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Reality Shows - Facts and Effects
Reality Shows are genre of television shows or programmes which feature common people and or celebrities or both, in real life or scripted situations/environment or a mix of both real and scripted incidents. Reality Shows are also referred as ‘Reality Television’. Reality shows have become quite a rage of late; these were non-existent until the 1940’s. Reality shows in those times were quite authentic. This was because it was a new concept and as such manipulation was limited to only creating unordinary situations for ordinary citizens. However, the reality shows of today have blurred the reality. The irony of ‘Reality Shows’ is that even though they are known as ‘Reality Based Shows’; most of them are ‘Unreal’.
Facts of Reality Shows
History of Reality T.V.
Types of Reality Shows
Effects of Reality Shows
Reality Television Pros and Cons
Reality Shows Advantages
Reality Shows Disadvantages
Curbing or Limiting the Effects of reality Shows
Real Life is nothing, what popular Reality Shows depict. The idea of placing people in situations, just to see how they react, became imaginable and almost ‘Passé’. Audiences have seen and known what will happen. As such, previous projections of human behaviour do not hold that much ground as compared to the ones that are being churned out with all the melodrama and unexpected spoofs or stunts. Real Life on day to day basis is not as much Dramatic and entertaining as is depicted in these shows. Life is very much real as we witness it, not what we are made to see. Reality shows edit and manipulate scenes which appear and imitate reality. The situations created or occurred are altered in order to make things interesting. To sustain the interest of the audience, producers of such shows resort to depiction of emotions which incite humans. Thus, conflict, drama, sleaze and humour are added as per the TRP. These may not be scripted but depending upon the response of these audiences, these maybe added as per the requirement. Such shows will create an exciting footage from various clips mixed with each other. Sometimes, the producers of the show will involve a celebrity to create hype for the show.
So, a question arises what, when, why, where and how of these shows. There are many reasons behind it. These have been analysed below.
Reality Shows – Facts
Facts of Reality television have been subdivided into its History, Popularity Factors and their Types.
History of Reality T.V.
It was during 1948, that Alan Funt, came up with the idea of the first Reality Show in the form of TV series ‘Candid Camera’. It was initially launched as Radio Show, titled – ‘Candid Microphone’ on 28th June, 1947. Later, he shot a series of theatrical film shorts, also titled Candid Microphone. It was his next venture that materialised into the ‘First Reality Show’ which appeared on television (ABC channel) on August 10, 1948. The show featured ordinary people encountering unusual situations, who were being secretly taped with concealed cameras. Sometimes, these would involve trick props, such as a desk with drawers that pop open when closed or a car with a hidden extra gas tank. When the joke was revealed, victims would be told the shows catch phrase, ‘Smile, you're on Candid Camera.’ Peter Funt, his son became the producer and the host of the show from 1998 to 2004.
Soon others too conceived similar ideas with different approach. Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts also appeared during 1948. These show started the much famed ‘Talent Shows’ or ‘Talent Search Shows’ which featured amateur competitors and introduced the concept of ‘Audience Voting’. In the 1950s, game shows – ‘Beat the Clock’ and ‘Truth or Consequences’ involved contestants in wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes. Then, appeared the ‘Game Show’, known as ‘You Bet’ on NBC-TV in October 1950, which was simultaneously broadcast on the radio and the television. In 1954, ‘Miss America Pageant’, a beauty contest appeared on T.V. whose winner achieved the status of a national celebrity. During 1950-1959, a new type of series ‘You Asked For It’ had some elements of a ‘Audience Participation’ in the sense that viewers were given certain freedom to see what they wished to see on television. The show created and hosted by Art Baker, involved the ‘Real Re-enactment’ of William Tell shooting an apple off his son's head. Many other reality based shows featured on T.V., like series Seven Up! in UK. during 1964 (Granada Television).
However, the Shows with the flavour of Modern Reality Shows started to be produced during the 1970’s. PBS series ‘An American Family’ was more or less documentary in purpose and style. It featured the daily lives of the Loud family. The televised decision of the parents to divorce and the on-screen coming out of their gay son shocked audiences. This prompted the sociologist, Margaret Mead to suggest a different genre for this series as it didn’t fit the category of Documentary. This show gave birth to the ‘Reality-soap Genre’ in which compelling story lines through careful writing and editing shaped the real-life subjects into reality-show characters. In 1974, a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Similar such productions were ‘Chuck Barris: The Dating Game’, ‘The Newlywed Game’, and ‘The Gong Show’. These participants shared some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition.
Then, there were ‘Camcorder Taped’ reality shows which appeared during 1989. First of such a show was ‘COPS’ which showed police officers on duty apprehending criminals. The Rescue 911 was another such show which featured people in dire situations and their efforts. America’s Funniest Home Videos was also such reality show in terms of recording equipment. It featured unique and funny incidents taped on camcorder. Further themes of reality shows were conceived in the 1990’s. The concept of grouping strangers for a certain period of time in a certain environment and the drama that followed, originated in the form of series ‘Nummer 28’. It aired on Dutch television in 1991. This show was backed by computer-based non-linear editing systems which enabled quick editing of hours of video footage into a usable form. The idea of ‘Competition and Elimination’ was introduced by TV producer Charlie Parsons. He created the TV show ‘Expedition Robinson’, which first aired in 1997 in Sweden. In the show cast members/contestants battled against each other and were removed from the show until only one winner remained. These shows became popularly known as ‘Elimination Shows’.
The end of 90’ and the advent of 2000, saw an unprecedented popularity of the reality based shows. These new generation of Reality shows were more blunt, witty, sensuous, sensational, glamorous and more. These were produced by specialists who created complex and unexpected shows which stirred the emotions of the masses. Their uniqueness and the ‘Awe’ factor made them a huge success. Survivor became such a show. It was originally named ‘Expedition Robinson’ and appeared first on the Swedish public service network SVT in 1997. Then, ‘Big Brother’ first televised in the Netherlands during 1999 on the Veronica TV channel became a world-wide sensation. It was picked up by Brazil, Germany, Argentina, Portugal, USA, UK, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy and Indonesia. It is a hit show in almost 70 countries; further licensing rights for same format program but with regional people. Example, ‘Big Boss’ in India. Another major hit is ‘American Idol’. It is based on the British show Pop Idol, which was in turn inspired by Popstars. The show debuted in 2001 in Britain and soon spread to other parts of the world, with its Indian Version, known as ‘Indian Idol’. Soon more shows followed with different concepts and ideas like the Amazing Race (2001), Fear Factor (June 11, 2001), the America's Next Top Model (May 2003), The Apprentice (2004), Dancing With The Stars (2005) and others. These all became an instant hit all over the world and inspiring licensed version and unlicensed altered shows in dozens of countries. Furthermore, these shows inspired channels totally devoted to reality shows, like Zone Reality (UK) was launched in 2002 and Global Reality Channel (Canada) was launched in 2010. Several cable channels started featuring original reality programming as a mainstay. Thus, today various types of reality shows have got a permanent slot during their telecast. The reality series of modern times borrow a lot from their precedents and differ mostly in scope and locale.
Popularity Factors of Reality Shows
So what makes Reality Shows Tick? There are multiple factors attributing to the success of these shows.
Human Curiosity – There is saying that says ‘Curiosity killed the cat’, here the ‘Curiosity lured the Public’. Though not as deadly as the original saying but alluring, that is to say that the public is always willing to know the unknown or the mysteries. Of all the entertainment series we are aware of, we think that’s the end of it. However, the brainy producers are always up to new tricks, they introduce new formats, new faces and other unexplored or unimaginable acts. Anything new or different is obviously bound to be noticed, the same goes with reality shows. Such shows engross and tease the mind into watching them. This is one important ingredient of a reality show.
Entertainment Value – Watching the mundane soap operas and movies causes the mind to get bored. It is here that reality shows score over other programs. They are filled with drama, shock value, original stunts, talent, celebrities, laughter, sleaze and violence. It fills the void of human mind bored with conventionally formatted programs. Some series featuring original acts are applauded because here someone with the best talent gets acknowledged, appreciated and paid. Here, they see what they haven’t realised or imagined, especially the one’s which are dramatic. Even if the audience is aware of the manipulations, they don’t mind it as it adds spice and zing to their lives, which is otherwise dull and dreary. Also, they like to be acknowledged for their prediction of the outcome or can gossip about it with their friends and so on.
Aggressive Marketing – One of the major factors of the popularity of reality television is the aggressive marketing. This marketing is clearly visible in Television promos, large hoardings, cover story in magazines and other media. It grabs the attention of even a an uninterested person and that is what the advertisers want and that is what influences us in to watching these programs.
Belief in Reality Shows – Though the public is smart but it can be fooled. Reality shows are an example of this occurrence. There are certain sections of viewers who still believe that what is being shown is ‘Reality’ as it matches the normal daily life routines. This notion becomes a permanent fact in their minds and they find it hard to dismiss it as fake. Then there are young minds which do not have the wider scope of thought as to ‘What is real?’ and ‘What is not?’. They perceive the fake acts as real and the shows become their favourite ones.
Favourites and Non Favourites – Whilst watching certain such shows we tend to have our ‘Favourites’ and ‘Non-Favourites’. We like our favourite ones for variety of reasons; some are cute, some appear honest, some are form their own region or religion and some are sympathised. On the opposite side we hate certain participants for variety of reasons; some are ugly, some appear fake, some don’t belong to their region or religion and some we simply love hate. Our emotional attachment with these characters is the source of popularity of these shows.
Thirst for Power – The concept of voting for favourite ones is sort of quencher of thirst for power hungry people. They think that their vote is a contributing factor in the victory of their chosen one. It makes them feel important, related to whom they are voting and self satisfaction of having some power or certain portion of power.
Pleasure in other’s Sufferings – There are some demented minds who like to see other people in pain and gore. It gives them certain euphoria which they get addicted to. The causes can be many; some can relate to the pain which they have suffered or the pain which they want to deliver to their oppressors but haven’t been able to do so. It provides them a certain outlet of emotions.
Peer Influence – Some people just watch these shows just to stay in tune with the current flow of trend. They stay in touch with these shows so they have something to talk about whenever a conversation occurs or whenever they are socialising. It is embarrassing for certain people to be unaware of what’s hip and what’s not.
Types of Reality Shows
Reality shows cater to different age groups and tastes because of the wide range of themes available.
These shows can be classified into:
1. Reality T.V. Talent Shows – A reality based talent show is ‘Made for Television’ program which is televised live or deferred live featuring a number of participants who present their talent or talents in front of a panel of judges. These talents can be in the conventional forms like singing, dancing and or other unique forms of talents. Most of these shows have a format where certain performers are selected and judged. Based on the quality of their performance, these are either eliminated out of the competition by judges or by the public through voting. Each week or each episode one or more contestants are eliminated until a winner emerges. Reality based talent shows are the most popular reality television shows. These are the most popular as these present a much authentic presentation as compared to others which can be easily pointed out as fake. Some of the most popular reality shows of this type are American Idol, America's Got Talent, Dancing with the Stars, Celebrity Duets etc. These maybe licensed to other countries which work on the same format to produce a local show like ‘India’s Got Talent’ is the Indian version of AGT.
2. Fly on the Wall Shows – Fly on the Wall Shows are those shows which are styled in a documentary format but maybe scripted partially or wholly to create sensationalism; camera shooting and footage editing gives the viewer the impression that they are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities. These are known as ‘Fly on the Wall Shows’ as events are seen candidly, as a fly on a wall might see them. These shows are also known as factual television shows as they do show some actual happenings.
Some of these types of shows are:
Environment Confined – These are live or deferred live televised shows, where a number of familiar or unfamiliar participants have to live along with each other and perform tasks in an artificial living environment surrounded by cameras at strategic spots. Every day they are given a task to perform and their behaviour is recorded. Every week or every episode voting is conducted wherein the members nominate each other depending upon their preferences or task performance. These nominated members are further put to vote by public until a winner emerges. The winner is awarded a large sum of amount. Participants are often interviewed, often by an off-camera voice. The ancestor of these types of shows is MTV’s ‘The Real World’. The most popular amongst these shows is ‘Big Brother’ with different versions produced in many countries around the word. Some other shows in this category are ‘Road Rules’, ‘The 1900 House’, ‘Temptation Island’, ‘U8TV: The Lofters’ etc.
Celebrity Shows – Reality based Celebrity Shows are the ones which show daily routine of celebrities or show celebrities in a certain environment with other celebrities performing task or tasks. These show some scripted, unscripted, kinky or unknown aspect of celebrities. Some routine based shows are Keeping Up With the Kardashians, Kathy Griffin: Life on the D List, The Anna Nicole Show, The Osbournes, Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica and Hogan Knows Best etc. Some of the Environment Confined shows are Celebrity Big Brother, The Simple Life, Tommy Lee Goes to College, The Surreal Life, and I'm a Celebrity... Get Me out of Here!
Based on Professional Lives - Professional Lives is type of a reality based show which shows professionals either going about day-to-day business or performing an entire project over the course of a series. These shows unseen footage of a professional on day to day basis, thereby providing an insight into the life of professionals engaged in different occupations. The first of its kind series is COPS which premiered in 1989. Other examples of this type of reality show include the American shows Miami Ink, The First 48, Dog the Bounty Hunter, American Chopper, Deadliest Catch etc.
3. Game Shows – Reality based Game Shows are televised events which involve members of the public and or celebrities competing as a team or as individual against each other in as series competitive games which can physical challenging and or mentally challenging usually for money and/or a variety of prizes. The prize can be cash, a spouse, a date, a contract, trips, goods and services etc. Game shows are also referred as ‘Competition Shows’.
Games shows can be categorised as:
Mentally Challenging Games – These are quiz or information based game shows where the host of the show or panel of judges asks the contestant general knowledge questions divided into various levels. The contestants have to answer these in a certain period of time and gather points and or cash for every correct answer. In the process they may get evicted or gain certain advantages which are useful in the later stage of the game. Some of this type of games are Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, American Gladiators, Dog Eat Dog, Deal or No Deal, Weakest Link etc. These are usually shot in an enclosed environment or TV studio over a short period of time.
Physically Challenging Games - These are mostly stunt based or adventure based game shows which involves members of the public and or celebrities performing weird, dangerous or tricky physical tasks better and/or quicker than all the other contestants or simply completing the task given. The game is divided into several zones and stages with each round getting tougher and tougher. These usually take place outdoors with specially created structures and or equipments. Some of these are Minute to Win It, Who Dares Wins, Fear Factor, Total Wipeout, Takeshi's Castle etc.
Self-improvement / Makeover Shows – Reality based Self-improvement / Makeover Shows cover the attempts and success of a person or group of people (afflicted celebrities or common people) improving their lives with the help of an expert along with a celebrity as a host. The improvements in life can be related to problems like obesity, lack of fashion sense, bad behaviour, psychological issues etc. Thus we have Charm School and From G's to Gents focussing on self-improvement and manners, Biggest Loser and Fat March which focus on weight loss, How Do I Look? focusing on fashion makeover, ‘Queer Eye’ and ‘What Not to Wear’ which focus on style and grooming, ‘Made’ focusing on attaining difficult goals, ‘Supernanny’ focuss
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Child development refers to the changes that occur as a child grows and develops in relation to being physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally sound, socially competent and ready to learn.
The first five years of a child's life are fundamentally important. They are the foundation that shapes children's future health, happiness, growth, development and learning achievement at school, in the family and community, and in life in general.
Recent research confirms that the first five years are particularly important for the development of the child's brain, and the first three years are the most critical in shaping the child's brain architecture. Early experiences provide the base for the brain's organizational development and functioning throughout life. They have a direct impact on how children develop learning skills as well as social and emotional abilities.
Children learn more quickly during their early years than at any other time in life. They need love and nurturing to develop a sense of trust and security that turns into confidence as they grow.
Babies and young children grow, learn and develop rapidly when they receive love and affection, attention, encouragement and mental stimulation, as well as nutritious meals and good health care.
Understanding the stages of child development helps parents know what to expect and how to best support the child as she or he grows and develops.
In many settings, early childhood programmes support parents and their children from infancy through age 8, which includes the important transition from home to school.
All children have the right to be raised in a family and to have access to quality health care, good nutrition, education, play and protection from harm, abuse and discrimination. Children have the right to grow up in an environment in which they are enabled to reach their full potential in life.
It is the duty of parents, other caregivers and family members, communities, civil society and governments to ensure that these rights are respected, protected and fulfilled.
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Police corruption is a form of police misconduct in which law enforcement officers seek personal gain, such as money or career advancement, through the abuse of power, for example by accepting bribes in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. Besides best police forces in the world, there are many other police forces known for inhuman behavior, deep-rooted corruption and other evil activities. They involved in such criminal activities that hurt the society and endangered its citizens. Many policemen are underpaid and want to make extra money, they turn to corruption – but their selfish acts have caused a large amount of damage on countries that desperately need help. We also wrote an article on top 10 corrupt countries in the world, you may like that.
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All caged birds are either captured or captive-bred. In the wild, these beautiful beings are never alone, and if separated even for just a moment, they call wildly to their flockmates. Flock-oriented, they preen each other, fly together, play, and share egg-incubation duties. Many species of birds mate for life and share parenting tasks. Most birds will not take a second mate in the wild if their first is lost.Life in captivity is often a death sentence for birds, who may suffer from malnutrition, an improper environment, loneliness, and the stress of confinement. Birds are meant to fly and be with others of their own kind in a natural environment. Confinement causes birds to have temper tantrums and mood swings. The New York Times has reported that many birds “go off the deep end when they are … placed in captivity. … The resulting frustration, [Cambridge University zoologist Dr. James Serpell] said, leads to abnormalities like repetitive behavior, in which the bird’s head weaves back and forth, or in which it shifts constantly from one foot to the other; abnormal grooming in which the bird picks out all of its feathers, and aggressive behavior.”Birds are smuggled into the United States more than any other animal. Before being shipped, birds are often force-fed, their wings are clipped, their beaks are taped shut, and they are crammed into everything from spare tires to luggage. It’s not unusual for most of the birds in one shipment to die.Taking animals from their natural habitats endangers individual animals and jeopardizes entire populations and ecosystems. The population of the South American hyacinth macaw has dropped significantly over the last 10 years as a result of smugglers’ capturing the birds for U.S. and European collectors.Birds bred in captivity don’t fare much better. Birds older than 8 to 10 weeks of age don’t sell well at pet shops so many are kept for breeding and condemned to small cages for the rest of their lives.If you love birds, contact a bird rescue group in your area to learn how you can foster or adopt an abused or neglected bird.
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Smoking is a major problem in today. Initially the man get attracted towards it and later it turns into a habit. There are many other diseases.
Texts were considered drug abuse is bad. Smoking is a slow poison. It spread in a body slowly. Most have bad effects on the lungs. Because of smoking the man dies quickly. Smoking causes a disease such as cancer and tuberculosis. Smokers do not seem properly hunger. The taste of mouth gets worse. Not foul mouth.
For women, smoking is more deadly. Some people understand that smoking calms the mind and the brain. He thinks it can do its work by the abuse he concentrated mind. In fact, this assumption is very wrong. Smoking makes minds dull. Smoking is also written on the box that smoking is injurious to health, yet people drink this poison.
Today's young generation is bound up very badly in smoking addiction. Losses are shown daily on TV today, yet people do not learn from it. Today people want him to leave this bad habit to make your life happy.
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google Zaleplon is a hypnotic which is drug that has the ability to cause sleep. It is indicated for use in patients that have difficulty falling asleep and is not indented to treat those who have difficulty staying asleep or who wake too early. It is different in chemical structure from benzodiazepines but acts at the same receptors in the brain as benzodiazepines. While benzodiazepines are used primarily in the treatment of anxiety, zaleplon and similar drugs are used almost exclusively for the treatment of insomnia.
In the United States and many other countries, Zaleplon is marketed as Sonata by King Pharmaceuticals. In Canada, zaleplon was sold under the brand name Starnoc however it was taken from the market; the reasons for this discontinuation are not clear. Zaleplon is available in some countries as Hegon, Zalep, Zaplon, or Zerene. The patent on Sonata began to expire on June 6, 2008 and King Pharmaceuticals does not have exclusivity as listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. More on zaleplon.
Sonata is available in 5 mg and 10 mg dosages; however, physicians sometimes prescribe a 20 mg treatment (two 10 mg capsules). Clinical safety studies were conducted using doses as high as 60 mg. Zaleplon is indicated for short term treatment of insomnia, that is, insomnia that is corrected by seven to ten days of treatment. The FDA has approved use of zaleplon for up to 30 days. Zaleplon is known to cause CNS depression and its affects are relatively rapid. Zaleplon causes sedation and sleep within one hour of administration therefore it should only be taken before bed and never before any activity that requires alertness. Like benzodiazepines, alcohol use can potentiate the CNS depressant effects and alcohol should not be consumed while taking zaleplon. Of note, zaleplon is potentially habit forming and dependency may occur. Once the drug is discontinued, one may experience rebound insomnia simply because the medicine has been taken away. Because of its sedative and euphoric effects, zaleplon may be abused i.e. used for non-medical, illegal reasons. NIH Information on Zaleplon
Zolpidem is sedative-hypnotic medicine that is used to treat short-term insomnia. Its chemical structure is different than benzodiazepines but exerts its sedative affect by acting on so-called benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Zolpidem does not have the same disruptive effects on sleep as benzodiazepines.
Zolpidem is marketed in the United States as Ambien but is known commercially by many other names worldwide. (The Guardian reports that 5.3 million people in England alone take zolpidem.) Ambien is available as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets and the maximum and usual treatment dose is 10 mg. This medication should not be taken with alcohol as excessive CNS depression can occur. There is also a potential for dependence and abuse with zolpidem. The most common side effects were headache, sleepiness and dizziness. A less common side effect is the "zombie" effect - unusual behavior while asleep.
Ambien is sold by Sanofi Aventis although at least 13 companies manufacture and sell a generic version of the rapid-acting form of zolpidem. Sanofi Aventis has extended the commercial viability of this drug by patenting and selling a CR or Controlled Release formulation. The CR formulation combines both a rapid-acting form and a slow-release form in a layered pill. According to the manufacturers, this allows a person suffering from insomnia to achieve sleep, from the rapid-acting component, and stay asleep, from the slow-acting component. Importantly, the chemical structure of the drug is the same in both the fast and slow layers, however the slow release layer contains a proprietary mixture of inactive ingredients that delays absorption and prolongs the hypnotic effect. Ambien CR is available in 6.25 and 12.5 mg strengths. NIH Information on Zolpidem.
Triazolam is related in structure to benzodiazepines but is of a slightly different class than classic benzodiazepines such as Ativan and Valium. Despite this subtle structural difference, triazolam achieves its biological effect by acting at benzodiazepine receptors in various regions of brain. Triazolam is indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia and should not be used for longer than three consecutive weeks. In clinical studies, triazolam was able to decrease sleep latency (you get to sleep faster), increase the duration of sleep and decrease the number of times people with insomnia wake during the night.
Triazolam was originally branded as Halcion; however there is no longer patent protection or exclusivity on this brand. It is still manufactured and sold as Halcion by Pharmacia and Upjohn yet generic versions exist. Triazolam is available in 0.125 and 0.25 mg tablets and a single dose of either strength is usually sufficient for uncomplicated insomnia. The maximum dose per day should not exceed 0.5 mg. Caution should be taken in elderly patients and they should receive lower doses. The most common side effects were drowsiness, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, difficulty with coordination and nausea/vomiting.
Ramelteon was introduced as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America. Rozerem is indicated for treatment of the type of insomnia that is interferes with sleep onset. Ramelteon is rather unique among commonly prescribed sleep aids in that it is unrelated to benzodiazepines in both its chemical structure and its mechanism of action. Rozerem binds with high affinity (strongly) to two of the three main melatonin receptors in the brain. Melatonin is a hormone that is present naturally in humans. Melatonin is also available without a prescription as an OTC sleep aid. According to Takeda, Rozerem’s affinity and selectivity for specific melatonin receptors make it a more effective sleep aid and less likely to cause side effects than non-prescription melatonin. Because it does not interact with benzodiazepine receptors, ramelteon is essentially without risk of abuse and is therefore not a controlled substance. Clinical studies have shown that ramelteon does not cause physical dependence or rebound insomnia. Ramelteon is available in 8 mg tablets though it occasionally prescribed as two 8 mg tablets to be taken 30 thirty minutes prior to the desired onset of sleep. The most common side effects are drowsiness and dizziness. More on ramelteon.
Ramelteon is under patent to Takeda until March 6, 2017.
Eszopiclone is marketed as Lunesta by Sepracor Inc. for the treatment of insomnia. Lunesta is under patent until 2012 with exclusivity until December 15, 2009. Eszopiclone is available in 1, 2 and 3 mg film-coated tablets. The precise mechanism of action of eszopiclone as a hypnotic is unknown, but it most likely interacts with benzodiazepine receptors. Because of this interaction, eszopiclone is a controlled substance and there is potential for abuse of the drug. Unlike zaleplon, zolpidem and triazolam which are only prescribed for up to three to four weeks, Lunesta has been approved by the FDA for long term use (greater than six months). Long-term trials showed that Lunesta did not cause tolerance meaning that patients did not need larger doses to obtain the same effect. Lunesta is touted as superior to competing medications since it not only initiates sleep but also prevents nighttime waking.
The most common side effects of Lunesta include an unpleasant taste or dry mouth, dizziness, headache, cold symptoms and drowsiness. Serious side effects of eszopiclone, while rare, include sleep walking/driving, abnormal thoughts, memory loss, anxiety and allergic reactions. These rare and serious side effecttransleter
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The Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. It entered into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49.
Status of ratifications
The States Parties to the present Convention,
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, '
Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",
Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,
Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions and that such children need special consideration,
Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,
Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,
Have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.
1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.
States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.
2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.
1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.
1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.
2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.
1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.
2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.
1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.
2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, States Parties shall:
(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;
(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;
(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.
1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.
2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.
1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.
2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.
3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.
States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:
(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;
(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;
(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;
(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.
1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.
2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason, as set forth in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child shoul
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International Labour Day (May
Day) 2014 - May 1 (Thursday)
Post your comments
Happy Labour Day. But I am working
today under the pressure of employer.
This is infringement of your personal
rights, liberty and emotions.I am in DPS
by Nitesh on May 1, 2013 8:21 PM IST Report Abuse
LABOUR DAY IT ONLY FOR PAPER DAY
NOT PUBLIC HOLIDAY
by JEET on May 1, 2013 12:36 PM IST Report Abuse
happy labour day but so sad today i am in
by Mohit Saxena on May 1, 2013 11:48 AM
IST Report Abuse
How ever so many agitations took place to
aware the people about their rights but it
will take along time for man to
understand the feelings of others. All the
private schools pay less and try to take
more work. they even want the teachers
to sit till late nights and even on Sundays
and prepare lessons because they say that
they do not afford the relevant number of
teachers. Being unemployed the teachers
(the most learned laborers of India) have
to work according to the wish of their
employers. Can we say that India is going
to touch the heights of the developments.
by Sherbaj Singh Dhillon on Apr 30, 2013
8:56 PM IST Report Abuse
useful as a
by muskan malik on Apr 29, 2013 6:06 PM
IST Report Abuse
Lots of employees have to work from
morning 6.30 to evening 8.00 on this
labour day due to prssure from high
authorities of HDFC bank. Please take
care of emplyees
by Raaj on May 1, 2012 3:29 PM IST Report Abuse
Today is not holiday in my office :( Comment #2
by Mak on May 1, 2012 10:16 AM IST Report Abuse
i am nileshvora i working in textil vimal
reliance industries limited
ahmedabad.menegment and workar not
sayting in pay to salery 1st may 2012.
by nileshvora on Apr 30, 2012 11:07 PM
IST Report Abuse
May Day, the first day of the month of
May is celebrated all over the world with
utmost importance. The day is also known
as the International Worker’s Day which
has a historic significance. The first day of
the month of May is also a day of political
protests. May Day is otherwise observed
as a saint's feast day or a day for
organized labor. In many countries, it is a
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