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correct grammar on translationsWhen children arrive in school, they experience a different linguistic world. They met for the first time children from unfamiliar regional, social, and ethnic backgrounds, whose linguistic norms may differ greatly from their own. They encounter a social situation in which levels of formal and informal speech are carefully distinguished and standards of correctness emphasized. The educational setting presents them with a variety of unfamiliar, subject-related styles of language. They have to learn a new range of linguistics skills-reading, writing and spelling. And they find themselves having to talk about what they are doing, which requires that they learn a special technical vocabulary-'a language for talking about language', or metalanguage. In recent years, educationists have begun to recognize the complexity of the language demands being made on the young schoolchild, and to realize that progress in many areas of the curriculum is greatly dependent on a satisfactory foundation of linguistic skills. The traditional emphasis on literacy, the ability to read and write, has been supplemented by an emphasis on oracy, the ability to speak and listen. Teachers now pay attention to a child's preschool linguistic experience, seeing this as a foundation on which they can build. Special efforts are made to relate different kinds of linguistic learning; the task of writing is being brought closer to the child's experience of reading; reading, in turn, is being brought into contact with the ability to use spoken language; and oral skills are being supplemented by work on listening comprehension. Above all, teachers have begun to stress that children's linguistic ability as a major factor influence their success in the learning of other subject areas, such as science, mathematics and history.
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google transletYou're finally feeling unfettered and fancy free in the work department, Gemini. All of the pressure and obstacles you encountered in 2014 should now be put to rest. The only exception comes between late June and September when Saturn backs up into your work zone to help you tie up any loose ends or unfinished business. Be sure you have your daily schedule running like a well-oiled machine by then. That gives you the first half of the year to get your act in tiptop shape, Twinstar. Your creativity is totally off the charts between the ongoing presence of the North Node of Fate amping up your playful side and Jupiter amping up your mental sector with big ideas. Oh, and add the ongoing Neptune brilliance lighting up the top of your chart in the most visionary and inspired way possible. It's nearly impossible for you not to create something gorgeous, glamorous and innovative. You've also got the breakthrough energy of Uranus in your sector of friends and collaborators to assure that you attract some radical thinkers to keep your career path fresh and ahead of the curve. The more you're willing to take risks with your long-term goals and dreams in 2015, the more generous the payback.
June (your birthday season) jumpstarts a crazy productive spell for you, Gemini. You'll have Mars powering up your stars and then Jupiter moving to the base of your chart in August to give you another dose of inspiration and luck. Late September is definitely a total work surge for you when Mars and Jupiter join forces to turn you into nothing short of a creative factory. If you've gotten a bit ahead of yourself, you can use the Venus Retrograde phase to slow down and catch up with your soul. That sweet slowdown comes just in time for summer. If you have failed to take a proper summer vacay in years (which is most likely the naughty case), no more excuses, Twins. This is your year to mix the business with the pleasure for a change. You'll have enough success to finance a killer vacation. What are you waiting for? Get on the horn and put some se-rious leisure time on the 2015 calendar before all of the space gets filled up. You know that when you blink, you're fully booked.
Subject: Social Science
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visthapan ke symasya
Infrastructural development projects frequently result in the displacement of peoples from home giving way to dams, highways, or other large-scale construction projects. This Article focuses on applying an ethical analysis of the tension between the right to development, on the one hand, and the resulting risks to human security and their human rights, on the other hand. The authors argue that displacement is a multidimensional phenomenon, not confined to physical relocation. It reduces the "quality of life" of human beings into sub-human conditions.
Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that displacement mostly affects indigenous people and ethnic minorities.
Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment and loss of ecological balance. It is suggested that this unsystematic displacement of humans amounts to a gross violation of Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The judiciary has further played an important role in protection of environment by incorporating "right to clean and healthy environment" under Article 21.
The founding fathers of the Constitution, under Article 39, imposed a mandate on the state towards distribution of resources so as to subserve common good. However, the law which has been consistently invoked for land acquisition is a pre-constitutional law dated 1894 with 'compensation' as the only remedy for the persons affected by such acquisitions and having no provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement.
Also, the Article lays emphasis on various international policy guidelines and mechanisms, designed to safeguard those who are internally displaced as a result of development projects.
In the light of the above mentioned problems, the authors suggests that a comprehensive National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (NPRR) of displaced population be framed replacing the anomalies of NPRR, 2007.
"Being forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially"1.
Development-induced displacement can be defined as the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.Natural resource extraction, urban renewal or development programmes and infrastructure projects such as highways, bridges, irrigation canals, and dams all require land, often in large quantity. One common consequence of such projects is the upheaval and displacement of communities. It is estimated that 10 million people were displaced annually by these so called "developmental activities." However, national leaders and policy-makers typically viewed these as legitimate and inevitable costs of development, acceptable in the larger national interest. Pt. J.L. Nehru said 'If you have to suffer, you should do so in the interest of the country'2.
Indigenous People and Tribal Disproportionately Affected
Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that indigenous people including tribals and women are disproportionately affected. The Scheduled Tribes constitute about 8.1 percent of the total population of the country according to 1991 census but they also constituted 55.16% of total displaced people which indicates victimization of the tribals. Development for the nation has meant displacement, pauperisation, or, at its very best, peonage for the tribals.3
Impact of Displacement
Forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat carries with it many risk .Some of the identified interlinked potential risks intrinsic to displacement4 are: 1. Landlessness 2. Joblessness 3. Homelessness 4. Marginalization. 5. Food Insecurity. 6. Increased Morbidity and Mortality 7. Loss of Access to Common Property. 8. Social Disintegration.5
Development- Displacement and Environment
In achieving the so called "greater common good" or "the national interest" the long run adverse impacts on the natural resources are ignored. Various developmental projects stands accused of the destruction of entire environments, including flora, fauna, landscapes, river systems, water quality, and shorelines as well as the creation of mercury contamination, greenhouse gases, water quality deterioration, downriver hydrological change, reservoir sedimentation, transmission line impacts, quarries and borrow pits. The large scale deforestation due to mining and establishment of industries has resulted in climate change and inconsistent weathers. Big Dams submerge huge area of forest cover causing irreversible loss to varieties of flora and fauna besides the land area. The pollution (air, water, soil and noise) caused by the industries accentuate the miseries of the present as well as the generations to come. No wonder that the environmental impact assessment of most of the big and mega projects reveal that such hyped and appreciated mega ventures are nothing but surviving at human and environmental costs6. It is high time we realize the need of transforming our developmental policies to answer the larger human and environmental requirements until it becomes too late.
Human Rights Challenges That Arise in Relation to Development-Induced Displacement
There is no doubt about the developmental benefits of any planned project, but these cannot be weighed against human rights. Human rights thus have to be considered independently. In 1986, the UN General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Right to Development7. The heart of the problem is that people displaced by development projects are generally seen as a necessary sacrifice on the road to development. The Human rights that are affected :
Right To Life The right to life and livelihood is threatened by the loss of home and the means to make a living when people are displaced from habitual residences and traditional homelands. The right to life is protected in the UDHR (Article 3) and the ICCPR (Article 6)8.
In Indian context, The Supreme Court in Ollega Tellis case envisaged right to livelihood under the aegis of Article 21 and condemned the unjustifiable displacement of people from their land. Right to life doesn't mean merely animal existence but living with human dignity and all that goes along with it like right to shelter9.
Moreover, Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment which "makes life worth living, materially and culturally10."And so it has lead to violation of right to clean and healthy environment.
Right to own Property The rights to adequate housing and security of the person and property serve to protect individuals and communities from being arbitrarily displaced from their homes and land. The right to own property and not to be arbitrarily deprived of this property is spelled out in the UDHR Articles 17 as well as in Article 6 of the ICESCR.
Rights To Residence The eviction or displacement of persons unlawfully amounts to violation of the rights to freedom of residence11. Article 19(e) of the Indian constitution asserts right to residence as fundamental right.
All these rights and many others are of direct relevance in the case of large-scale displacement of people. Indeed, in a number of cases, not only socio-economic rights such as the right to housing that are at stake but a number of civil and political rights, from the right to be informed about the displacement procedures to the freedom of expression, may be violated if the government tries to coerce people to move out from their homes12.
Defects in Compensation, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy
For the Government and its agents of development, cash compensation seems to be the only panacea for the problems induced by displacement and only policy for rehabilitation. It's hard to believe that how land, natural resources, means of livelihood, social and cultural loss resulting from displacement can be quantified and compensated in monetary terms? Moreover, the manner in which the law is framed and interpreted ensures that the displaced land-owner or house-owner is always the loser. The limited provisions in the Land Acquisition Act to challenge the rate of compensation are, in practice, inaccessible to the indigent and illiterate oustees. Even, only those landowners who were familiar with the legal details of the Land Acquisition took their cases to court. The value of the land is calculated as on the date of the gazette notification and interest is liable to be paid only from the date of taking possession up to the date of payment of full compensation. The LAA thus does not take into consideration the escalation of the market value between the time of notification and the date of actual possession.
The ill-effects of the displacement induced by development ought to be taken care off by the state and necessary arrangement thereof made, i.e. the displaced persons be resettled in a safe habitat wherein they can start their life afresh. However, this would require more than mere allocation of certain piece of land for resettlement or mere construction of make shift camps for temporary settlement. What is needed is the "rehabilitation" of the persons affected by the projects; rehabilitation means to "restore to the former condition", and thus, all that was lost by displacement, the emotional, cultural, social, political and economic losses must be restored at a priority basis than to the Project itself, which is the cause of the impoverishment.
The Ethics of Development Induced Displacement and Rehabilitation (Didr)
In dealing with issues of development and displacement, important ethical questions are raised such as why is displacement often considered morally objectionable? Under what conditions, if ever, can a development project justify displacement? Is it ethically just to displace people so long as they are compensated? If so, what type of compensation is owed to displacees?
According to Peter Penz,13 Three broad ethical perspectives that can be used to justify development-induced displacement are public interest, self-determination, and egalitarianism. The public interest perspective, embodied in cost-benefit analysis, supports the decision that brings the greatest net benefits to the population as a whole. The self-determination perspective privileges freedom and personal control. In its form, forced displacement (at least of those who legally own property) is unjust because it violates property rights. The egalitarian perspective privileges actions that reduce poverty and/or inequality14. Theoretically, can be justified here if it benefits the poor at the cost of the wealthy, but questions are raised when a project benefits an under-privileged group at the cost of another such group.
As Penz points out, is an ethically complex issue, in which public interest and distributive concerns stand in tension with self-determination and individual rights. He concludes that there are conditions under which can be justified, but that these conditions must be strong15. They include the avoidance of coercive displacement in favour of negotiated settlement, the minimization of resettlement numbers, the full compensation of displacees for all losses, and the use of development benefits to reduce poverty and inequality. Unfortunately, in most cases of DIDR, these conditions have been violated.
International and National Organisation and Policies
Over the past decade, different international legal entities and institutions have responded to the human rights impacts and risks of development-induced displacement by formulating a variety of guidelines, laws and best practices. Some of the most important international guidelines and practice on this issue are:
• The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.
• The OECD's Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects, 1992.
• World Bank's Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement.
• United Nations and Other International Organizations- Different agencies of UN work as cluster and have sectoral responsibility to deal with the issue of development-induced displacement rehabilitation and resettlement.
a. The Representative of the Secretary-General on IDPs
The report formed by this agency is the basis for the provisions in the Guiding Principles on protection against displacement.
b. Internal Displacement Unit
Using the Guiding Principles as an overall framework, the Unit identify and draw attention to gaps in the response to internal displacement
c. World Food Program
The essential condition for the provision of WFP food is the food insecurity of displaced people.
d. UN Development Programme
UNDP in particular has become increasingly involved in programs involving the resettlement and reintegration of internally displaced populations.
The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are "adequate shelter for all" and "sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world.
Ill-consequences of the displacement lead to the requirement of policies and legislations that address the issues of not only development induced displacement, but also about rehabilitation and resettlement. Following are some suggestion and recommendations to deal with problem of displacement caused by development :
1. States should ensure that eviction impact assessments are carried out prior to the initiation of any project which could result in development-based displacement, with a view to fully securing the human rights of all potentially affected persons, groups and communities.
2. States should fully explore all possible alternatives to any act involving forced eviction.
3. Sufficient information shall be provided to affected persons, groups and communities concerning all State projects as well as to the planning and implementation processes relating to the resettlement concerned, including information concerning the purpose to which the eviction dwelling or site is to be put and the persons, groups or communities who will benefit from the evicted site.
4. The State must provide or ensure fair and just compensation for any losses of personal, real or other property or goods, including rights or interests in property.
5. Resettlement must occur in a just and equitable manner and in full accordance with international human rights law.
6. States should ensure that adequate and effective legal or other appropriate remedies are available to any persons claiming that his/her right of protection against forced evictions has been violated or is under threat of violation16.
7. To make new Law on rehabilitation and change the LAA (1894), since it goes against the rights of the poor. Rehabilitation should not be separated from land acquisition and that the LAA (1894) should be changed in such a manner as to minimize displacement and turn rehabilitation into an integral part of such acquisition.
8. The very basis of the Land acquisition policies in its legal premises is required to be compatible with constitutional frame of Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Special Provisions for the Scheduled Castes / Tribes and weaker sections.
The effects of displacement spill over to generations in many ways, such as loss of traditional means of employment, change of environment, disrupted community life and relationships, marginalization, a profound psychological trauma and more. The issue of Displacement is an example of how law has to be consistent with socioeconomic and political circumstances, and it appears to have failed in doing so. To conclude, there is a strong need to put legal thought into issues concerning the land acquirers as well as to thoroughly investigate issues regarding removing the imbalance from the system.
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Cricket is one of the most popular games in India. The young and old alike are affected by this game. It is not a native game of India. The British who ruled our country introduced this game and now it has struck deep roots in our country. This game is mostly played in the commonwealth countries which were British colonies.
The cricketing countries are England, Australia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Zimbabwe, New Zealand, West Indies and Bangladesh. Netherlands, Ireland and the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) have also joined the band of cricketing countries.
The cricket matches were usually played for five days with a day’s break. This day was called the ‘Rest-Day’. These were the ‘traditional’ test matches. Eleven players represent each side. A test match is divided into two innings known as the first innings and second innings. The victory or defeat is decided by the total runs scored by each team in the two innings. The team that scores the maximum runs is declared the winner. The five day test matches held sway for a long time. In recent times, one day cricket matches have become popular. In the test matches, the Rest-Day is withdrawn.
The teams are expected to show their ‘mettle’ in one day matches. Normally each team is given fifty over’s and the participants display their skill in these ‘Limited Over’ matches. These matches are played during the day as well as night. The ‘One-day’ matches are more exciting and they have cast a spell on the spectators. These are ‘result-oriented’ matches and the spectators look forward to ‘nail-biting’ finishes. You must have seen some of these matches on your television.
India has produced some great cricketers, who attained ‘International Celebrity’ status. C.K. Naidu, Nawab of Pataudi, Vijay Hazare, Lala Amarnath, Sunil Gavaskar, Kapil Dev, Viswanath, Chandrasekhar, Krishnamachari Srikanth, Azharuddin, Sourav Ganguly, Anil Kumble and Sachin Tendulkar are some of the bright stars who brotght laurels to India in international cricket.
In India, besides test matches and one day matches at the national level, we have cricket matches at different levels. There are inter state matches and zonal matches. There are a number of trophies associated with Indian cricket. These are (1) Duleep Trophy, (2) Moinuddowla Gold Cup, (3) Vizzy Trophy, (4) Ranji Trophy and (5) Rohintan Baria Trophy (Inter-University Trophy).
In the international field we have the Ashes. This is the symbolic trophy won by the winning team after a series of cricket matches between England and Australia. You must be aware of the world cup also. This is awarded to the best cricket team of the world. The Australians had the distinction of winning this cup thrice consecutively.
Cricket, although limited to commonwealth countries and England is one of most popular games in the world of sports. Although advanced countries like the U.S.A. Russia and a sport loving country like China do not play this game, millions of people watch the cricket matches on television all over the world.
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The Many Uses of Computers
Computers are helpful because they offer a wide range of functions and services that are not available anywhere else. There are four main uses: word processing, internet/communications, digital video/audio composition, and desktop publishing. Although one can create a typed paper with a typewriter, the computer has more features
to do it with. Internet and communications, digital video and audio composition, and desktop publishing are all features that are only offered on computers. With these tools human society has progressed exponentially.
The word processing capabilities of computers are amazing. They can automatically correct your spelling and grammar mistakes. The cutting and pasting features are incredibly simple and very useful for revision. Plus it is easier to read a word-processed document than one written by hand. Having a digital backup is an added benefit. All of these things help writers get the job done. If you want to add pictures to your writing, numerous software titles are available for desktop publishing. With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your home computer. For example, high school yearbook classes now use desktop publishing software for the creation and design
of their yearbooks. Most of this cannot be done by hand, and if so, then it is painstakingly laborious.
The Internet is one of the greatest inventions of humanity. It is a massive network of computers, each with the ability to access any of the others. Ungodly amounts of information can be found on the Internet. It is the ultimate form of media, a combination of newspaper, radio, and as the average bandwidth is increasing, television. Using
the Internet, any two people anywhere can communicate for free, whether it is with text or voice. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the public. New uses are being found for the Internet every day.
Audio/video editing and composition have been made much easier by computers. Cutting and pasting is no longer comprised of using scissors and tape on large reels of film. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to make a film or to compose music. Now emerging musicians have the ability to compose their own songs and publish them without having to obtain a record contract. Amateur filmmakers can produce work from their own homes. Graphics engineers can use computers to create three-dimensional models, or even to generate short or full-length films. Anybody who owns a computer can now enter the field of media production.
Computers have so many uses that cannot be found anywhere else. Word processors are the perfect writing device because you can compose quickly and make changes easily. The Internet provides a fast, free, and unique way to get information or to communicate with others. Computers supply an affordable solution to nonprofessional audio and video composition. These reasons are why computers are so helpful in modern society. With the aid of computers, humankind is entering
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