotus. Leaves: Leaves of Lotus are simple and almost round with long, hollow, air-filled stalks (petiole) that give support to the leaf to float on the surface of water. The stalk may be up to 100 cm. long and is covered with tiny spikes called prickles. The diameter of the leaf may vary between 60 and 80 cm. The upper surface is bright green in color and glossy in appearance, while the under surface is reddish green in color. Flower: The flower appears singly on a long, spongy stalk covered with tiny spikes. The flowers are large, showy and light pink or white in color that usually remains high above the water surface. The flowers have numerous petals which are arranged on a spongy top-shaped disc called thalamus. The disc contains carpel which ultimately develops into fruits. The fruits remain embedded within the thalamus. When the fruits mature in the spongy part of the thalamus all the petals and stamens fall of and conical thalamus gets detached from the stalk. In due course the thalamus rots and the fruits containing the seed sink to the bottom of water and germinate into a new plant. Spot identifying features The characteristic identifying features of Lotus are as follows: It is an aquatic, herbaceous plant, whose roots, stem and stalk of flower remain under water. The stem, known as rhizome, is thick and fleshy. Leaves are large, round, dark-green, smooth and shining. They remain floating. Flowers are large, showy with many boat-shaped petals. Flower and leaf-stalk are long with coarse surface. Fruits are large, triangular shaped, spongy containing many seeds. Importance Although Lotus is mainly regarded as an ornamental plant and its flowers are used for religious purposes, it has several other uses. Large leaves are used as plates for taking meals. The petiole, rhizome (stem) and seeds are used as food. Besides, they have medicinal values. Lotus honey is useful for treatment of various diseases of the eyes.

Bengali

bengla পদ্ম ফুল প্রবন্ধ

Last Update: 2016-01-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

For 10 of our products I need you to find 5 suitable suppliers, for each product in China. bing

Bengali

আমাদের পণ্য 10 জন্য আমি আপনি চীন প্রতিটি পণ্যের জন্য, 5 উপযুক্ত সরবরাহকারী খুঁজে বের করতে হবে. ঠন্ঠন্

Last Update: 2015-02-23
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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