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The Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. It entered into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49.
Status of ratifications
The States Parties to the present Convention,
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, '
Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",
Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,
Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions and that such children need special consideration,
Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,
Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,
Have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.
1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.
States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.
2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.
1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.
1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.
2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.
1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.
2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.
1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.
2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, States Parties shall:
(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;
(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;
(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.
1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.
2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.
1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.
2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.
3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.
States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:
(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;
(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;
(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;
(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.
1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.
2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason, as set forth in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child shoul
These sporty people, who love travel and movement, are sociable, good-looking, healthy, extrovert, energetic and smart. The key word for these people is, style: they have loads of it. Horse people are active and energetic. They got plenty of sex appeal and know how to dress. Horses love to be in the crowd, maybe that is why they can usually be seen in such occasions like concerts, theaters, meetings, sporting occasions, and of course, parties. The horse is very quick-witted and is right in there with you before you have had the chance to finish what you are saying: he's on to the thought in your mind even before you've expressed it. In general, the Horse is gifted. But in truth he is really more cunning than intelligent - and he knows that. That is probably why; most of the horse people lack confidence. Young horses are difficult to tame, as they feel obliged to express themselves in their own way at every opportunity. Most horses are, irrespective of age, easily distracted and lacking in focus at times, and become easily bored.
Horses often feel they are right on every issue, and will fight tooth and nail before giving up their freedom. In China, female horses are said to become bossy wives. Chinese believe that because horses are born to race or travel, all Horse people invariably leave home young. The Horse despises being pressured to act for the good of the group or made to feel guilty. No matter how integrated he seems to be, a Horse's inner self remains powerfully rebellious. Although they have boundless energy and ambition, Horses have a hard time belonging. The Horse is a worker, adepts at handling money and a good financier. But unfortunately, he is also famous for suddenly losing interest on something. In his relationship with opposite sex, the Horse is weak. He will give up everything for love. Being born a Horse, there are many contradictions in his character. Horses are proud yet sweet natured, arrogant yet oddly modest in their approach to love, envious but tolerant, conceited yet humble. Horses seem to know what is going to be said before the other person opens their mouth. They will often sum up what you intend to say a whole lot better than you would have done. Horse people are good at putting together a brilliant party, with a wide variety of different people, different foods and drinks, and a good cross section of music. They get bored with things being the same all the time, and go out of their way to create variety.
Facebook! Sounds like “air, water and food”, right, without which you cannot survive?!
Facebook, a social networking site, founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates, has developed from being limited to only the Harvard students to almost every person’s part of life in the world.
The ease with which Facebook is used makes it No.1 in the field of social networking. If you are interested in knowing the history of Facebook then have a look it’s already there.
Suggested Reading : Facebook Launches Hashtags To Its Service
It is a common platform for everybody including people of all ages, religions, professions, interests, needs and many more. It binds people across the oceans and surely, you must have felt a sense of self-importance whenever you got a “like” on anything you share on Facebook. You know, there are more than 900 million Facebook users other than you.
People are crazily connecting with anybody and everybody through this network and doing anything and everything through this networking site. It is the diversity of ways in which Facebook is used that has made everyone to “like” and “share” each others works.
You can chat, play games, advertise, organize, show your interests, have a personal as well as a public or a limited audience talk with other people. Now, though it seems fascinating but it still has some drawbacks.
Let us first consider some advantages of being a Facebook user.
To connect with family, friends, work and colleges group
It is the latest medium of connecting with your dear ones. You can even customize the settings to be “offline” or “online” for some selected ones and still chat with them easily. Facebook conversation does not even require money which is sometimes a reason for some people for not calling up their pals.
Since you connect globally here, you get the news of the world. There are some pages and communities that are created on Facebook to keep a track of the latest updates in any specific field like sports, educational, political entertainment etc.
Information about the people across the seas as well as the ones near you are also readily available to you. Whatever happens in anybody’s life they tend to update it through their “status”, or photographs. So, you are there and then informed about any such updates and thus Facebook proves to be very informative.
There are many ways in which Facebook can be used as a source of entertainment. First of all, the gossips that you have with your friends is the biggest way that could never leave you to bore.
Then, there are videos of your interests, lots of interactive games, applications and quizes for fun. You can even invite your Facebook pals to play games or take the quizes.
To find a date
You have the freedom to browse the profiles of other people on Facebook until and unless they have not customized and hidden it from the public. Your access to their profiles can help you find people of your interests and you can easily send a “friend request” to them OR send a private message.
So, if you describe yourself in a charming fashion in your profile, someone might wish to be your date! ;)
Image and Video hosting
You can use facebook to host your images and videos. You get a direct download link of whatever you upload.
There is unlimited hosting and unlimited bandwidth. Facebook provides this free of cost, whereas other websites offer this service with limited bandwidth, and there are some that have this service a paid one. So, this is for a big benefit for all the bloggers and website owners.Right!
Facebook is an intelligent place to market your products. The immensely increasing facebook users can be your future potential customers. Marketers can create a page for their products where they can have the images, videos and detailed descriptions about the products.
The users will visit this page more than the official site of your products to get issues resolved and thus, this is a very good way to reach out to your customers.
To find a job
Through facebook you can easily contact the manager or create professional contacts with any number of hiring people. Keep updating your status regularly about your job requirements and someone will surely come up to help you.
The tool for video calling of Facebook helps you to have a normal video chat, as the name specifies. Your distant relatives and friends can easily come close to you, as you are in front of each other “live”….
Many a times, you can have an interview or meeting with your professional counterparts and thus it helps in establishing relationships.
As personal portfolio
If you are an artist, then create a page for yourself and then create a portfolio where you can display your art and maintain the collection.
A portfolio of all the memorable snaps can also be uploaded so that they are there as a backup.
Facebook is such a powerful weapon that any kind of social issue can gain momentum and can create a wave of enthusiasm amongst the people that any other media cannot, in a short time.
Now, as we know that excess of anything is bad, Facebook also has some disadvantages that you need to take care of. Let us have a look.
Breach to privacy and personal info
Whatever safety measures you take to protect your profile, there will always be some hackers and stalkers looking to enter your profile and do unwanted things. Your personal photographs and videos that you upload can be easily stolen by them.
So, it is better not to give too private information on the profile and not share pics that are too personal.
Personal status published publicly just to seek attention
It is a human tendency that people take more interest in others lives rather than their own.
The same applies to Facebook too. Maximum of the people post their personal status publicly so that they can seek the attention of others. This misleads people and wastes a lot of time getting involved in such a thing.
Fake Facebook profiles
Sometimes people create fake profiles just for fun or to stalk on other people. There are millions of fake profiles existing there because some strange people create profiles for a non-human entity such as their “pets”.
Many people enter into online personal relationships with wrong persons and that could lead to their ruin. People try to pose as someone else and try to fool others.
Some businessmen add their own-created Facebook friends so as to show their customers how much they are in demand. This makes it very difficult for people who really desire to be safe on Facebook.
Writing worthless things
Facebook does not stop anyone from writing anything on places like “walls” of their own or their friends, comments, messages etc. This tends to waste a lot of time because many a times these kinds of things uselessly attract the attention of others and they cannot stop themselves from reading it and actually taking part in the conversation.
Facebook is an addiction. Once you join it, you are likely to spend most of your free time doing something or the other on Facebook. And it does not stops here. Some people even start compromising their family get-togethers and professional meetings for this Facebook.
Ultimately, you are the user. So, it depends on the way you use it that Facebook proves to be a Friend or an Enemy to you. Use it wisely and safely, so that at least the good purpose of Facebook is not lost.
Read more at http://techsmaz.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-facebook-a-discussion/#AiD9XZUsHEA4QreA.99
Trees are our best friends. They play a very important role in our life. We can not live without them. They give us timber, paper and firewood.
Timber is used in making houses, train compartments, big boxes, tools etc. Without paper life may be difficult for us. Paper is necessary for study and writing. People in villages use firewood to cook meals. They use wood to build houses, huts, carts and agriculture tools.
Trees also give us food, gum and medicine. They also add to the beauty of life. Gardens can not be charming without them. We need them for oxygen and good health.
Trees also help to control pollution: They absorb carbon dioxide. They improve our environment. They cause rainfall and protect water resources under the ground. They prevent floods and droughts.
Therefore, we should try our best to grow more trees. Govt. and social welfare societies should start a movement. There should be awards for those persons who grow more trees.
Plants and animals, the backbone of agriculture have been a part of the human experience since the beginning of our time on earth, it is held that our earliest ancestors lived as nomads, but as their population grew, providing everyone with food became increasingly difficult and their movement slowed by the growing group, they chose to settle and the earliest societies were formed.
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