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courier

한국어 인도네시아 구글 번역

Last Update: 2014-03-01
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Courier

Penghantaran

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mail delivery work

surat penyerahan kerja

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car delivery confirmation

pengesahan serahan kereta

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Attempting to reconnect...
http://www.plus500.com/

Mencuba untuk sambung semula...
http://www.plus500.com.my/

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Cash on delivery not available for this product

Pada pandanagan saya

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Attempting to open your default email software.
http://www.plus500.com/

Mencuba untuk membuka perisian e-mel lalai anda.
http://www.plus500.com.my/

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Plus500UK Ltd is based in England and Wales under registration number 07024970.
http://www.plus500.com/

Plus500UK Ltd berpangkalan di England dan Wales di bawah nombor pendaftaran 07024970.
http://www.plus500.com.my/

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PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Needs and Subjective Well-Being Around the World Louis Tay University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign Ed Diener University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign and The Gallup Organization, Omaha, Nebraska Across a sample of 123 countries, we examined the association between the fulfillment of needs and subjective well-being (SWB), including life evaluation, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Need fulfillment was consistently associated with SWB across world regions. Life evaluation was most associated with fulfilling basic needs; positive feelings were most associated with social and respect needs; and negative feelings were most associated with basic, respect, and autonomy needs. Societal need fulfillment predicted SWB, particularly for life evaluation, beyond individuals’ fulfillment of their own needs, indicating the desirability of living in a flourishing society. In addition, the associations of SWB with the fulfillment of specific needs were largely independent of whether other needs were fulfilled. These trends persisted when household income was taken into account. The emergent ordering of need fulfillment for psychosocial needs were fairly consistent across country conditions, but the fulfillment of basic and safety needs were contingent on country membership. Keywords: universal needs, subjective well-being, societal context, ordering of needs, income In the current study, we examined the association between need fulfillment and subjective well-being (SWB). For many years, the idea of universal needs was out of favor because it was widely believed that socialization uniquely shapes the causes of wellbeing for each person and in each culture. Furthermore, it was often assumed that people adapt to circumstances so that in the long run only temperament influences SWB. However, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in universal influences on “happiness” that might derive from universal aspects of human nature (Konner, 2002). For instance, Howell and Howell (2008) suggested that the declining marginal utility of money might be due to the fact that income influences SWB primarily when it is associated with the fulfillment of basic physical needs. Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, and Schaller (2010) suggested that Maslow’s (1954) list of needs might be derivable from evolutionary theory (see also Hill & Buss, 2007). These approaches are compatible with the idea that the respect of others, learning new things, and supportive social relationships are fundamental universal needs that do not require secondary pairing with more basic needs to influence SWB. Ryff and Keyes (1995) and Ryan and Deci (2000), like Maslow (1954) before them, proposed that there are universal human needs and that fulfillment of them is likely to enhance a person’s feelings of well-being. These theorists suggest that there are psychological needs, such as for close social relationships, mastery, and autonomy, which are wired into humans, and therefore, fulfilling these needs should lead to higher SWB. Coming from a sociological tradition, Veenhoven and Ehrhardt (1995) argued for “livability theory,” the idea that some societies have a higher quality of life because they have characteristics that are universally desirable for humans. Conversely, the anthropologist Edgerton (1992) argued that there are “sick societies” that do not produce happiness and health. What these views have in common is the idea that certain circumstances are required for high quality of life in all cultures and for all individuals. There are also likely individual and cultural differences in what people desire and find rewarding, but these can coexist with the universals. The present research builds on the study by Diener, Ng, Harter, and Arora (2010) in which the focus was on the role of income in predicting SWB; specifically, basic and psychosocial need fulfillment was found to be a channel by which income raises life evaluation. Given the primacy of needs in SWB, we seek to probe further to differentiate the role of the various needs in SWB. There are a number of implications and questions that follow from the proposal that the level of SWB can be explained by the fulfillment of universal human needs: 1. If the needs are indeed universal, they should apply to all individuals in all cultures. Although, there are individual different theories of needs (e.g., Murray & Kluckhohn, 1948), the theories This article was published Online First June 20, 2011. Louis Tay, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign; Ed Diener, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign and The Gallup Organization, Omaha, Nebraska. We acknowledge Carolyn Anderson and Jeroen Vermunt. We are grateful for their helpful suggestions on the multilevel item-response theory analysis. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Louis Tay, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana— Champaign, 603 East Daniel Street, Champaign, IL 61820. E-mail: sientay@illinois.edu Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, Vol. 101, No. 2, 354–365 © 2011 American Psychological Association 0022-3514/11/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0023779 354 we test suggest that certain needs are universal in all humans and, therefore, should be related to SWB in all cultures. 2. Inherent in the idea of universal needs is that fulfillment explains some portion of variance in SWB. There are other influences on SWB, such as culture (Oishi, 2010; Triandis & Suh, 2002) and temperament (Lucas & Diener, 2008). However, if the needs are indeed built into people because they aid survival, it is likely that humans are constructed so as to experience the fulfillment of the needs as rewarding and the deprivation of them as punishing. An issue related to this is whether the deprivation of needs is synonymous with low SWB and whether the fulfillment of needs is associated with high SWB. 3. The needs should have a degree of independence from each other, with each making a contribution to SWB beyond the effects of the others. That is, regardless of whether other needs are met, each need will enhance well-being to some extent when it is fulfilled. The analogy of psychological needs to vitamins was drawn by Maslow (1954). Like vitamins, each of the needs is individually required, just as having much of one vitamin does not negate the need for other vitamins. All needs should independently contribute to SWB. Just because one has, for example, a large amount of food and safety, it does not follow that one’s need for social support diminishes. On the other hand, it may be that the fulfillment of multiple needs exerts synergistic effects to enhance SWB. For instance, does the fulfillment of respect and social needs lead to higher SWB over and above what might be expected from each alone? 4. Another important question is whether the societal context influences the importance of need fulfillment on SWB. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) suggested that one limitation of humanistic psychology was that it overemphasized individual wellbeing without giving enough attention to collective well-being. With this in mind, we examined whether there are any independent effects of societal need fulfillment on people’s individual wellbeing. People’s well-being might depend not only on their success but also on the well-being of those around them (Christakis & Fowler, 2009), and therefore, the need fulfillment of others might influence a person’s well-being beyond the fulfillment of their own personal needs. 5. A final issue is whether needs are fulfilled in the order predicted by Maslow’s (1954) motivational theory. Past researchers found mixed evidence for the needs emerging in the order suggested by Maslow (Hagerty, 1999; Rauschenberger, Schmitt, & Hunter, 1980; Wicker, Brown, Wiehe, Hagen, & Reed, 1993). Thus, we examined the patterns in which needs are fulfilled and the degree to which societal contexts moderate the emergent ordering. The Gallup World Poll (GWP) included questions about six needs and three types of SWB. Because the GWP was so large and diverse, including the 123 countries used in this analysis that comprise the vast majority of the world’s adult population, generalizable inferences about humanity can be drawn. We examined needs derived from the work of Maslow (1954), Deci and Ryan (2000), Ryff and Keyes (1995), and others such as De Charms (1968) and Csikszentmihalyi (1988): ● Basic needs for food and shelter ● Safety and security ● Social support and love ● Feeling respected and pride in activities ● Mastery ● Self-direction and autonomy The needs we examined were dictated in part by the aforementioned theories of Maslow, Deci and Ryan, Ryff and Keyes, and Csikszentmihalyi and in part by the measures that were included in the GWP. We did not have a specific measure of self-acceptance, which is included in Ryff and Keyes’s theory, but we did have measures of “felt proud” and “are respected” to reflect Ryff and Keyes’s and Maslow’s concept of being respected and feeling worthy of respect. Our mastery need measure included “doing what one does best” and “learning new things” and, thus, reflects both mastery and growth. Thus, we had measures of Deci and Ryan’s needs and most of Maslow’s and Ryff and Keyes’s needs, although our measures do not map perfectly onto some categories. Nonetheless, our measures do reflect a broad and diverse set of needs, including basic, safety, and psychosocial needs. This analysis greatly expanded on the earlier study by Diener and colleagues (2010) by focusing on whether needs are necessary and sufficient for SWB across the world, the extent to which fulfilled needs produce independent or synergistic effects for SWB, whether societal fulfillment of needs leads to an increase in SWB beyond individual fulfillment of needs, and how needs are fulfilled in relation to one another. We examined each of the six needs in relation to three types of SWB—life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Because recent scholarship suggested that types of SWB are separable, distinct (Kahneman, 1999; Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996), and differentially related to factors such as income (Diener et al., 2010), it is plausible that the needs might have different associations with different types of SWB. Maslow (1954) proposed that the fulfillment of universal needs would lead to both health and “happiness.” We have come to understand that “happiness” is in fact composed of discrete elements. Life evaluation, positive feelings, and negative feelings form clearly separable factors in selfreport, informant reports, and experience sampling (Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996). Thus, it is possible that the fulfillment of certain needs is more strongly associated with some types of “happiness” than with others. For instance, there seems to be a close connection between social relationships and extraversion, on one hand, and positive feelings, on the other (Bradburn, 1969; Lucas, Diener, Grob, Suh, & Shao, 2000), and a lesser relation between negative feelings and sociability. Similarly, one might hypothesize that feeling unsafe could produce negative emotions but that being safe might not produce long-lasting positive feelings. Summary of Research We assessed the relation of needs with SWB in each of eight sociocultural regions of the world—from Europe to Africa to Latin America. The GWP included rural and poor populations that have been underrepresented in past studies of SWB. Our goal was to examine the association of six needs with each of the three types of SWB, with representative samples across the major regions of the world, with the aim of answering several questions: What are UNIVERSAL NEEDS AND WELL-BEING 355 the associations of need fulfillment with SWB, and how general are these associations across cultures? Is the deprivation or fulfillment of needs linked to low and high SWB, respectively? Is the association of specific needs with SWB dependent on the fulfillment of other needs? Is there any influence on SWB of societal need fulfillment beyond individual need fulfillment? Finally, are needs typically fulfilled in the order described by Maslow? Method Sample The Gallup Organization conducted surveys of 155 countries, across the years 2005–2010, aimed at representing 95% of the world’s population. Representative sampling of the entire adult population within each nation was undertaken. In wealthy nations, this was achieved through telephone surveys based on randomdigit dialing, and in poorer nations in which telephones are less ubiquitous, this was accomplished by door-to-door interviews, with residences selected from geographical primary sampling units of household clusters (The Gallup Organization, 2009). Respondents within households were selected based on either the latest birthday or the Kish grid method. Up to three contacts per household, at different times of day, were used. A few regions of certain nations were not sampled due to safety concerns. In 123 nations, the GWP included the relevant need and SWB items. The nations we examined included representation from 66% of the world’s population. Within each country, analyses were conducted on individuals who responded to need and SWB items. Altogether, 60,865 individuals were asked the relevant survey items, with a mean of 494 respondents in each country. Out of these 60,865 individuals, 41,933 individuals were asked about their household income. The interviewers were individuals from each nation and were trained in interviewing techniques. Several features of the survey were designed to make responding easier for those not familiar with questionnaires, for example, simple yes–no responding to many items. The Gallup Organization has many decades of experience conducting surveys in diverse regions of the world. See the following website for methodological details on the sampling and measures: http:// www.gallup.com/se/128147/Worldwide-Research-Methodology .aspx World Regions In order to examine the universality of our findings across cultures, we divided nations into eight cultural regions that are similar to those used in the CIA Factbook, an authoritative source of world information. Societies within each region are not identical but share common features in terms of history, economic development, language root, religion, and so forth. Our eight regions were (a) Africa, (b) East and South Asia, (c) former Soviet Union nations, including Eastern Europe, (d) Latin America, (e) Middle East, (f) Northern Europe and Anglo nations, (g) Southeast Asia, and (h) Southern Europe. Measures Translation. In each nation, bilingual speakers translated the survey into one or more widespread languages. The translations were then reviewed by second bilingual speakers, who recommended refinements. Because of the very large number of different languages used in the surveys, it is unlikely that language differences created the systematic patterns of finding, although it is possible that they introduced random measurement error that reduced the size of correlations we found. In many cross-cultural studies that employ a small number of nations, translation can represent a systematic contaminant because translation differences could produce what appear to be cultural differences. However, with hundreds of translations used across over 100 nations, this concern is greatly reduced. Indeed, recent analyses of emotion terms of various translations across the world revealed pan-cultural dimensions (Tay, Diener, Drasgow, & Vermunt, 2011). SWB. Both cognitive and affective components of SWB (Diener, 1984, 2000) were assessed, which Kahneman (1999) has called remembered versus experienced well-being. A global life evaluation measure (Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale; Cantril, 1965) asked respondents to evaluate their current life on a ladder scale, with steps ranging from 0 (worst possible life) to 10 (best possible life). Positive and negative feelings were assessed by aggregating items that tapped feelings experienced a lot in the previous day, on a dichotomous scale format (1  yes, 0  no). Positive items included “smile/laugh” and “enjoyment”; negative items included “worry,” “sadness,” “depression,” and “anger.” Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities for positive and negative emotions were .58 and .65, respectively. The reliabilities appear to be acceptable, given the dichotomous scale format and the short scale lengths. Needs. Basic needs for food and shelter were satisfied when in the past 12 months a respondent (a) had enough money for food, (b) had enough money for shelter, and (c) did not go hungry. Safety and security needs were met when individuals (a) felt safe walking alone, (b) did not have money and/or property stolen during the past 12 months (from either them or their family members), and (c) were not assaulted during the past 12 months. Similarly, social support and love were met when the respondents indicated that they (a) experienced love yesterday and (b) have others they can count on for help in an emergency. Respect and pride in activities were fulfilled for respondents who (a) felt they were treated with respect and (b) were proud of something. Mastery was met when an individual (a) had the experience of learning something and (b) did what she or he does best at work. Finally, coding for self-direction and autonomy was based on two variables: whether individuals could (a) choose how their time was spent and (b) whether they experienced freedom in life. In the following analyses and results, these variables are labeled, respectively, as “basic,” “safety,” “social,” “respect,” “mastery,” and “autonomy.” Needs were operationally defined as met (1) or unmet (0) through combinations of surveyed items, all of which were answered on a dichotomous yes–no scale. A need was scored as fulfilled (1) only if all items pertaining to that need were answered affirmatively and otherwise was scored as unfulfilled (0). Results The means and standard deviations for both individual- and country-level data are presented in Table 1. As can be seen, there is large variability between individuals in the fulfillment of needs and in SWB, as well as substantial variability among nations. It is important to note that there are no ceiling or floor effects on any of the variables. 356 TAY AND DIENER The Effects of Needs on SWB Correlations and Hierarchical Regressions of Needs and SWB Table 2 presents the zero-order correlations for the world and eight cultural regions among the six universal needs, log-income, and three SWB variables. An analysis of relative importance was conducted to assess the proportional contribution of each need to the variance accounted for in predicting SWB (Grömping, 2006). The relative weights shown in Table 3 take into account dependence on the order of entry in the regression by averaging over all possible orders (Kruskal, 1987). The rows in Table 3 present the Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual and Societal Data Measure Individuals Countries M SD M SD SWB Life evaluation 5.59 2.10 5.57 1.07 Positive feelings 0.75 0.36 0.74 0.09 Negative feelings 0.21 0.28 0.21 0.05 Needs Basic 0.67 0.47 0.66 0.21 Safety 0.53 0.50 0.54 0.15 Social 0.62 0.48 0.62 0.15 Respect 0.61 0.49 0.61 0.13 Mastery 0.49 0.50 0.48 0.13 Autonomy 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.14 Log household income 3.85 0.63 3.89 0.49 Note. SWB  subjective well-being. Table 2 Zero-Order Correlations of Needs and Subjective Well-Being for the World and Cultural Regions Region Measure Basic Safety Social Respect Mastery Autonomy Log income Life evaluation World (N  60,854) 0.31 0.08 0.18 0.11 0.15 0.12 0.40 Africa (N 

citchat

Last Update: 2015-03-15
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APA maksud percubaan

Last Update: 2014-11-29
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chitchat translate PART III INITIAL REGISTRATION OF TITLES Division 1 — Bringing land under the Act on alienation Alienation by State 8. —(1) Where at any time, whether before or after 1st March 1994, the State alienates or has alienated — (a) an estate in fee simple; (b) an estate in perpetuity; or (c) a leasehold estate, in any land, the Collector shall furnish to the Registrar such particulars of the alienation in such manner as may be required by the Registrar to enable the Registrar to bring the land under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more folios for that land. [25/2001] (2) Any land brought under the provisions of this Act under subsection (1) shall be held subject to such exceptions, reservations, covenants and conditions expressed or implied by law in the relevant State title. (3) Pending the issue of a State title, the land brought under the provisions of this Act under this section shall be held subject to such exceptions, reservations, covenants and conditions expressed or implied by law in the State title executed in escrow by the grantee or lessee of the land. (4) Where any land has been brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to any certificate issued by the Collector before 1st March 1994, the Collector shall upon the issue of the relevant State title deliver the full particulars of the State title to the Registrar who shall create a new edition of the relevant folio or make necessary alterations to the land-register to show the particulars of the State title and the boundaries and dimensions of the land and indicate whether the boundaries and dimensions are conclusive. Surrender and reissue of title to land 9. —(1) Where the President agrees to accept the surrender of the title to land (whether registered or unregistered, and whether of the same or different tenure), for the reissue of one or more fresh State titles of one type of tenure, the President may accept the surrender of title to land, subject to all or any of the following: (a) any subsisting mortgage with the consent of the mortgagee, the Collector, and the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be; (b) any subsisting statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or any caveat notified under this Act or registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269) with the consent of the Collector, and the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be. (2) Upon the acceptance by the President under subsection (1), the surrender may be lodged with the Registry of Deeds or Land Titles Registry, as the case may be. (3) The fresh State title or titles in respect of the whole or part of the land surrendered may be issued by the President only when the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be, has notified the Collector that the surrender has been finally registered. (4) Upon the creation of one or more folios for the land, the Registrar shall, where applicable, notify any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in subsection (1)(a) and (b), and cancel the previously existing folio or folios for the land. (5) Any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in subsection (4) and notified on one or more folios for the land comprised in the fresh State title or titles issued by the President shall be deemed to be registered or notified against the estate and interest of the proprietor of land in whose name such folio or folios are issued. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] 10. [Repealed by Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] 11. [Repealed by Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Restriction on registration or notification of assurance, instrument or caveat pending issue of fresh State title 12. After the surrender of the title to land is lodged with the Registry of Deeds or the Land Titles Registry, as the case may be, under section 9, and pending the issuance of a fresh State title or titles by the President — (a) except for a discharge of a statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or a withdrawal of a subsisting caveat registered under the Registration of Deeds Act — (i) no assurance or caveat in respect of the unregistered land surrendered shall be capable of being registered under the provisions of that Act; and (ii) where such assurance or caveat has been registered, the Registrar of Deeds shall have the power to cancel the registration of such assurance or caveat and any entries relating thereto from the records kept by the Registry of Deeds; and (b) except for a discharge of a statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or an extension or withdrawal of a subsisting caveat notified under this Act — (i) no dealing or caveat in respect of the registered land surrendered shall be capable of being registered or notified under the provisions of this Act; and (ii) where such dealing or caveat has been registered or notified, the Registrar shall have the power to cancel the registration or notification of such dealing or caveat and any entries relating thereto from the records kept by the Land Titles Registry. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Collector to furnish Registrar with particulars of fresh State title 13. —(1) Where at the time of the lodgment of any surrender of the title to land under section 9, the land is subject to any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat, the fresh State title or titles to be issued by the President under section 9 shall be endorsed with a statement by the Collector that the fresh State title or titles are subject to such subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in that section. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Upon the issue of the fresh State title by the President for the land surrendered under section 9, the Collector shall furnish to the Registrar such particulars of the fresh State title in such manner as may be required by the Registrar to enable the Registrar — (a) to bring the land under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more new folios for the land; and (b) to notify the subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat on the relevant folio or folios and, where applicable, cancel the previously existing folio or folios for the land. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (3) Section 27(5) and (6) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the mortgage, statutory charge or caveat notified on the relevant folio under subsection (2). Power of Registrar of Deeds to refuse registration of assurances 14. Where an assurance which requires the prior written consent of either the Collector or the Registrar or both of them, as the case may be, has been made without the endorsement of his or their written consent thereon — (a) the Registrar of Deeds shall not accept that assurance for registration or, in the case where that assurance has been registered under the provisions of the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269), shall cancel the registration of that assurance and any entries relating thereto; and (b) the Collector shall disregard that assurance and may issue one or more fresh State titles as if that assurance had not been made. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Application of section 8 15. —(1) Section 8(2) and (3) shall apply to any land brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to the issue of fresh State title after the surrender of an existing title. [25/2001] [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Section 8(4) shall apply to any land brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to the surrender of an existing title and the issue of a certificate by the Collector before 1st March 1994. Registrar to make an entry on folio as to conclusiveness of boundaries, etc. 16. —(1) Where any land alienated by the President is brought under the provisions of this Act and a folio has been created for the land, the Registrar shall — (a) where the boundaries and dimensions as shown in the plan filed with and approved by the Chief Surveyor are inconclusive, make an entry in the folio to show — (i) that the boundaries and dimensions are inconclusive; and (ii) the reference number of the plan; or (b) where in the plan filed with and approved by the Chief Surveyor the boundaries and dimensions have been approved as conclusive, make an entry in the folio of the reference number of the plan. (2) Where the Registrar has entered a caution on the folio created for the land as to the inconclusiveness of its boundaries and dimensions under subsection (1), he shall cancel that caution when the boundaries and dimensions shown in the plan filed with the Chief Surveyor have been approved as conclusive by the Chief Surveyor. (3) Upon the cancellation of the caution referred to in subsection (2), the Registrar shall make the appropriate entry on the folio as to the conclusiveness of the boundaries and dimensions. Priority of interests protected by caveats, mortgages and statutory charges registered or notified on land-register 17. —(1) Where any land has been surrendered to the President under section 9, with subsisting mortgages, statutory charges and caveats registered or notified on the land-register, the priority of these mortgages, statutory charges and caveats shall be determined as follows: (a) the priority for caveats lodged under section 115 and notified in the land-register shall be determined in accordance with section 119; and (b) the priority for mortgages, statutory charges or caveats (including those registered under the Registration of Deeds Act and subsequently notified on the folio or folios when created) shall be determined in accordance with section 48. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Where any instrument (including a mortgage, statutory charge or caveat) was materially amended pending its final registration or notification in the land-register, as the case may be, section 48(2) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the determination of its priority in accordance with this section. (3) The respective priorities of mortgages, statutory charges and caveats as determined in subsection (1) shall apply only to those mortgages, statutory charges and caveats which were subsisting at the date of surrender and have not been discharged, withdrawn or cancelled at the date of the issue of fresh State title to the land or part thereof. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] Collector may refuse to accept surrender of title to land for reissue of title 18. The Collector may refuse to accept the surrender of any title to land for the reissue of title where he is satisfied that the proprietor or owner of the land intended for surrender has not complied with any existing law or the lawful requirements of any Government authority. Division 2 — Applications and schemes to bring land under this Act Bringing lands under this Act 19. —(1) Unregistered land of whatever tenure may be brought under the provisions of this Act upon any primary application or at the instance of the Registrar in accordance with this Division. [25/2001] (2) The Registrar may bring unregistered land under the provisions of this Act by the creation of one or more folios for the land which shall be either qualified or unqualified as to title, and shall notify on the folio, in such manner as to preserve their priority, such particulars as the Registrar thinks fit of all subsisting mortgages or other encumbrances to which the land is subject at the time of bringing the land under the provisions of this Act. [25/2001] (3) Any folio, qualified or unqualified as to title, created under this Division for any land may, if the circumstances so require, be qualified as to the boundaries and dimensions of the land, and section 165 shall apply with such modifications as are necessary to that land. [25/2001] Primary applications 20. —(1) A person entitled to bring unregistered land under the provisions of this Act may lodge a primary application with the Registrar to bring the land under this Act together with any deed, conveyance or instrument affecting the land. [25/2001] (2) The following persons shall be entitled to have unregistered land brought under the provisions of this Act: (a) the person claiming to be the owner (either at law or in equity) or persons who collectively claim to be the owners (either at law or in equity) of the fee simple, an estate in perpetuity or leasehold estate; or (b) trustees for the sale of the fee simple, an estate in perpetuity or leasehold estate where the application to bring the land under the provisions of this Act has been consented to by a majority in number of persons required to give that consent. [25/2001] (3) A primary application to bring land under the provisions of this Act shall — (a) be in the approved form; and (b) be accompanied by such documents of title or other evidence as the Registrar may require, including but not limited to a statutory declaration (in a form acceptable to the Registrar) executed by an applicant who is unable to produce any such documents of title or other evidence to substantiate his claim or from any person connected with the loss of those documents. [25/2001] (4) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a mortgagor is not entitled to apply to bring land under the provisions of this Act unless the mortgagee consents to the primary application. [25/2001] (5) Unless expressly prohibited by the terms of its memorandum of association, constitution, charter, limited liability partnership agreement or other constituting document, as the case may be, a corporation (whether sole or aggregate) or a limited liability partnership shall be deemed to have power to apply to the Registrar to bring land under the provisions of this Act. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (6) Any primary application under subsection (5) may be made — (a) on behalf of a corporation (other than a limited liability partnership), by its director, manager or secretary; or (b) on behalf of a limited liability partnership, by its partner or manager, or an attorney appointed in that behalf by the limited liability partnership, under its common seal in accordance with the memorandum of association, constitution, charter, limited liability partnership agreement or other constituting document, as the case may be. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (7) The Registrar may refer any primary application to any legally qualified person for investigation of and report on the applicant’s title. [25/2001] (8) On the creation of a folio for the land, the Registrar shall cancel — (a) all assurances lodged to support the primary application if the folio is unqualified as to title; or (b) in any other case, the last deed lodged with the Registry of Deeds prior to the creation of the folio. [25/2001] Unregistered land may be brought under this Act at instance of Registrar or on registration of conveyance 21. —(1) The Registrar may, if he thinks fit, bring under the provisions of this Act any unregistered land comprised in any conveyance registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269). [25/2001] (2) If the Registrar intends to bring any unregistered land under the provisions of this Act in accordance with subsection (1), the Registrar shall — (a) give notice of his intention to do so to the owner of the land (as shown from the records in the Registry of Deeds); and (b) require the owner to produce for cancellation, within the time specified in the notice, his documents of title or any other evidence substantiating his ownership of the land. [25/2001] (3) Where the owner of the land fails, neglects or refuses to comply with the notice under subsection (2), the Registrar shall insert a notice in one or more local daily newspapers circulating in Singapore stating the Registrar’s intention to bring the unregistered land under the provisions of this Act, including particulars of the owner of the land as shown from the records in the Registry of Deeds or such other particulars as the Registrar may in his discretion deem appropriate. [25/2001] (4) After the Registrar has given notice under subsection (2) or (3), as the case may be, he shall bring the land specified in the notice under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more folios for that land. [25/2001] (5) Where a person entitled to the unregistered land does not or is unable to produce the documents of title or any other evidence substantiating his claim, the Registrar may, in his discretion, issue a certificate of title to that person if a statutory declaration (in a form acceptable to the Registrar) has been executed by that person, his successor in title, his mortgagee or any person who has possession or control of the documents of title, and produced to the Registrar for his inspection and, if the Registrar so requires, retention. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (6) On registering a conveyance in accordance with section 7(2) of the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269), the Registrar of Deeds shall forward the conveyance to the Registrar who may, if he thinks fit, bring the land comprised in the conveyance under the provisions of this Act. [25/2001] (7) The Registrar shall cancel the last deed pertaining to any land brought under the provisions of this Act in accordance with this section. [25/2001] Land may be brought under this Act upon subdivision 22. —(1) Where permission has been granted to develop or subdivide any unregistered land, the owner is not entitled to deal with the land or any part thereof whether under the Registration of Deeds Act or under this Act, unless the entire parcel is brought under the provisions of this Act in accordance with Division 1 or this Division. [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Registrar of Deeds may register any assurance of the land or part thereof under the Registration of Deeds Act where the Registrar has issued to the owner a certificate exempting the land from the application of subsection (1). [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (3) Subject to subsection (4), subsection (2) shall not apply to unregistered land where permission for the subdivision of any building erected thereon was previously granted and an assurance of part of that subdivided building was registered under the Registration of Deeds Act before 15th May 1968. [25/2001] (4) Where the whole of the estate in an unregistered land referred to in subsection (3) comprising the subdivided building has wholly become vested or subsequently vests in the same proprietor at any time on or after 15th May 1968, subsection (2) shall apply to that unregistered land. [25/2001] In whose name title to issue 23. —(1) A folio created under this Division shall be in the name of — (a) the person who in accordance with the documents lodged is entitled to be registered as the proprietor of the fee simple, estate in perpetuity or leasehold estate in land; or [Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014] (b) the person who in accordance with the documents lodged is entitled to be registered as the proprietor of the equity of redemption if conversion is based on the delivery of a document which is a conveyance of the land by way of mortgage. [25/2001] (2) If before a folio is created, the person who is entitled to be recorded as the registered proprietor on the folio dies, the folio may be created recording the deceased person as the registered proprietor as if the folio was created before the person died. [25/2001] Mortgages and leases 24. —(1) Where land has been brought under the provisions of this Act by the creation of a folio (whether qualified or unqualified as to title), any subsisting mortgage registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269) in respect of land comprised in the folio shall, when notified on the folio, be deemed to be a mortgage registered under the provisions of this Act and the provisions of this Act applicable to registered mortgages shall apply to that mortgage. [25/2001] (2) Any

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