From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.
Human interference with our environment is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening due to our population growth. Policies must therefore be changed. These policies affect basic economic, technological, and ideological structures. The way to these policy changes is in the
“Deep Ecology” ecosophy (110). Deep ecology is a philosophical way of looking at our environmental problems that was founded in 1972 by Norwegian Arne Naess, a former head of the philosophy department at the University of Oslo. Naess’ writings show us what is wrong with the world and give us a blueprint by which we can bring about change. In its most basic form, deep ecology is a necessary wisdom, requiring humans to see themselves as part of the bigger picture. That picture is our sacred relationship with Earth and all beings.
Many believe overpopulation, the greenhouse effect, global warming, and loss of habitat are no cause for alarm. Some, in fact, claim media and politicians perpetuate the hysteria regarding our environmental decline because they have something to gain by painting such a bad picture. Countless studies I have read or am personally involved with, however, have convinced me these problems are real and can be resolved if the following are supported:
1. Continued inquiry into the appropriate human roles on our planet.
2. Root cause analysis of unsustainable practices.
3. Reduction of human consumption.
4. Conservation and restoration of ecosystems.
5. A life of committed action for Earth. (Oslo 1973)
The solution to our ecosystem mess is through the principles Dr. Naess has developed. These principles begin with a statement that all life, human and nonhuman, has intrinsic value. This means everything about life is valuable, including individuals, cultures, species, habitats, and populations. Another principle states that the diversity of life forms contribute to our appreciation
of their value, but these forms also have value in and of themselves. A person with first hand experience, or one who works in the ecological field, is mindful of the live-and-let-live axiom but, unfortunately, most relate this only to humans.
Naess makes it another principle that humans have no right to reduce
riches, resources, and diversity of life, except to fulfill vital needs.
Human interference with the nonhuman world is out of control and getting worse (Drengson). . Therefore, the another principle requires strategies be put in place for the first-world nations to overcome delusions and laziness on these issues
The next principle requires a major change in the policies that affect our economic, technologic and ideological norms. Our society's values are geared toward wealth and technological advancement, which result in reckless buying and careless disposal of our mass waste (Burton 2002). We need to appreciate life’s quality instead of what society
sets as standards. This is the next principle, but the notion is difficult to characterize since quality of life cannot be quantified.
The last principle simply states that if you believe in what deep ecology teaches, then you should do your best to employ those changes.
As you can see, the fundamental principles of deep ecology outlined in Arne Naess’ writings demand radical changes in our life. Changes that affect our population growth, hazardous waste, and global warming dilemmas must include birth control, recycling, and yielding sustainable resources for energy and building.
Population growth drives or multiplies most of our environmental problems. Between 1900 and 1999, world population quadrupled. Just between 1960 and 1999 it more than doubled, from three billion to over six billion and currently, we are growing more than 80 million people every year (2002 World Population Data Sheet). This growth means more energy and resource needs, more land occupied, and more waste. As population and consumption increase, there are fewer resources available per person. At some point, there are not enough resources to go around, and scarcity occurs.
Resource scarcity is the root of many problems. If there are not enough resources to adequately support the population, poverty results. Greater environmental destruction occurs, as people are forced to over-exploit the resource base (Burton 2002). Scarcity leads to discrimination, because when resources are scarce, someone gets less. Girls, women, ethnic or religious minorities, the poor, and the elderly are most often victims of this (Population Reference Bureau 2002). Scarcity also leads to migration, conflict between bands, tribes or nations as they fight to obtain resources. This has been evidenced by the Aztec people’s demise.
We should teach the deep ecology philosophy in school when the kids are small. This will ensure that our earth’s future will be in the hands of humans who have appreciation of our world and its inhabitants, living and nonliving. It will teach harmony instead of killing and dominance because deep ecology discards the survival of the fittest concept. (Oslo 1973)
In closing, the earth is a living entity that is being snuffed-out by too many people. Selfishness and egocentricity is rampant and these attitudes need to be changed. The deep ecology philosophy, if made available to the world will do this. Just as philosophies taught by Aristotle, Hume, and Kant have open the door to new thinking, so can Naess beliefs.
The experiences of sitting in the examination hall are really full of torture, great tension, mental agony and excitement, even if the examinee happens to be a topper in the class. He finds the prying and suspicious looks of the invigilators and the terror of the examiners highly discouraging. The fear of running short of time continuously haunts like a ghost. Really speaking, the very word ‘examination’ sends shivers to everyone’s spine, whether it is a public or a home examination.
Even those of us who are meritorious and brilliant suffer from examination phobia. Sitting for an examination has been my old enemy since the day I had entered the portals of school.
It started with the examination for admission. Now I am talking about my condition during my first public examination, conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi. My mind was gripped with all sorts of fear.
A day before the examination, I went to see my centre at Ramjas Senior Secondary School, Anand Parbat, New Delhi. It was five kilometers away from my house. When I returned home, I told my parents of the situation of the school. My father assured to take me daily to the centre on his scooter, while going to his office.
Finally, the great day arrived. I got up earlier than usual, had a quick bath and started revising my notes. The more I revised, the more I felt confused and upset. My mother advised me not to study any more but to take breakfast and give rest to my mind.
I dropped my notes and put on a forced smile on my face just to look cheerful and composed to others. By this time, my father had also got ready. Both of us left home quite early since it was the first day of the ordeal.
On reaching the centre, we saw a huge crowd of boys and girls outside the centre. Most of them were examinees flanked by well-wishers. The majority of the examinees were of my classmates. I was happy to see them.
I could, however, note that each one of them had a peculiar kind of expression on his or her face. This was a proof to show that howsoever happy they looked outwardly; they were all fear-ridden like me.
On the wall of the school building at the entrance, the list of examinees had been displayed. I saw my name and roll number given against the room in which my seat was placed. As the bell rang, we were directed to our seats by some kind invigilators. My seat was in a big hall. There was perfect stillness and deadly silence.
Soon we were given answer-books in our seats by two invigilators. I wrote my Roll no. and filled other columns. After that I went through the instructions meant for us. I searched my pockets to ensure that there was no objectionable piece of paper in them.
Another bell after sometime made all of us expectantly cautious. At the toll of it, we got our question papers. I closed my eyes and said my prayers to the God. This gave me long- awaited confidence and courage.
I read the question paper fearlessly and found that it was neither too easy, nor too tough. It was an intelligent paper. I tick-marked all those questions, which I had intended to attempt.
I first tried those questions which looked easy. They took me a much longer time as I wrote their answers very slowly. There was no time to raise my head and see what others were doing. I felt disturbed when one of the two invigilators came to check my admission card.
I was busy writing my answers with returned confidence, when all of a sudden a roaring sound was heard. It was the commanding voice of an invigilator who had caught a student red-handed, copying the answer from the torn pages of a guide.
The answer-book was taken back from him and a new one was supplied. To check if I would finish all the questions in time, I looked at the clock in the hall.
I got nervous to see that only fifteen minutes were left and still there was one more question to be attempted. I started writing its answer with full vigour following the hard beats of my heart. I was greatly relieved that when the last bell rang, I had almost finished my paper.
The invigilator came to my seat and took away the answer paper. I heaved a sigh of relief to know that the examination was, after all, not so difficult and shattering as I had thought it to be.
1. Never Overeat: Overeating is one of the most common and dangerous
dietary habits. It often leads to obesity, which is a factor in many
other diseases. When you eat more, the digestive tract and other
organs get stressed, which can lead to the overworking and weakening
of those areas. Always eat in moderation. In fact, eating small meals
several times a day instead of one or two large meals is probably
better for most people.
2. Never Under Eat : All forms of under eating like skipping meals, or
eating only limited foods will lead to poor nutrition. Which will
eventually lead to health problems due to protein, calorie, vitamin,
or mineral deficiencies. Under eating causes symptoms like lack of
energy and subsequent weakness, malnourishment of internal organs,
skin problems, and hair loss, apart from medical conditions like
anorexia, nervosa and bulimia. So, even if you are on a diet make sure
you follow a plan that does not starve you.
3. Never Eat Late: Grandma's habit of eating dinner before sundown is
actually a very healthy practice. It is best to eat earlier in the
evening, ideally before dark, and not too heavily. You should also
engage in some activity, both mental and physical, after dinner; and
eat very little in the two or three hours before bedtime. If you have
been going to bed on a full stomach, let me tell you it is a very
unhealthy practice. The food just sits there, undigested through the
night, so that when you wake up you feel full and sluggish. So, to add
vitality in your life, start having your meals at the grandma time!
4. Do not follow rigid diet:
You would have come across people who have very rigid eating patterns
and who consume only a limited selection of foods. Though we all have
certain preferences or biases, but following a very rigid diet is
usually not in our best interest. It can lead to serious nutritional
deficiencies, which can cause major health problems. So, next time
when some one offers you a new dish doesn’t assume that you won't like
it, without even trying it.
5. Don't let your emotions eat: Our emotions strongly influence our
eating behaviour. Some of us eat when upset or depressed; others
cannot eat at all in this condition. But to maintain a more balanced
diet, and thus a more balanced life, we need to learn to deal with our
emotional states in ways other than with food.
6. Liquids and food: Drinking liquids with our meals is not really a
good practice, since extra fluids can dilute the digestive juices,
making it more difficult to break down food. But you can drink water
before meals or sometime after. A Little bit of water with meals may
help dissolve the food and stimulate digestive juices. Generally,
water is our best beverage, and we should consume about eight to ten
glasses a day.
7. Eat Slowly: We should always try to eat our meals slowly. It is
very important because by chewing our food properly we start the
digestive process in the mouth. This saves a lot of wear and tear on
the stomach and digestive tract, helping us easily breaks down the
food and utilizes the nutrients contained in it.
8. Get prepared to eat: Apart from preparing the food with love and
care we should take out time to prepare ourselves. By prepare we mean
psychologically make our selves ready to receive nourishment, such as
with a little prayer or some quiet time, This gives us a chance to get
the most out of our meal.
Emerson said, toward the end of his writing career, "I have taught one doctrine, namely, the infinitude of the private man." That's why we begin our study of American transcendentalism with this essay. His basic philosophical faith (one shared by many Americans) is that the ultimate source of truth is within ourselves. We recognize truth outside ourselves, in nature or in others, and the key word here is "recognize," even if only very dimly. We are often not "in touch" with ourselves or trust ourselves enough to find these truths and so must often depend on others, books, etc. to express it for us, but it is somehow within us. Now, there's no particular empirical evidence for this; Emerson is making a great intuitive leap of faith, and you either believe (because you've experienced it to some degree) or you don't. It is this concept of what some critics call the "imperial self" which lies at the heart of romanticism, both positively and negatively.
However, this is not necessarily self-centered, because the truth which lies within is universal, shared and recognized by all (if they only knew it) and generated by Self (God, Over-soul, whatever). All we can really know is within us, but we must assume that other people have the same potential as we do--and assume that they do, in fact, exist (although you really can't prove it!) Presumably, trusting oneself means much more than that; it means trusting that somehow or other we have an innate wisdom which is a projection of the god within, and that every person has that wisdom, although few have much access to it. Those few we often call poets and prophets (but never politicians!) and we cherish the insights into our own truths that we glimpse through them. Theoretically, then, to believe in our selves and our deep capacity to understand and recognize truths is to believe in every self, though we have no access to any other self besides us. Practically it may be another matter, but Emerson is a bit of an idealist and not terribly practical (we can't all be everything!)
One characteristic of Emerson's essays is the gaps he leaves the reader to fill (or to flounder in); it is probably their greatest strength (because you may personalize what you read) and greatest weakness (it can be confusing). For example, at the beginning of the essay he speaks of verses he has read which are original, but he does not tell you what those verses are. You have to imagine what "original" might be. His emphasis is not on these particular verses, or even the definition of originality in poetry, but a discussion on originality and recognizing your own ability to be original and not imitative. After all, he can't say what would be original for you, could he? But he wants you to imagine what that might be. This will happen repeatedly through the essay. Try your best to fill those blanks in ways that make sense to you and your experience, and if you can't, ignore them and keep going.
One problem you may find with this essay is that you feel that he is hitting you over the head with the same idea over and over, like a big hammer labeled "believe in yourself." I'm sure you wished to cry out, "ok Ralphie, I've got it, I've got it!" He makes sure that you consider the implications of this idea in every way possible. It doesn't matter if there are gaps in what you understand; he'll catch up with you somewhere or other in the essay. A little overkill, perhaps. Why? Whom is he trying to convince? Perhaps himself as well as his reader. But the message seems to be one that we all need, especially today when the ever-present media assaults us with ideas and images of how we should live and what we should believe.
Remember that we are reading this 150 years later or so. What seemed like a rather novel idea then has deteriorated into a cliche, embedded in just about every self-help "psychology" book in the local mall bookstore that you can find. It is hard for us to see the original force of this in 1838, when people felt far less secure about themselves, as individuals and as Americans (whatever that was). In many ways, this is as much a cultural/intellectual declaration of independence as it is an exhortation to believe in yourself. Its major power today is probably directed toward the younger reader, struggling with the very powerful forces toward conformity that seem endemic in American high schools. However, it also works in a class like this, where I am, in a sense, forcing you to express your ideas and not giving you such an easy way out as taking notes on what wisdom I might have to impart.
Emerson had his own personal reasons for writing this. He was deeply insecure in many ways (aren't we all?), and a rather revolutionary speech about religion that he delivered at the Harvard Divinity School about this time (asserting the doctrine of the God within) caused a tremendous uproar and criticism from people he respected. There would be no job for him at Harvard! He had left the ministry a few years earlier and had lost his young wife to tuberculosis after 18 months of marriage. He didn't really have a career at that point; he just had the ideas he believed passionately and thought needed to be heard. He was involved in a very deep career crisis (which many of us can relate to). There simply was no way to earn a living doing what his heart told him that he must do--to write and to speak. Except, as it turned out, there were ways to realize his dream, as long as he didn't lose his faith in himself.
The rhetoric of this essay shows signs of his years in the pulpit; it's like he's demanding you to listen and to go out and act. But he may well be exhorting himself just as much as, if not more than, his readers. What he wanted to do--to establish himself a place as a writer and thinker--was extraordinarily difficult to do outside of an institution like the church or the university (so what else has changed!), and it would take all the nerve he could summon. And after all, he was no kid; he was 35 years old and counting.
It all sounds so simple: just make up your mind to trust your deepest instincts and go for it! I know it isn't that simple--and in fact, so did Emerson, and seeing the problems inherent in such a personally energizing idea kept him busy writing for some time. If you look carefully, you can see some awareness of this conflict in the essay, but it doesn't really blossom forth for a while. For one thing, he gives a lot of credit to innate goodness, and almost totally ignores the very crucial environmental shaping factors. He and his readers were raised in an extremely "moral" environment, and though they might rebel against church doctrine, they were deeply "indoctrinated" with those moral codes. This is not necessarily the case in the "murder capital of the world"! Another problem is the extreme "masculinity" of the essay--one of his favorite words is "manliness." I can just visualize this very assertive and muscular male as an underlying ideal (was Emerson insecure about that too? Probably, since writers/thinkers/preachers were considered rather feminized by his society, unlike those competitive, money-making businessmen so idealized by his compatriots.) I don't believe that self-trust is a male-marked trait, although I suspect that he does believe it (though, bless his heart, he doesn't really know it!). I know, I'm reading this from my own perspective, but as Emerson would say, isn't that the only way you can read? Actually, I think you can try to place yourself in another context, but that must be a work of imagination to some degree (I can try, anyhow; I'll just substitute woman for man and you can do whatever you like!)
Emerson doesn't just keep preaching the same doctrine though, you may be relieved to hear, or at least not with the same simplistic fervour. There is a flip side to this: as exciting and energizing it may be to follow your deepest instincts and do/say what you think is right, it's also depressing to think that maybe all we can know is what is within us. In a sense, we may be imprisoned within our own perceptions and experiences, and can never really know what might be true. We can't even be sure if anyone or anything else exists, because all we can know is what's in our little individual heads. Emerson will come to see this, as well as the many limitations on our power that are imposed by circumstances and environment, which he calls Fate. He gets a lot more interesting when he confronts these conflicting forces.
Wouldn't it be nice if all we had to do is "trust ourselves" and follow our own stars? Actually, it's rather amazing what people can accomplish if they do just that. However, that's not the whole story, and Emerson knew it, especially after life dealt him a few more tough blows--like his beloved 5 year old son dying of scarlet fever. Self-reliance can look like a pretty puny doctrine in light of a tragedy like that, but it did sustain him (although perhaps in a modified form)..
So the important thing is not whether Emerson is right or wrong here. He's both--and we are to draw from the essay what means the most to us. That's one reason it's written as it is. Buried in there are sentences which strike right to the heart of readers, and suggest all kinds of possibilities for them. For example, many students trying to see their way ahead in life have found great comfort in this metaphor:
The voyage of the best ship is a zigzag line of a hundred tacks. See the line from a sufficient distance, and it straightens itself to the average tendency. Your genuine action will explain itself, and will explain your other genuine actions.
You could interpret this in several ways. When you look at your life, especially when you are young, if you follow your "inner gyroscope" and do things and take courses that just "feel right," it might look to others (parents in particular) as if you just can't make up your mind and are zigzagging all over the place. The coherence will be an inner one, perhaps not even visible to you, but over time, it will probably make sense, just as you have to zigzag when sailing to reach a point most directly. One difference, of course, is that you (unlike the sailor) often haven't a clue where or what that "point" might be, and have to trust that by following your instincts and strengths, you'll actually reach some kind of point. I find that rather profound, as I look at my own life, and the decisions that I made that didn't make a lot of sense, perhaps, to others and seemed inconsistent, but that were in fact quite consistent with who I was and what I wanted to be, although I hadn't a clue what that might be (I never dreamed I'd end up teaching, etc.!)
OK, that's my personal testimony (although I'll admit, I cruised past that passage when I was in college and needed to read it most)--you'll have your own, I imagine. If you'll be patient with Emerson (and his vocabulary and greater reading knowledge), he is likely to speak very personally to you, if not on this reading then maybe on another. Besides, just think of all the money you can save on those self-help books and therapy groups by going right to the source! ;
The Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. It entered into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49.
Status of ratifications
The States Parties to the present Convention,
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, '
Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",
Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,
Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions and that such children need special consideration,
Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,
Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,
Have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.
1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.
States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.
2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.
1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.
1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.
2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.
1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.
2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.
1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.
2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, States Parties shall:
(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;
(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;
(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.
1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.
2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.
1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.
2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.
3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.
States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:
(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;
(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;
(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;
(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.
1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.
2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason, as set forth in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child shoul
These sporty people, who love travel and movement, are sociable, good-looking, healthy, extrovert, energetic and smart. The key word for these people is, style: they have loads of it. Horse people are active and energetic. They got plenty of sex appeal and know how to dress. Horses love to be in the crowd, maybe that is why they can usually be seen in such occasions like concerts, theaters, meetings, sporting occasions, and of course, parties. The horse is very quick-witted and is right in there with you before you have had the chance to finish what you are saying: he's on to the thought in your mind even before you've expressed it. In general, the Horse is gifted. But in truth he is really more cunning than intelligent - and he knows that. That is probably why; most of the horse people lack confidence. Young horses are difficult to tame, as they feel obliged to express themselves in their own way at every opportunity. Most horses are, irrespective of age, easily distracted and lacking in focus at times, and become easily bored.
Horses often feel they are right on every issue, and will fight tooth and nail before giving up their freedom. In China, female horses are said to become bossy wives. Chinese believe that because horses are born to race or travel, all Horse people invariably leave home young. The Horse despises being pressured to act for the good of the group or made to feel guilty. No matter how integrated he seems to be, a Horse's inner self remains powerfully rebellious. Although they have boundless energy and ambition, Horses have a hard time belonging. The Horse is a worker, adepts at handling money and a good financier. But unfortunately, he is also famous for suddenly losing interest on something. In his relationship with opposite sex, the Horse is weak. He will give up everything for love. Being born a Horse, there are many contradictions in his character. Horses are proud yet sweet natured, arrogant yet oddly modest in their approach to love, envious but tolerant, conceited yet humble. Horses seem to know what is going to be said before the other person opens their mouth. They will often sum up what you intend to say a whole lot better than you would have done. Horse people are good at putting together a brilliant party, with a wide variety of different people, different foods and drinks, and a good cross section of music. They get bored with things being the same all the time, and go out of their way to create variety.
Facebook! Sounds like “air, water and food”, right, without which you cannot survive?!
Facebook, a social networking site, founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates, has developed from being limited to only the Harvard students to almost every person’s part of life in the world.
The ease with which Facebook is used makes it No.1 in the field of social networking. If you are interested in knowing the history of Facebook then have a look it’s already there.
Suggested Reading : Facebook Launches Hashtags To Its Service
It is a common platform for everybody including people of all ages, religions, professions, interests, needs and many more. It binds people across the oceans and surely, you must have felt a sense of self-importance whenever you got a “like” on anything you share on Facebook. You know, there are more than 900 million Facebook users other than you.
People are crazily connecting with anybody and everybody through this network and doing anything and everything through this networking site. It is the diversity of ways in which Facebook is used that has made everyone to “like” and “share” each others works.
You can chat, play games, advertise, organize, show your interests, have a personal as well as a public or a limited audience talk with other people. Now, though it seems fascinating but it still has some drawbacks.
Let us first consider some advantages of being a Facebook user.
To connect with family, friends, work and colleges group
It is the latest medium of connecting with your dear ones. You can even customize the settings to be “offline” or “online” for some selected ones and still chat with them easily. Facebook conversation does not even require money which is sometimes a reason for some people for not calling up their pals.
Since you connect globally here, you get the news of the world. There are some pages and communities that are created on Facebook to keep a track of the latest updates in any specific field like sports, educational, political entertainment etc.
Information about the people across the seas as well as the ones near you are also readily available to you. Whatever happens in anybody’s life they tend to update it through their “status”, or photographs. So, you are there and then informed about any such updates and thus Facebook proves to be very informative.
There are many ways in which Facebook can be used as a source of entertainment. First of all, the gossips that you have with your friends is the biggest way that could never leave you to bore.
Then, there are videos of your interests, lots of interactive games, applications and quizes for fun. You can even invite your Facebook pals to play games or take the quizes.
To find a date
You have the freedom to browse the profiles of other people on Facebook until and unless they have not customized and hidden it from the public. Your access to their profiles can help you find people of your interests and you can easily send a “friend request” to them OR send a private message.
So, if you describe yourself in a charming fashion in your profile, someone might wish to be your date! ;)
Image and Video hosting
You can use facebook to host your images and videos. You get a direct download link of whatever you upload.
There is unlimited hosting and unlimited bandwidth. Facebook provides this free of cost, whereas other websites offer this service with limited bandwidth, and there are some that have this service a paid one. So, this is for a big benefit for all the bloggers and website owners.Right!
Facebook is an intelligent place to market your products. The immensely increasing facebook users can be your future potential customers. Marketers can create a page for their products where they can have the images, videos and detailed descriptions about the products.
The users will visit this page more than the official site of your products to get issues resolved and thus, this is a very good way to reach out to your customers.
To find a job
Through facebook you can easily contact the manager or create professional contacts with any number of hiring people. Keep updating your status regularly about your job requirements and someone will surely come up to help you.
The tool for video calling of Facebook helps you to have a normal video chat, as the name specifies. Your distant relatives and friends can easily come close to you, as you are in front of each other “live”….
Many a times, you can have an interview or meeting with your professional counterparts and thus it helps in establishing relationships.
As personal portfolio
If you are an artist, then create a page for yourself and then create a portfolio where you can display your art and maintain the collection.
A portfolio of all the memorable snaps can also be uploaded so that they are there as a backup.
Facebook is such a powerful weapon that any kind of social issue can gain momentum and can create a wave of enthusiasm amongst the people that any other media cannot, in a short time.
Now, as we know that excess of anything is bad, Facebook also has some disadvantages that you need to take care of. Let us have a look.
Breach to privacy and personal info
Whatever safety measures you take to protect your profile, there will always be some hackers and stalkers looking to enter your profile and do unwanted things. Your personal photographs and videos that you upload can be easily stolen by them.
So, it is better not to give too private information on the profile and not share pics that are too personal.
Personal status published publicly just to seek attention
It is a human tendency that people take more interest in others lives rather than their own.
The same applies to Facebook too. Maximum of the people post their personal status publicly so that they can seek the attention of others. This misleads people and wastes a lot of time getting involved in such a thing.
Fake Facebook profiles
Sometimes people create fake profiles just for fun or to stalk on other people. There are millions of fake profiles existing there because some strange people create profiles for a non-human entity such as their “pets”.
Many people enter into online personal relationships with wrong persons and that could lead to their ruin. People try to pose as someone else and try to fool others.
Some businessmen add their own-created Facebook friends so as to show their customers how much they are in demand. This makes it very difficult for people who really desire to be safe on Facebook.
Writing worthless things
Facebook does not stop anyone from writing anything on places like “walls” of their own or their friends, comments, messages etc. This tends to waste a lot of time because many a times these kinds of things uselessly attract the attention of others and they cannot stop themselves from reading it and actually taking part in the conversation.
Facebook is an addiction. Once you join it, you are likely to spend most of your free time doing something or the other on Facebook. And it does not stops here. Some people even start compromising their family get-togethers and professional meetings for this Facebook.
Ultimately, you are the user. So, it depends on the way you use it that Facebook proves to be a Friend or an Enemy to you. Use it wisely and safely, so that at least the good purpose of Facebook is not lost.
Read more at http://techsmaz.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-facebook-a-discussion/#AiD9XZUsHEA4QreA.99
Trees are our best friends. They play a very important role in our life. We can not live without them. They give us timber, paper and firewood.
Timber is used in making houses, train compartments, big boxes, tools etc. Without paper life may be difficult for us. Paper is necessary for study and writing. People in villages use firewood to cook meals. They use wood to build houses, huts, carts and agriculture tools.
Trees also give us food, gum and medicine. They also add to the beauty of life. Gardens can not be charming without them. We need them for oxygen and good health.
Trees also help to control pollution: They absorb carbon dioxide. They improve our environment. They cause rainfall and protect water resources under the ground. They prevent floods and droughts.
Therefore, we should try our best to grow more trees. Govt. and social welfare societies should start a movement. There should be awards for those persons who grow more trees.
Plants and animals, the backbone of agriculture have been a part of the human experience since the beginning of our time on earth, it is held that our earliest ancestors lived as nomads, but as their population grew, providing everyone with food became increasingly difficult and their movement slowed by the growing group, they chose to settle and the earliest societies were formed.
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