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Rice

चावल

Last Update: 2015-04-12
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

Curd rice

दही चावल

Last Update: 2014-12-10
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Jasmine rice

जैस्मिन राइस

Last Update: 2014-11-21
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

parboiled rice

புழுங்கல் அரிசி

Last Update: 2014-04-28
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

type of rice

vedunda

Last Update: 2015-07-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

cream of rice

चावल की क्रीम

Last Update: 2015-04-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

sona masoori rice

सोना masoori चावल

Last Update: 2015-01-17
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Rice bran oil

धान की भूसी का तेल

Last Update: 2015-01-19
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

Rice tungro virus

धान टंग्रो गोलाकार विषाणु

Last Update: 2013-06-12
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Rice tungro virus

धान टंग्रो बेसीलीफार्म विषाणु

Last Update: 2013-06-12
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Rice tungro virus

धान टंग्रो विषाणु

Last Update: 2013-06-12
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

billion dollar rice

bhagar

Last Update: 2013-09-25
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Rice ragged stunt virus

धान चीर्ण अवरोधी विषाणु

Last Update: 2013-06-12
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Rice yellow mottle sobemovirus

चावल का पीला माटेल विषाणु

Last Update: 2013-06-12
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Rice yellow mottle sobemovirus

धान पीत मोटल सोबमो विषाणु

Last Update: 2013-06-12
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
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googal translate engBy Daniel A. Rosenblum 2013, Vol. 5 No. 10 | pg. 2/4 | « » Cite References Print 5 Before the Streets: Livelihoods in Rural Bihar The children of rural Bihar are connected with the rest of India unlike any other time in history. In the district town of Sitamarhi, a place that sits some twenty miles from the Nepal border, the skyline is littered with cell phone towers. On the streets below, walkways are filled with mud, trash, and cow dung. Passersby trough through the mess to buy flee-bitten mitahi (sweets) and the sweltering fruits at nearby stands. For the children of Sitamarhi, they live in this contrast—the severe juxtaposition of “modernity”3 and urbanization with the dilapidated infrastructure surrounding them. The villages within five miles of the district town scarcely receive electricity, prompting me to wonder how anyone with a cell phone was able to recharge their phones.4 The villages I spent the majority of my time in, Amritpur and Baksampur5, gave insight into the livelihoods of children in rural Bihar. In Amritpur, every corner and passageway of the village had more and more children. At times, it would seem the ratio of children to adults was ten to one. Many of these children had prominent signs of malnutrition: kwashiorkor, stunned growth, and slowly healing infections (Bhutta, Black, Cousens, & Ahmed, 2008; Som, Pal, & Bharati, 2007). One boy of about twelve, Deepak, had a nasty infection on his lower leg that continued to worsen over the week I visited. However, there was no formal doctor in the village, only someone trained in basic medical practices. He would have to go to Sitamarhi town to be given medicine, which would cost too much money for Deepak’s mother. This was a problem all too common for children of rural Bihar. School quality and attendance throughout Sitamarhi district was quite mixed. A government school I visited in Amritpur was highly understaffed, lacking proper materials and facilities, and seemed more of a social gathering point for youth. Children would sit along the walls with other classmates drawing, talking, and laughing while the teachers and administrators sat near the entrance splitting their time between socializing and supervising. When we arrived, the teachers began to complain of uneven wage scales and low salaries, providing this as a link for chaos at the school. However, another school we visited in Baksampur, which was run entirely by women, had sufficient materials, was properly staffed, and seemed to be extremely beneficial for the students. In both cases, there were noticeably tensions between attending school and working at home. Especially for older children, many would work in the mornings, helping to transplant rice, and then check into school for the second half of the day. In some cases, children would stop attending school entirely in order to help at home, such as with the case of a lower caste girl in Baksampur, Hoja.6 Pressure to earn began to outweigh the importance of schooling as the children grew older, leading to the abandonment of education in order to help the family. The livelihoods of Bihari youth were rapidly transforming, surrounded by new “modern” pursuits and desires within a rural structure and community. Lunch at an Amritpur government school Lunch Photo Credit: Khushboo Jain Tracking Agricultural Transformations Bihar’s agricultural history is extremely complex, wrapped among transforming government policy, development, and increasing mechanization of the agrarian system. Prior to the Green Revolution taking hold in Bihari agriculture, there was a structure of landholding: the Zamindar system, established under the British Raj. The system’s abolishment, however, is what I wish to focus on, in terms of the uneven effects it had on rural villages, landholdings, and landlessness. The zamindari was a system of landholding that consolidated fields in the hands of powerful village elites. For Bihar, this meant most of the land fell in the hands of upper caste Hindus (Chaudhry, 1988). Peasants were then typically tied to the land, working for the grain they produced, while remaining landless themselves. In the late 19th century, however, Bihar began to feel the effects of commercialism, beginning a process of out-migration from both the zamindar and lower class populations. In the Chapra region at the beginning of this century, upper castes had to resort to occupations other than agriculture. Rajputs, an upper caste group, went out for ‘service’ along with lower class individuals, becoming “peons and durwans in estates of larger zamindars” (de Haan 2002:120). Out-migration existed in high numbers during the zamindari system for both landowners and lower caste laborers, yet the economic gaps between landowners and lower class, as well as the frequency of migration seemed to increase after the foundation of India and the subsequent abolishment of the colonial landholding system.lish to hindi

By Daniel A. Rosenblum 2013, Vol. 5 No. 10 | pg. 2/4 | « » Cite References Print 5 Before the Streets: Livelihoods in Rural Bihar The children of rural Bihar are connected with the rest of India unlike any other time in history. In the district town of Sitamarhi, a place that sits some twenty miles from the Nepal border, the skyline is littered with cell phone towers. On the streets below, walkways are filled with mud, trash, and cow dung. Passersby trough through the mess to buy flee-bitten mitahi (sweets) and the sweltering fruits at nearby stands. For the children of Sitamarhi, they live in this contrast—the severe juxtaposition of “modernity”3 and urbanization with the dilapidated infrastructure surrounding them. The villages within five miles of the district town scarcely receive electricity, prompting me to wonder how anyone with a cell phone was able to recharge their phones.4 The villages I spent the majority of my time in, Amritpur and Baksampur5, gave insight into the livelihoods of children in rural Bihar. In Amritpur, every corner and passageway of the village had more and more children. At times, it would seem the ratio of children to adults was ten to one. Many of these children had prominent signs of malnutrition: kwashiorkor, stunned growth, and slowly healing infections (Bhutta, Black, Cousens, & Ahmed, 2008; Som, Pal, & Bharati, 2007). One boy of about twelve, Deepak, had a nasty infection on his lower leg that continued to worsen over the week I visited. However, there was no formal doctor in the village, only someone trained in basic medical practices. He would have to go to Sitamarhi town to be given medicine, which would cost too much money for Deepak’s mother. This was a problem all too common for children of rural Bihar. School quality and attendance throughout Sitamarhi district was quite mixed. A government school I visited in Amritpur was highly understaffed, lacking proper materials and facilities, and seemed more of a social gathering point for youth. Children would sit along the walls with other classmates drawing, talking, and laughing while the teachers and administrators sat near the entrance splitting their time between socializing and supervising. When we arrived, the teachers began to complain of uneven wage scales and low salaries, providing this as a link for chaos at the school. However, another school we visited in Baksampur, which was run entirely by women, had sufficient materials, was properly staffed, and seemed to be extremely beneficial for the students. In both cases, there were noticeably tensions between attending school and working at home. Especially for older children, many would work in the mornings, helping to transplant rice, and then check into school for the second half of the day. In some cases, children would stop attending school entirely in order to help at home, such as with the case of a lower caste girl in Baksampur, Hoja.6 Pressure to earn began to outweigh the importance of schooling as the children grew older, leading to the abandonment of education in order to help the family. The livelihoods of Bihari youth were rapidly transforming, surrounded by new “modern” pursuits and desires within a rural structure and community. Lunch at an Amritpur government school Lunch Photo Credit: Khushboo Jain Tracking Agricultural Transformations Bihar’s agricultural history is extremely complex, wrapped among transforming government policy, development, and increasing mechanization of the agrarian system. Prior to the Green Revolution taking hold in Bihari agriculture, there was a structure of landholding: the Zamindar system, established under the British Raj. The system’s abolishment, however, is what I wish to focus on, in terms of the uneven effects it had on rural villages, landholdings, and landlessness. The zamindari was a system of landholding that consolidated fields in the hands of powerful village elites. For Bihar, this meant most of the land fell in the hands of upper caste Hindus (Chaudhry, 1988). Peasants were then typically tied to the land, working for the grain they produced, while remaining landless themselves. In the late 19th century, however, Bihar began to feel the effects of commercialism, beginning a process of out-migration from both the zamindar and lower class populations. In the Chapra region at the beginning of this century, upper castes had to resort to occupations other than agriculture. Rajputs, an upper caste group, went out for ‘service’ along with lower class individuals, becoming “peons and durwans in estates of larger zamindars” (de Haan 2002:120). Out-migration existed in high numbers during the zamindari system for both landowners and lower caste laborers, yet the economic gaps between landowners and lower class, as well as the frequency of migration seemed to increase after the foundation of India and the subsequent abolishment of the colonial landholding system.

Last Update: 2015-07-28
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

Coastal wetland types: • Mangroves, saltwater marshes, estuaries, lagoons – even coral reefs Man-made wetlands include fish ponds, saltpan, rice paddies Range in size from less than one hectare to the Pantanal in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay; three times the size of Ireland

तटीय आर्द्रभूमि प्रकार: • कच्छ वनस्पति, समुद्री दलदल, ज्वारनदमुख, लैगून - यहां तक ​​कि प्रवाल भित्तियों मानव निर्मित झीलों मछली तालाबों, saltpan, चावल paddies ब्राजील, बोलीविया, और पराग्वे में Pantanal करने के लिए कम से कम एक हेक्टेयर से आकार में सीमा में शामिल हैं; तीन बार आयरलैंड के आकार

Last Update: 2015-01-08
Subject: Forestry
Usage Frequency: 4
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

Coastal wetland types: • Mangroves, saltwater marshes, estuaries, lagoons – even coral reefs Man-made wetlands include fish ponds, salt-pans, rice paddies Range in size from less than one hectare to the Pant anal in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay; three times the size of Ireland

तटीय आर्द्रभूमि प्रकार: • कच्छ वनस्पति, समुद्री दलदल, ज्वारनदमुख, लैगून - यहां तक ​​कि प्रवाल भित्तियों मानव निर्मित झीलों में शामिल मछली तालाब, नमक धूपदान, चावल paddies ब्राजील, बोलीविया, और पराग्वे में पंत गुदा करने के लिए कम से कम एक हेक्टेयर से आकार में सीमा ; तीन बार आयरलैंड के आकार

Last Update: 2015-01-08
Subject: Forestry
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

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