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essay diwali english translation iX. Guru Gobind Singh ji(1666 - 1708)
The tenth and the last Guru or Prophet-teacher of the Sikh faith, was born Gobind Rai Sodhi on Poh 7, 1723 sk/22 December 1666 at Patna, in Bihar. His father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Ninth Guru, was then travelling across Bengal and Assam. Returning to Patna in 1670, he directed his family to return to the Punjab. On the site of the house at Patna in which Gobind Rai was born and where he spent his early childhood now stands a sacred shrine, Takht Sri Harimandar Sahib, one of the five most honoured seats of religious authority (takht, lit. throne) for the Sikhs. Gobind Rai was escorted to Anandpur (then known as Chakk Nanaki)on the foothills of the Sivaliks where he reached in March 1672 and where his early education included reading and writing of Punjabi, Braj, Sanskrit and Persian. He was barely nine years of age when a sudden turn came in his life as well as in the life of tile community he was destined to lead. Early in 1675, a group Kashmiri Brahmans, drivels to desperation by the religious fanaticism of the Mughals General, Iftikar Khan, visited Anandpur to seek Guru Tegh Bahadur's intercession. As the Guru sat reflecting what to do, young Gobind Rai, arriving there in company with his playmates, asked Why he looked so preoccupied. The father, as records Kuir Singh in his Gurbilas Patshahi 10, replied, "Grave are the burdens the earth bears. She will be redeemed only if a truly worthy person comes forward to lay down his head. Distress will then be expunged and happiness ushered in." "None could be worthier than yourself to make such a sacrifice," remarked Gobind Rai in his innocent manner. Guru Tegh Bahadur soon aftenwards proceeded to the imperial capital, Delhi, and courted death on 11 November 1675.
Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed Guru on the Baisakhi day of 1733 Bk/29 March 1676. In the midst of his engagement with the concerns of the community, he gave attention to the mastery of physical skills and literary accomplishment. He had grown into a comely youth spare, lithe of limb and energetic. He had a natural genius for poetic composition and his early years were assiduously given to this pursuit. The Var Sri Bhagauti Ji Ki, popularly called Chandi di Var. written in 1684, was his first composition and his only major work in the Punjabi language. The poem depicted the legendary contest between the gods and the demons as described in the Markandeya Purana . The choice of a warlike theme for this and a number of his later compositions such as the two Chandi Charitras, mostly in Braj, was made to infuse martial spirit among his followers to prepare them to stand up against injustice and tyranny.
Much of Guru Gobind Singh's creative literary work was done at Paonta he had founded on the banks of the River Yamuna and to which site he had temporarily shifted in April 1685. Poetry as such was, however, not his aim. For him it was a means of revealing the divine principle and concretizing a personal vision of the Supreme Being that had been vouchsafed to him. His Japu and the composition known as Akal Ustati are in this tenor. Through his poetry he preached love and equality and a strictly ethical and moral code of conduct. He preached the worship of the One Supreme Being, deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances. The glorification of the sword itself which he eulogized as Bhaguati was to secure fulfilment of God'sjustice. The sword was never meant as a symbol of aggression, and it was never to be used for self-aggrandizement. It was the emblem of manliness and self-respect and was to be used only in self-defence, as a last resort. For Guru Gobind Singh said in a Persian couplet in his Zafarnamah:
When all other means have failed,
It is but lawful to take to the sword.
During his stay at Paonta, Guru Gobind Singh availed himself of his spare time to practise different forms of manly exercises, such as riding, swimming and archery. His increasing influence among the people and the martial exercises of his men excited the jealousy of the neighbouring Rajpat hill rulers who led by Raja Fateh Chand of Garhval collected a host to attack him. But they were worsted in an action at Bhangam, about 10 km northeast of Paonta, on 18 Assu 1745 sk/18 September 1688. Soon there after Guru Gobind Singh left Paonta and returned to Anandpur which he fortified in view of the continuing hostility of the Rajput chiefs as well as of the repressive policy of the imperial government at Delhi. The Guru and his Sikhs were involved in a battle with a Mughal commander, Alif Khan, at Nadaun on the left bank of the Beas, about 30 km southeast of Kangra, on 22 Chet 1747 Bk/20 March 1691. Describing the battle in stirring verse in Bachitra Natak, he said that Alif Khan fled in utter disarray "without being able to give any attention to his camp." Among several other skirmishes that occurred was the Husaim battle (20 Februaly 1696) fought against Husain K an, an imperial general, which resulted in a decisive victory for the Sikhs. Following the appointment in 1694 of the liberal Prince Muazzam (later Emperor Bahadur Shah) as viceroy of northwestern region including Punjab, there was however a brief respite from pressure from the ruling authority.
In 1698, Guru Gobind Singh issued directions to Sikh sangats or communities in different parts not to acknowledge masands, the local ministers, against whom he had heard complaints. Sikhs, he instructed, should come to Anandpur straight without any intermediaries and bring their offerings personally. The Guru thus established direct relationship with his Sikhs and addressed them as his Khalsa, Persian term used for crown-lands as distinguished from feudal chiefs. The institution of the Khalsa was given concrete form on 30 March 1699 when Sikhs had gathered at Anandpur in large numbers for the annual festival of Baisakhi. Gurb Gobind Singh appeared before the assembly dramatically on that day with a naked sword in hand and, to quote Kuir Singh, Gurbilas Patshahz 10, spoke: "Is there present a true Sikh who would offer his head to the Guru as a sacrifice?" The words numbed the audience who looked on in awed silence. The Gurb repeated the call. At the third call Daya Ram, a Sobti Khatri of Lahore, arose and humbly walked behind the Guru to a tent near by. The Gurb returned with his sword dripping blood, and asked for another head. At this Dharam Das, a Jat from Hastinapur, came forward and was taken inside the enclosure. Guru Gobind Singh made three more calls. Muhkam Chand, a washerman from Dvarka, Himmat, a water-carrier from Jagannath puri, and Sahib Chand, a barber from Bidar (Karnataka) responded one after another and advanced to offer their heads. All the five were led back from the tent dressed alike in saffron-coloured raiment topped over with neatly tied turbans similarly dyed, with swords dangling by their sides. Guru Gobind Singh then introduced khande da pahul, i.e. initiation by sweetened water churned with a double-edged broad sword (khanda). Those five Sikhs were the first to be initiated. Guru Gobind Singh called them Panj Piare, the five devoted spirits beloved of the Guru. These five, three of them from the so-called low-castes, a Ksatriya and a Jatt, formed the nucleus of the self-abnegating, martial and casteless fellowship of the Khalsa. All of them surnamed Singh, meaning lion, were required to wear in future the five symbols of the Khalsa, all beginning with the letter K the kes or long hair and beard, kangha, a comb in the kes to keep it tidy as against the recluses who kept it matted in token of their having renounced the world, Kara, a steel bracelet, kachch, short breeches, and kirpan, a sword. They were enjoined to succour the helpless and fight the oppressor, to have faith in one God and to consider all human beings equal, irrespective of caste and creed. Guru Gobind Singh then himself received initiatory rites from five disciples, now invested with authority as Khalsa, and had his name changed from Gobind Rai to Gobind Singh. "Hail," as the poet subsequently sang, "Gobind Singh who is himself Master as well as disciple." Further injunctions were laid down for the Sikhs. They must never cut or trim their hair and beards, nor smoke tobacco. A Sikh must not have sexual relationship outside the marital bond, nor eat the flesh of an animal killed slowly in the Muslim way (or in any sacrificial ceremony).
These developments alarmed the casteridden Rajput chiefs of the Sivalik hills. They rallied under the leadership of the Raja of Bilaspur, in whose territory lay Anandpur, to forcibly evict Guru Gobind Singh from his hilly citadel. Their repeated expeditions during 1700-04 however proved abortive . They at last petitioned Emperor Aurangzeb for help. In concert with contingents sent under imperial orders by the governor of Lahore and those of the faujdar of Sirhind, they marched upon Anandpur and laid a siege to the fort in Jeth 1762 sk/May 1705. Over the months, the Guru and his Sikhs firmly withstood their successive assaults despite dire scarcity of food resulting from the prolonged blockade. While the besieged were reduced to desperate straits, the besiegers too were chagrined at the tenacity with which the Sikhs held out. At this stagy the besiegers offered, on solemn oaths of Quran, safe exit to the Sikhs if they quit Anandpur. At last, the town was evacuated during the night of Poh suds 1, 1762 sk/5-6 December 1705. But soon, as the Guru and his Sikhs came out, the hill monarchs and their Mughal allies set upon them in full fury. In the ensuing confusion many Sikhs were killed and all of the Guru's baggage, including most of the precious manuscripts, was lost. The Guru himself was able to make his way to Chamkaur, 40 km southwest of Anandpur, with barely 40 Sikhs and his two elder sons. There the imperial army, following closely on his heels, caught up with him. His two sons, Ajit Singh (b. 1687) and Jujhar Singh (b. 1691) and all but five of the Sikhs fell in the action that took place on 7 December 1705. The five surviving Sikhs bade the Guru to save himself in order to reconsolidate the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh with three of his Sikhs escaped into the wilderness of the Malva, two of his Muslim devotees, Gani Khan and Nabi Khan, helping him at great personal risk.
Guru Gobind Singh's two younger sons, Zorawar Singh (b. 1696) and Fateh Singh (b.1699), and his mother, Mata Gujari, were after the evacuation of Anandpur betrayed by their old servant and escort, Gangu, to the faujdar of Sirhind, who had the young children executed on 13 December 1705. Their grandmother died the same day. Befriended by another Muslim admirer, Ral Kalha of Raikot, Guru Gobind Singh reached Dina in the heart of the Malva. There he enlisted a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan, and also composed his famous letter, Zafarnamah or the Epistle of Victory, in Persian verse, addressed to Emperor Aurangzeb. The letter was a severe indictment of the Emperor and his commanders who had perjured their oath and treacherously attacked him once he was outside the safety of his fortification at Anandpur. It emphatically reiterated the sovereignty of morality in the affairs of State as much as in the conduct of human beings and held the means as important as the end. Two of the Sikhs, Daya Singh and Dharam Singh, were despatched with the Zafarnamah to Ahmadnagar in the South to deliver it to Aurangzeb, then in camp in that town.
From Dina, Guru Gobind Singh continued his westward march until, finding the host close upon his heels, he took position astride the water pool of Khidrana to make a last-ditch stand. The fighting on 29 December 1705 was hard and desperate. In spite of their overwhelming numbers, the Mughal troops failed to capture the Guru and had to retire in defeat. The most valorous part in this battle was played by a group of 40 Sikhs who had deserted the Guru at Anandpur during the long siege, but who, chided by their womenfolk at home, had come back under the leadership of a brave and devoted woman, Mai Bhago, to redeem themselves. They had fallen fighting desperately to check the enemy's advance towards the Guru's position. The Guru blessed the 40 dead as 40 mukte, i.e. the 40 Saved Ones. The site is now marked by a sacred shrine and tank and the town which has grown around them is called Muktsar, the Pool of liberations.
After spending some time in the Lakkhi Jungle country, Guru Gobind Singh arrived at Talvandi Sabo, now called Damdama Sahib, on 20 January 1706. During his stay there of over nine months, a number of Sikhs rejoined him. He prepared a fresh recension of Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, with the celebrated scholar, Bhai Mani Singh, as his amanuensis. From the number of scholars who had rallied round Guru Gobind Singh and from the literary activity initiated, the place came to be known as the Guru's Kashi or seat of learning like Varanasi.
The epistle Zafarnamah sent by Guru Gobind Singh from Dina seems to have touched the heart of Emperor Aurungzeb. He forthwith invited him for a meeting. According to Ahkam-i-Alamgiri, the Emperor had a letter written to the deputy governor of Lahore, Munim Khan, to conciliate the Guru and make the required arrangements for his journey to the Deccan. Guru Gobind Singh had, however, already left for the South on 30 October 1706. He was in the neighbourhood of Baghor, in Rajasthan, when the news arrived of the death of the Emperor at Ahmadnagar on 20 February 1707. The Guru there upon decided to return to the Punjab, via Shahjahanabad (Delhi) . That was the time when the sons of the deceased Emperor were preparing to contest succession. Guru Gobind Singh despatched for the help of the eldest claimant, the liberal Prince Muazzam, a token contingent of Sikhs which took part in the battle of Jajau (8 June 1707), decisively won by the Prince who ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. The new Emperor invited Guru Gobind Singh for a meeting which took place at Agra on 23 July 1707.
Emperor Bahadur Shah had at this time to move against the Kachhvaha Rajputs of Amber (Jaipur) and then to the Deccan where his youngest brother, Kam Baksh, had raised the standard of revolt. The Guru accompanied him and, as says Tarzkh-i-Bahadur Shahi, he addressed assemblies of people on the way preaching the word of Guru Nanak. The two camps crossed the River Tapti between 11 and 14 June 1708 and the Ban-Ganga on 14 August, arriving at Nanded, on the Godavari, towards the end of August. While Bahadur Shah proceeded further South, Guru Gobind Singh decided to stay awhile at Nanded. Here he met a Bairagi recluse, Madho Das, whom he converted a Sikh administering to him the vows of the Khalsa, renaming him Gurbakhsh Singh (popular name Banda Singh ). Guru Gobind Siligh gave Banda Singh five arrows from his own quiver and an escort, including five of his chosen Sikhs, and directed him to go to the Punjab and carry on the campaign against the tyranny of the provincial overlords.
Nawab Wazir Khan of Sirhind had felt concerned at the Emperor's conciliatory treatment of Guru Gobind Singh. Their marching together to the South made him jealous, and he charged two of his trusted men with murdering the Guru before his increasing friendship with the Emperor resulted in any harm to him. These two pathans Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg are the names given in the Guru Kian Sakhian pursued the Guru secretly and overtook him at Nanded, where, according to Sri Gur Sobha by Senapati, a contemporary writer, one of them stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart as he lay one evening in his chamber resting after the Rahrasi prayer. Before he could deal another blow, Guru Gobind Singh struck him down with his sabre, while his fleeing companion fell under the swords of Sikhs who had rushed in on hearing the noise. As the news reached Bahadur Shah's camp, he sent expert surgeons, including an Englishman, Cole by name, to attend on the Guru. The wound was stitched and appeared to have healed quickly but, as the Guru one day applied strength to pull a stiff bow, it broke out again and bled profusely. This weakened the Guru beyond cure and he passed away on Kattak sudi 5, 1765 Bk/7 October 1708. Before the end came, Guru Gobind Singh had asked for the Sacred Volume to be brought forth. To quote Bhatt Vahi Talauda Parganah Jind: "Guru Gobind Singh, the Tenth Master, son of Guru Teg Bahadur, grandson of Guru Hargobind, great-grandson of Guru Arjan, of the family of Guru Ram Das Surajbansi, Gosal clan, Sodhi Khatri, resident of Anandpur, parganah Kahlur, now at Nanded, in the Godavari country in the Deccan, asked Bhai Daya Singh, on Wednesday, 7 October 1708, to fetch Sri Granth Sahib. In obedience to his orders, Daya Singh brought Sri Granth Sahib. The Guru placed before it five pice and a coconut and bowed his head before it. He said to the sangat, "It is my commandment: Own Sri Granthji in my place. He who so acknowledges it will obtain his reward. The Guru will rescue him. Know this as the truth".
Guru Gobind Singh thus passed on the succession with due ceremony to the Holy Book, the Guru Granth Sahib, ending the line of personal Gurus. "The Guru's spirit," he said, "will henceforth be in the Granth and the Khalsa. Where the Granth is with any five Sikhs representing the Khalsa, there will the Guru be." The Word enshrined in the Holy Book was always revered by the Gurus as well as by their disciples as of Divine origin. The Guru was the revealer of the Word. One day the Word was to take the place of the Guru. The inevitable came to pass when Guru Gobind Singh declared the Guru Granth Sahib as his successor. It was only through the Word that the Guruship could be made everlasting. The Word as contained in the Guru Granth Sahib was henceforth, and for all time to come to be the Guru for the Sikhs.
visthapan ke symasya
Infrastructural development projects frequently result in the displacement of peoples from home giving way to dams, highways, or other large-scale construction projects. This Article focuses on applying an ethical analysis of the tension between the right to development, on the one hand, and the resulting risks to human security and their human rights, on the other hand. The authors argue that displacement is a multidimensional phenomenon, not confined to physical relocation. It reduces the "quality of life" of human beings into sub-human conditions.
Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that displacement mostly affects indigenous people and ethnic minorities.
Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment and loss of ecological balance. It is suggested that this unsystematic displacement of humans amounts to a gross violation of Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The judiciary has further played an important role in protection of environment by incorporating "right to clean and healthy environment" under Article 21.
The founding fathers of the Constitution, under Article 39, imposed a mandate on the state towards distribution of resources so as to subserve common good. However, the law which has been consistently invoked for land acquisition is a pre-constitutional law dated 1894 with 'compensation' as the only remedy for the persons affected by such acquisitions and having no provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement.
Also, the Article lays emphasis on various international policy guidelines and mechanisms, designed to safeguard those who are internally displaced as a result of development projects.
In the light of the above mentioned problems, the authors suggests that a comprehensive National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (NPRR) of displaced population be framed replacing the anomalies of NPRR, 2007.
"Being forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially"1.
Development-induced displacement can be defined as the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.Natural resource extraction, urban renewal or development programmes and infrastructure projects such as highways, bridges, irrigation canals, and dams all require land, often in large quantity. One common consequence of such projects is the upheaval and displacement of communities. It is estimated that 10 million people were displaced annually by these so called "developmental activities." However, national leaders and policy-makers typically viewed these as legitimate and inevitable costs of development, acceptable in the larger national interest. Pt. J.L. Nehru said 'If you have to suffer, you should do so in the interest of the country'2.
Indigenous People and Tribal Disproportionately Affected
Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that indigenous people including tribals and women are disproportionately affected. The Scheduled Tribes constitute about 8.1 percent of the total population of the country according to 1991 census but they also constituted 55.16% of total displaced people which indicates victimization of the tribals. Development for the nation has meant displacement, pauperisation, or, at its very best, peonage for the tribals.3
Impact of Displacement
Forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat carries with it many risk .Some of the identified interlinked potential risks intrinsic to displacement4 are: 1. Landlessness 2. Joblessness 3. Homelessness 4. Marginalization. 5. Food Insecurity. 6. Increased Morbidity and Mortality 7. Loss of Access to Common Property. 8. Social Disintegration.5
Development- Displacement and Environment
In achieving the so called "greater common good" or "the national interest" the long run adverse impacts on the natural resources are ignored. Various developmental projects stands accused of the destruction of entire environments, including flora, fauna, landscapes, river systems, water quality, and shorelines as well as the creation of mercury contamination, greenhouse gases, water quality deterioration, downriver hydrological change, reservoir sedimentation, transmission line impacts, quarries and borrow pits. The large scale deforestation due to mining and establishment of industries has resulted in climate change and inconsistent weathers. Big Dams submerge huge area of forest cover causing irreversible loss to varieties of flora and fauna besides the land area. The pollution (air, water, soil and noise) caused by the industries accentuate the miseries of the present as well as the generations to come. No wonder that the environmental impact assessment of most of the big and mega projects reveal that such hyped and appreciated mega ventures are nothing but surviving at human and environmental costs6. It is high time we realize the need of transforming our developmental policies to answer the larger human and environmental requirements until it becomes too late.
Human Rights Challenges That Arise in Relation to Development-Induced Displacement
There is no doubt about the developmental benefits of any planned project, but these cannot be weighed against human rights. Human rights thus have to be considered independently. In 1986, the UN General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Right to Development7. The heart of the problem is that people displaced by development projects are generally seen as a necessary sacrifice on the road to development. The Human rights that are affected :
Right To Life The right to life and livelihood is threatened by the loss of home and the means to make a living when people are displaced from habitual residences and traditional homelands. The right to life is protected in the UDHR (Article 3) and the ICCPR (Article 6)8.
In Indian context, The Supreme Court in Ollega Tellis case envisaged right to livelihood under the aegis of Article 21 and condemned the unjustifiable displacement of people from their land. Right to life doesn't mean merely animal existence but living with human dignity and all that goes along with it like right to shelter9.
Moreover, Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment which "makes life worth living, materially and culturally10."And so it has lead to violation of right to clean and healthy environment.
Right to own Property The rights to adequate housing and security of the person and property serve to protect individuals and communities from being arbitrarily displaced from their homes and land. The right to own property and not to be arbitrarily deprived of this property is spelled out in the UDHR Articles 17 as well as in Article 6 of the ICESCR.
Rights To Residence The eviction or displacement of persons unlawfully amounts to violation of the rights to freedom of residence11. Article 19(e) of the Indian constitution asserts right to residence as fundamental right.
All these rights and many others are of direct relevance in the case of large-scale displacement of people. Indeed, in a number of cases, not only socio-economic rights such as the right to housing that are at stake but a number of civil and political rights, from the right to be informed about the displacement procedures to the freedom of expression, may be violated if the government tries to coerce people to move out from their homes12.
Defects in Compensation, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy
For the Government and its agents of development, cash compensation seems to be the only panacea for the problems induced by displacement and only policy for rehabilitation. It's hard to believe that how land, natural resources, means of livelihood, social and cultural loss resulting from displacement can be quantified and compensated in monetary terms? Moreover, the manner in which the law is framed and interpreted ensures that the displaced land-owner or house-owner is always the loser. The limited provisions in the Land Acquisition Act to challenge the rate of compensation are, in practice, inaccessible to the indigent and illiterate oustees. Even, only those landowners who were familiar with the legal details of the Land Acquisition took their cases to court. The value of the land is calculated as on the date of the gazette notification and interest is liable to be paid only from the date of taking possession up to the date of payment of full compensation. The LAA thus does not take into consideration the escalation of the market value between the time of notification and the date of actual possession.
The ill-effects of the displacement induced by development ought to be taken care off by the state and necessary arrangement thereof made, i.e. the displaced persons be resettled in a safe habitat wherein they can start their life afresh. However, this would require more than mere allocation of certain piece of land for resettlement or mere construction of make shift camps for temporary settlement. What is needed is the "rehabilitation" of the persons affected by the projects; rehabilitation means to "restore to the former condition", and thus, all that was lost by displacement, the emotional, cultural, social, political and economic losses must be restored at a priority basis than to the Project itself, which is the cause of the impoverishment.
The Ethics of Development Induced Displacement and Rehabilitation (Didr)
In dealing with issues of development and displacement, important ethical questions are raised such as why is displacement often considered morally objectionable? Under what conditions, if ever, can a development project justify displacement? Is it ethically just to displace people so long as they are compensated? If so, what type of compensation is owed to displacees?
According to Peter Penz,13 Three broad ethical perspectives that can be used to justify development-induced displacement are public interest, self-determination, and egalitarianism. The public interest perspective, embodied in cost-benefit analysis, supports the decision that brings the greatest net benefits to the population as a whole. The self-determination perspective privileges freedom and personal control. In its form, forced displacement (at least of those who legally own property) is unjust because it violates property rights. The egalitarian perspective privileges actions that reduce poverty and/or inequality14. Theoretically, can be justified here if it benefits the poor at the cost of the wealthy, but questions are raised when a project benefits an under-privileged group at the cost of another such group.
As Penz points out, is an ethically complex issue, in which public interest and distributive concerns stand in tension with self-determination and individual rights. He concludes that there are conditions under which can be justified, but that these conditions must be strong15. They include the avoidance of coercive displacement in favour of negotiated settlement, the minimization of resettlement numbers, the full compensation of displacees for all losses, and the use of development benefits to reduce poverty and inequality. Unfortunately, in most cases of DIDR, these conditions have been violated.
International and National Organisation and Policies
Over the past decade, different international legal entities and institutions have responded to the human rights impacts and risks of development-induced displacement by formulating a variety of guidelines, laws and best practices. Some of the most important international guidelines and practice on this issue are:
• The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.
• The OECD's Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects, 1992.
• World Bank's Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement.
• United Nations and Other International Organizations- Different agencies of UN work as cluster and have sectoral responsibility to deal with the issue of development-induced displacement rehabilitation and resettlement.
a. The Representative of the Secretary-General on IDPs
The report formed by this agency is the basis for the provisions in the Guiding Principles on protection against displacement.
b. Internal Displacement Unit
Using the Guiding Principles as an overall framework, the Unit identify and draw attention to gaps in the response to internal displacement
c. World Food Program
The essential condition for the provision of WFP food is the food insecurity of displaced people.
d. UN Development Programme
UNDP in particular has become increasingly involved in programs involving the resettlement and reintegration of internally displaced populations.
The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are "adequate shelter for all" and "sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world.
Ill-consequences of the displacement lead to the requirement of policies and legislations that address the issues of not only development induced displacement, but also about rehabilitation and resettlement. Following are some suggestion and recommendations to deal with problem of displacement caused by development :
1. States should ensure that eviction impact assessments are carried out prior to the initiation of any project which could result in development-based displacement, with a view to fully securing the human rights of all potentially affected persons, groups and communities.
2. States should fully explore all possible alternatives to any act involving forced eviction.
3. Sufficient information shall be provided to affected persons, groups and communities concerning all State projects as well as to the planning and implementation processes relating to the resettlement concerned, including information concerning the purpose to which the eviction dwelling or site is to be put and the persons, groups or communities who will benefit from the evicted site.
4. The State must provide or ensure fair and just compensation for any losses of personal, real or other property or goods, including rights or interests in property.
5. Resettlement must occur in a just and equitable manner and in full accordance with international human rights law.
6. States should ensure that adequate and effective legal or other appropriate remedies are available to any persons claiming that his/her right of protection against forced evictions has been violated or is under threat of violation16.
7. To make new Law on rehabilitation and change the LAA (1894), since it goes against the rights of the poor. Rehabilitation should not be separated from land acquisition and that the LAA (1894) should be changed in such a manner as to minimize displacement and turn rehabilitation into an integral part of such acquisition.
8. The very basis of the Land acquisition policies in its legal premises is required to be compatible with constitutional frame of Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Special Provisions for the Scheduled Castes / Tribes and weaker sections.
The effects of displacement spill over to generations in many ways, such as loss of traditional means of employment, change of environment, disrupted community life and relationships, marginalization, a profound psychological trauma and more. The issue of Displacement is an example of how law has to be consistent with socioeconomic and political circumstances, and it appears to have failed in doing so. To conclude, there is a strong need to put legal thought into issues concerning the land acquirers as well as to thoroughly investigate issues regarding removing the imbalance from the system.
The Three Kings
By Kim Williamson
"The Three Magi are on their way to meet the new King... this is not the kind of King they were expecting".
Length: 5 - 8 Minutes
Cast: 3 actors, all interchangeable between male and female actors.
Genre: Comedy / Drama
About the Play: Great for Christian Schools and church! The Three Kings discover there is something extra special about this new King.
An ideal script for Churches or Christian schools to produce.
About the Playwright: Kim Williamson is an experienced actor, director and writer. She is Director of Detour Community Theatre and has had a number of her original works produced including a number that are available here at Christian Plays.
Following is a sample from the script...
Three Magi enter
Gus: It's nice to be off that camel. My legs are aching.
Mel: Your legs are aching? You've been sitting all day!
Gus: Yes, but sitting can be as tiring as standing.
Bill: But it's not as tiring as running. Imagine if you had to run there!
Gus: We should have taken the bus like I said in the first place.
Mel: What's a bus?
Bill: Right, who's carrying the food?
Mel: I've got it. Now, what have we got? (takes backpack off and brings out wrapped lunch).
Gus: Oooh, pita pockets. My favourite! (they eat).
Bill: No sushi? Oh well. Now, have you got the maps, Gus?
Gus: Here they are (takes out roll of maps, and a road map) But if you open it up, you have to fold it all up again. It took me ages to do it last night.
Bill: (opens maps) This is where we started yesterday, and we are now........here (points) It looks as if we are heading down this way, towards the West. Israel, by the looks.
Mel: So what do you make of this star we are following?
Gus: Well, it's big.
Bill: We have already established that it is a star that indicates the birth of a King. But which King?
Mel: And what about the astrological happenings lately? How significant is that?
Gus: The new King is Jewish
Mel: How do you work that one out?
Gus: Haven't you been following the conjunctions?
Bill: The what? What are you talking about?
Gus: The pairing of Venus and Jupiter in the constellation of Leo. That indicates its association with the destiny of the Jews (there is a pause as the others look at him stunned).
Mel: I knew we brought you along for a reason.
Bill: Of course! Brilliant.
Gus: Thanks. I thought it was obvious.
Bill: So, the Jews are getting a King.
Mel: Unusual. Aren't they in occupied territory?
Gus: Roman rule.
Bill: Who's the.....?
Mel: Well, someone's done their homework.
Gus: I figured we should know something about the people we are going to. I managed to get hold of this (holds out book).
Mel: (reads) “Lonely Planets Guide to Israel” (looks through) This might be helpful.
Bill: I wonder where abouts in Israel?
Gus: I imagine it will be somewhere important. I mean, he is a King after all.
Mel: According to this, Jerusalem is the biggest city: “Jerusalem is located 14 miles west of the Dead Sea, 33 miles east of the Mediterranean. The city is situated on an uneven rocky plateau. It is 3,800 feet above the level of the Dead Sea”.
Gus: That'll be it. Isn't there a temple there?
Mel: “The view from the Mount of Olives is dominated by the gleaming, gold-embellished Temple which is located in the most holy spot in the Jewish world”.
Gus: There it is then. Obviously this King is going to be born in Jerusalem, where he will be taken to the Temple so everyone including Herod can pay their respects to him.
Mel: That's right. And then he will be taken back to his Palace, which will be near the Temple. It's probably this one here in the picture, see? (shows others a picture).
Gus: Nice. Yes, I think you're right there Mel. That looks like a Palace fit for a King. What do you think, Bill?
Bill: (who has been staring up at the sky all this time) I don't think so.
Safety means protecting ourselves from any danger that may hurt us or endanger to our lives. Unsafe practice is a great peril to both life and property. A two wheeler rider who rides recklessly not only risks his own life, but also the other road users.
School children getting run over by their same school vans or getting knocked down while crossing the road or getting drowned in die pond or falling from high places or getting electrocuted and so on; such news appear in the newspapers.
This is because of their lack of knowledge about overall safety, be it 011 die road or anywhere. While crossing die road, they must not run across in blind panic. Wait till the traffic policeman or the green ‘Walk’ signal appear. Even then look for some vehicle drivers who jump signals and cross die road with the others.
After reaching the centre, again pause till you see no speedy vehicle approach, then cross over. Do not cross by scaling over the central medium fencing the way many people do. Wherever subways are available, use them to cross over. In the absence of both, cross at the Zebra crossing point.
After getting down from the school van, stay away and wait until the van leave, then get a good view of the road and cross over. Do not play on the road while waiting for the bus. Walk on the pavement, avoid foot board travel.
Many young boys and girls drive cars and ride two wheelers without a valid license. This will lead to complications. If you are the one who commute to school and back home in bicycle, read the traffic signs and get yourself familiar with. This will help you considerably. See road safety charts to know traffic signs.
Never go alone for a swim. Always take an elder member. Do not tamper with electrical items. Current has no mercy! Whether young or old, its shock will be devastating. And safety does not end there itself. Even in the bath room an accident can occur if the floor
is slippery. Similarly, while getting down the staircase, position yourself sideways. This way, a fall will not amount to serious injury.
While going by bus or by car, do not throw any waste paper outside the window. It may fall on a two wheeler rider and unseated him/her. Do not call a person who is driving a vehicle. His sudden movement could divert his attention.
Always carry an address slip and telephone numbers when going out. When you see an abandoned parcel in die bus or at railway station, move away and raise an alarm. It may contain some explosives. Let safety usher you always, even if it takes some extra time.
सुरक्षा हमें चोट या हमारे जीवन के लिए खतरे में पड़ सकता है कि किसी भी खतरे से खुद की रक्षा करने का मतलब है। असुरक्षित अभ्यास जीवन और संपत्ति दोनों के लिए एक महान संकट है। जो सवारी एक दुपहिया सवार लापरवाही न केवल अपने ही जीवन है, लेकिन यह भी अन्य सड़क उपयोगकर्ताओं जोखिम। स्कूल बच्चों को उनके ही स्कूल वैन से अधिक रन हो रही है या सड़क पार या मरने के तालाब में डूब गया हो रही है या ऊंचे स्थानों से गिरने या इतने पर बिजली और हो रही है, जबकि नीचे गिरा हो रही है; ऐसी खबर अखबारों में दिखाई देते हैं। इस तरह से यह कहीं भी 011 के मरने सड़क या हो सकता है, क्योंकि समग्र सुरक्षा के बारे में ज्ञान की कमी की है। मरने सड़क पार करते समय, वे अंधे दहशत में पार चला नहीं करना चाहिए। यातायात पुलिसकर्मी या दिखाई देते हरी 'वॉक' संकेत तक प्रतीक्षा करें। फिर भी संकेतों कूद और अन्य लोगों के साथ मरने के लिए सड़क पार जो कुछ वाहन चालकों के लिए देखो। केंद्र तक पहुँचने के बाद, फिर आप कोई तेजी से वाहन दृष्टिकोण को देखने तक, फिर पार थामने। कई लोगों को जिस तरह से बाड़ लगाने के केंद्रीय मध्यम से अधिक स्केलिंग से पार न करें। सबवे उपलब्ध हैं जहाँ भी पार करने के लिए उन्हें इस्तेमाल करते हैं। दोनों के अभाव में, ज़ेबरा क्रॉसिंग बिंदु पर पार। स्कूल वैन से नीचे मिलने के बाद, दूर रहने और वैन छोड़ने तक, उसके बाद सड़क का एक अच्छा विचार पाने के लिए और पार प्रतीक्षा करें। बस के लिए इंतजार करते हुए सड़क पर मत खेलो। पैर बोर्ड यात्रा से बचने, फुटपाथ पर चलते हैं। कई युवा लड़के और लड़कियों कारों ड्राइव और एक वैध लाइसेंस के बिना दो पहिया वाहन की सवारी। इस जटिलताओं को बढ़ावा मिलेगा। आप साइकिल में स्कूल और घर के लिए वापस लघुकरण एक है जो कर रहे हैं, यातायात संकेत पढ़ सकते हैं और अपने आप के साथ परिचित हो। यह काफी मदद मिलेगी। यातायात संकेत पता करने के लिए सड़क सुरक्षा के चार्ट देखें। तैरने के लिए अकेले ही जाना कभी नहीं। हमेशा एक बड़े सदस्य ले। बिजली के सामान के साथ छेड़छाड़ न करें। वर्तमान कोई दया नहीं है! युवा या पुराने, चाहे इसके सदमे विनाशकारी हो जाएगा। और सुरक्षा खुद वहाँ अंत नहीं है। मंजिल फिसलन है अगर यहां तक कि नहाने के कमरे में एक दुर्घटना हो सकती है। इसी प्रकार, सीढ़ी नीचे हो रही है, जबकि बग़ल में खुद को स्थिति। इस तरह, एक गिरावट गंभीर चोट के लिए राशि नहीं दी जाएगी। बस या कार से जा रहा है, जबकि खिड़की के बाहर किसी भी बेकार कागज फेंक नहीं है। यह एक दो व्हीलर सवार पर गिर जाते हैं और उसे / उसे अपदस्थ कर सकता है। एक वाहन चला रहा है जो एक व्यक्ति को फोन नहीं है। उसकी अचानक आंदोलन उसका ध्यान हटाने सकता है। बाहर जा रहे हैं तो हमेशा एक पते पर्ची और टेलीफोन नंबर ले। तुम मर जाते हैं बस में या रेलवे स्टेशन पर एक लावारिस पार्सल देखते हैं, दूर ले जाने और एक अलार्म बढ़ा। यह कुछ विस्फोटकों हो सकती है। सुरक्षा यह कुछ अतिरिक्त समय लगता है, भले ही हमेशा के लिए आप की शुरूआत करते हैं।
Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. Though Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru have garnered much of the credit for successful culmination of Indian freedom struggle, the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose is no less.
Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his mother Prabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the childhood. He topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province and graduated with a First class in Philosophy from the Scottish Churches College in Calcutta. He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. To fulfill his parents wishes he went to England in 1919 to compete for Indian Civil Services. Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, and left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway to return to India in 1921
After returning to India Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress. In 1928 the Motilal Nehru Committee appointed by the Congress declared in favour of Domination Status, but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, and both asserted that they would be satisfied with nothing short of complete independence for India. Subhas also announced the formation of the Independence League. Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience movement specially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged.
Clouds of World War II were on the horizon and he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt. There was much opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Block.
Subhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the great war. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta. In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that "an enemy's enemy is a friend", he sought cooperation of Germany and Japan against British Empire. In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendous enthusiasm in India. In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of war. He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad Hind Fauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. Enroute it lliberated Andeman and Nicobar Islands. The I.N.A. Head quarters was shifted to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18 ,1944.
However, defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objective. Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945. Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him.
Champaner was a small farming village in central India. On the outskirts of the village stands a British cantonment, commanded by a Captain Russell (Paul Blackthorne). Russell is capricious, arrogant and heartless, wielding the power of life and death over the villages under his jurisdiction.
FamilyI live in Lajpat Nagar. I live there with my nuclear family. I live with my parents and sister. We have a beautiful house in front of the park. We are very happy in our house. My mother and father are very nice. My father is a Doctor. My mother is a teacher. They help us in our studies.
My mother gets up early in the morning. She cooks the food for the whole family, and then she goes to her school. She returns at 3 p.m. everyday.
My sister studies in a school. She is very hardworking and intelligent. She helps me in studies. She always stands first in her class. I study in class third. I love playing various games.
My parents are very kind-hearted. They are always ready to help the needy and poor. They are very religious. Every Sunday, we go for outings. I am proud of having such nice parents and sister. All of them love me very much.
Therefore, from the facts as discussed herein-above, the stand of the respondent State to refuse any increase in the monthly contractual remuneration to these petitioners and other similarly situated contractual employees within the State, does not seem to hold good in the eye of law as well as on facts, more so in view of their own resolution dated 20thth April 2013 (Annexure-9).
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