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Naghahanap sa itaas

Last Update: 2015-01-14
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

 Mothers ) are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child, supplying their ovum for fertilization, or some combination thereof. Such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women who meet the third and first categories usually fall under the terms 'birth mother' or 'biological mother', regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, and those who meet only the third a surrogacy mother. The above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive, nor universal as any definition of 'mother' may differ based on how social, cultural, and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. It should also be noted that mother and fatherhood are not limited to those who are or have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less readily applied to fathers or adoptive parents. Etymology The modern English word is from Middle English moder, from Old English mōdor, from Proto-Germanic mōdēr, from Proto-Indo-European méh₂tēr . Other cognates include Latin māter, Greek μήτηρ, Common Slavic mati, Persian مادر, and Sanskrit मातृ . Biological mother Biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum . Typically a fetus develops from the viable zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus until the fetus is sufficiently developed to be born. In humans, gestation is often around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth. This

Ako ay natulog ng maaga

Last Update: 2015-02-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Johnderick22

act of lascivioThe crimes of Rape and Acts of Lasciviousness are very different from each other. Firstly, the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness is classified as a crime against chastity under Title Eleven of the Revised Penal Code. On the other hand, Rape, by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 8353 otherwise known as the Anti-Rape Law of 1997, is classified as a crime against persons. Secondly, the elements of these crimes are distinct from each other. In order that there be a crime of Rape, it must be shown that it was committed: (1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation; b) When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c) By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d) When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present; or (2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person (Article 266-A, Revised Penal Code (RPC) as amended). In contrast, the elements of the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness are: (1) the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness against the offended party who is another person of either sex; (2) that it is done: (a) by using force or intimidation; (b) by deprivation of reason or consciousness; or (c) when the offended party is under 12 years of age, even though neither of the circumstances mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs shall be present (Article 336, RPC). Applying the foregoing, it is only possible for your friend to file a criminal complaint for Rape against the person who has sexually assaulted her if the aforestated elements for the crime of Rape are present. A contrario, a complaint for Rape may not be entertained or may even be dismissed, notwithstanding the same has been filed before the proper authorities, if any of the mentioned elements is lacking. Nevertheless, a complaint for Acts of Lasciviousness may stand if she can establish that the elements provided under Article 336 of the RPC transpired during the time she was assailed sexually. We hope that we were able to answer your queries. Please be reminded that this advice is based solely on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. Our opinion may vary when other facts are changed or elaboratedusness

The crimes of Rape and Acts of Lasciviousness are very different from each other. Firstly, the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness is classified as a crime against chastity under Title Eleven of the Revised Penal Code. On the other hand, Rape, by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 8353 otherwise known as the Anti-Rape Law of 1997, is classified as a crime against persons. Secondly, the elements of these crimes are distinct from each other. In order that there be a crime of Rape, it must be shown that it was committed: (1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation; b) When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c) By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d) When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present; or (2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person (Article 266-A, Revised Penal Code (RPC) as amended). In contrast, the elements of the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness are: (1) the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness against the offended party who is another person of either sex; (2) that it is done: (a) by using force or intimidation; (b) by deprivation of reason or consciousness; or (c) when the offended party is under 12 years of age, even though neither of the circumstances mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs shall be present (Article 336, RPC). Applying the foregoing, it is only possible for your friend to file a criminal complaint for Rape against the person who has sexually assaulted her if the aforestated elements for the crime of Rape are present. A contrario, a complaint for Rape may not be entertained or may even be dismissed, notwithstanding the same has been filed before the proper authorities, if any of the mentioned elements is lacking. Nevertheless, a complaint for Acts of Lasciviousness may stand if she can establish that the elements provided under Article 336 of the RPC transpired during the time she was assailed sexually. We hope that we were able to answer your queries. Please be reminded that this advice is based solely on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. Our opinion may vary when other facts are changed or elaborated

Last Update: 2015-02-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

act of lascivioThe crimes of Rape and Acts of Lasciviousness are very different from each other. Firstly, the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness is classified as a crime against chastity under Title Eleven of the Revised Penal Code. On the other hand, Rape, by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 8353 otherwise known as the Anti-Rape Law of 1997, is classified as a crime against persons. Secondly, the elements of these crimes are distinct from each other. In order that there be a crime of Rape, it must be shown that it was committed: (1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation; b) When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c) By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d) When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present; or (2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person (Article 266-A, Revised Penal Code (RPC) as amended). In contrast, the elements of the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness are: (1) the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness against the offended party who is another person of either sex; (2) that it is done: (a) by using force or intimidation; (b) by deprivation of reason or consciousness; or (c) when the offended party is under 12 years of age, even though neither of the circumstances mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs shall be present (Article 336, RPC). Applying the foregoing, it is only possible for your friend to file a criminal complaint for Rape against the person who has sexually assaulted her if the aforestated elements for the crime of Rape are present. A contrario, a complaint for Rape may not be entertained or may even be dismissed, notwithstanding the same has been filed before the proper authorities, if any of the mentioned elements is lacking. Nevertheless, a complaint for Acts of Lasciviousness may stand if she can establish that the elements provided under Article 336 of the RPC transpired during the time she was assailed sexually. We hope that we were able to answer your queries. Please be reminded that this advice is based solely on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. Our opinion may vary when other facts are changed or elaboratedusness

batas ng lasciviousness

Last Update: 2015-02-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

In the late 1960's, uncle' Pope Paul VI, priests, nuns and seminarians, particularly in Latin America, Africa and the MAHARLIKA, began teaching socialism, known as the 'Liberation Theology'. Because of close diplomatic ties between the Vatican and Communist Russia from 1917 to 1979, the Communists succeeded in attracting sympathizers and followers from among the Roman clergy and hierarchy. In 1962, Pope John XXIII, through French Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, signed the "Vatican-Moscow Agreement" stipulating, among other things, that the Roman Catholic Church would not denounce the errors of Communism. In Italy, a Roman Catholic country, communism was legalized. The Vatican, heavily infiltrated by Masons and Communists, spread its new theology that was a blend of Marxism and Christianity. The generous funding from the "SINDONA--MARCINKLIS—CALVI—P2 LODGE" partnership encouraged subversive catholic movements to disrupt and destabilize the governments in countries where the Vatican had abundance of "blind followers." in the Third World countries, the rich and the government often oppress the poor who constitute the larger portion of the populace. Class struggle ensues, oftentimes, both classes using violence. Countless seminarians, nuns and priests left the security of their convents and gave teach-ins, distributed subversive materials, marched on the streets, rallied and demonstrated in front of government offices and many, tragically, went to the mountains and joined the militant armed struggle. Some of them were killed during encounters with government forces. All this idealism and sacrifice by "sincere and dedicated" people was inspired by the Roman Catholic Church seemingly to bring justice and relief to the SUFFERING POOR of the Maharlika, putting all the blame on the government. What unwitting pawns to a FOREIGN POWER, the VATICAN CHURCH, still obsessed • in playing the oldest game in the world called DOMINATION! "Financial grants, often through religious organizations, sympathetic with left wing insurrections, meant the involvement, even if tangently, of the Vatican Bank whose financial bulk derives from deposits of religious organizations. Hence Catholic priests, being involved in actual armed insurrections in Latin America, the Philippines and Poland would automatically have spelled the potential traffic of clandestine sales of arms and, therefore, the involvement of shady banking concerns such as the mysterious 'shell' companies of the 10R, and as a result, indirectly of the Vatican itself." 1 If the Vatican indeed shed tears over the sufferings of the Filipino people, they were nothing but crocodile tears. As boldly exposed throughout this book, it was the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH that for 500 years perpetrated injustice, oppression and exploitation on the Filipino people. It LORDED OVER them with unequalled banditry and thievery. It coveted their wealth, trampled their dignity and messed up their future. Is it any wonder, then, that those countries .that for centuries were "evangelized," colonized and ravaged like young maidens by the Roman Catholic Spain and Portugal, have dramatically evolved into unjust societies and poverty stricken nations? After the tractors and chainsaws of greedy and irresponsible loggers have gone through virgin forests,. what do we see? Eroded mountains, swollen rivers and flooded valleys! When the TWO SWORDS OF POPE BONIFACE VIII were brought here by the Spanish conquistadors, they "raped" the spiritual, cultural and psychological identity of the people in the Maharlika Islands for 500 years. The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH left to the Filipinos nothing but a desolate economy, a desolate society, a desolate system of worship, a desolate self-image and a desolate spirit. As a Third World country today, the Filipinos were transformed by this Church to the wretched status of beggars, knocking at the doors of affluent nations for measly morsels of food, used clothes (sold as `ukay-ukay') and other amenities. Thanks, but no thanks, to the Roman Catholic Church with its 'Liberation Theology'. The Roman Catholic Church's preaching on the Liberation Theology was supposed to redeem downtrodden Filipinos from poverty and oppression caused by the 'unjust and oppressive Marcos dictatorship and his monies'. The ills of this country during the Marcos regime were not all caused by him. He merely inherited those same ills that were "inflicted by the Roman Catholic Church during the 333 years of lease to Spain for so much 'pound of flesh' by Pope Leo X. And even when this country‘ celebrated its 100 years of independence from Spain (the LESSEE), Filipinos are still dependent on the Vatican (the LESSOR) as evidenced by the manipulation of the country by the Roman Catholic Church's leftist indoctrination in the 70's and 80's. The Liberation Theology gospel spread fast, far and wide among the multitude of BLIND FOLLOWERES, THE ROMANO CATOLICO SARADO that still comprise the majority of the Filipinos today. If the Roman Catholic Church really meant what it taught in its Liberation Theology, this is what it should have done. Instead of just making the suffering poor aware of their miserable conditions (they called this "conscientization") and organizing them to put pressure on the rich ('class struggle') to distribute its wealth, this new theology should have first acknowledged, confessed and apologized that it was this Roman Catholic Church that put them in this pitiful condition in the first place. Say "mea culpa"! Second, it should have rehabilitated the psychologically damaged Filipinos much like a traumatized child before a psychiatrist. The offender (Roman Catholic Church) should have rehabilitated the victim (Filipino people) by promising to make amends. Third, this church, as an example to the rich, should have dug from its overflowing treasure chests and distributed its enormous surplus wealth to the poor, thereby empowering them to start a new and dignified life. This should have been true restitution by the Roman Catholic Church after its 500 years of plunder and exploitation of the Maharlika. THIS SHOULD HAVE BEEN A TRUE AND SINCERE LIBERATION THEOLOGY. It is liberating to the Roman Catholic Church that confesses its sins and makes amends for them. It is liberating as well to the poor, victimized Filipinos who will benefit from the honesty of that church. Instead, what the Roman Catholic Church does today is to give a small share from its overflowing coffers to help the poor and drumbeat the rich to give to its charitable programs. A perfect example in Manila is seen everyday on television. A plea is heard showing street children and scavengers in the garbage dumps and asking generous souls to give to CARITAS. This program belongs to the billionaire Archdiocese of Manila and the announcer belongs to one of the super, super rich religious Roman Catholic congregations in the world. Liberation Theology achieved its goal to topple the Marcos dictatorship, perceived as the root cause of the miseries of the Filipino people. But now after twenty years, the condition of the "oppressed poor" in the Maharlika has not changed. Instead, it has worsened by a millionfold. And the Roman Catholic Church until now is still mouthing its Liberation Theology refrain: "preferential option for the poor" and "solidarity with the poor." Until now a lot of Filipinos brainwashed with this Liberation Theology are on the mountains fighting and running for their survival, kill or be killed. The Modern Vatican Covets The Maharlika In the early 1930's, Europe was in a depression and Germany was financially bankrupt. An unknown party leader promised the German people that he could create jobs and boost its economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolph Hitler. In June 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic, signed a concordat for mutual protection and enhancement. Shortly after that, Hitler was loaded with money. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons for war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918, there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany. Throughout the Spanish occupation of the Maharlika„ members of the Tagean/Tallano clan have been visiting Europe since some of their relatives were English and Austrian. From 1866 to 1898, Prince -Julian 'Macleod Tallano had also been frequenting the Vatican. In 1934 under Pope Pius XII, the Vatican negotiated with a member of the Filipino Royal Family, the Christian Tallano clan in the Maharlika. An agreement was reached that 640,000 metric tons of the Tallano gold would be lent to the Pope. This was part of that gold accumulated by the Southeast Asian Srivijayan/Madjapahit Empire during its glorious reign of 900 years. In 1939, two members of the Tallano family and a Roman Catholic priest, Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, brought the gold from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, to the Vatican.2 After doing this, Fr. Diaz went back to the Maharlika and resided in Cabanatuan City. After World War II, he facilitated the safe return of the 640,000 metric tons of gold from the Vatican to the Maharlika. Manuel Acuna Roxas (a relative of the Acuna/Tageanfrallano clan), then a congressman and Bishop Enrique Sobrepena, Sr, in the presence of Atty. Lorenzo Tanada received the gold in Manila. A lease agreement was made between the Tallano clan and the Maharlika government. A total of 617,500 metric tons of gold was deposited in the newly installed Central Bank of the Maharlika to comply with its requirement for GOLD RESERVE. Under the terms of the contract, the Central Bank became the HOLDER of that gold. That lease agreement will expire in the year 2005.3 Having gained the trust and confidence of Fr. Diaz, the Tallano clan made him the main negotiator and trustee of their gold. Fr. Diaz, in turn, hired the services of Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos, then a highly recommended brilliant young lawyer having attained notoriety when he successfully defended himself in the "Naiundasan Case" in 1939. The Tallano clan paid commission to Fr. Diaz and Atty. Marcos in gold, 30% from the principal of 640,000 metric tons.4 In 1949, the two richest men in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Between the two of them they legitimately earned and owned 192,000 metric tons of gold. Ferdinand Marcos withdrew their share of the gold from the Central Bank and minted it "RP-CD." Sometime later, Fr. Diaz and Marcos brought their gold to Switzerland, in the Swiss Bank Corporation in Zurich. The remaining 400,000 metric tons of 1 Tallano gold is in the third floor basement of the Central Bank Minting Plant in East Ave., Quezon City. There are 950,000 metric tons of gold (declared missing in the International court of Justice) picked up by Yamashita from its European ally, Hitler. Another 250,000 tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Maharlika. This country then became the holder of 1.6 million metric tons of gold bars. Some of the Yamashita gold buried in the Maharlika has been found. But the bulk of it is still buried to this day. And even now, thousands are secretly digging for it, including Japanese treasure hunters. The World Street Journal in its November 15, 1985 issue wrote that two thirds of all the gold in the world is in the Maharlika. One third is divided among the rest of the countries in the world. Very few Filipinos know this. When Marcos took over the government in 1965, the Maharlika had a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. In 1986, when the Americans forcibly brought Marcos to Hawaii, President Aquino inherited a foreign debt of US$24 billion. But, of these, US$7 billion was incurred by the private sector. At his ouster, Marcos left US$2.5 billion in the Central Bank reserve. This means that Pres. Marcos during his 20 years of absolute rule only incurred a measly US$1 billion foreign debt to build up this nation with its fast growing population and numerous infrastructure projects. How did President Marcos manage this government financially? Aside from the annual national budget of P35 billion financed by the national treasury, he had all this gold at his disposal for building the infrastructure projects that today stand unequaled to all the four succeeding presidents. Today, this country has a foreign debt of around US$75 billion. From 1986 to 2000, the government under three presidents incurred a debt of US$51 billion on top of its original US$24 billion — in just 14 years! In the 1997 Philippine Yearbook (National Statistics Office) a Summary of Government Expenditures from 1966 to 1997 was made. From 1965-1986 (20 years) President Marcos spent P486, 273 Billion From 1986-1991 (6 years) President Aquino spent P1, 077,895 Trillion. From 1992-1997 (6 years) President Ramos spent P2, 237,907 Trillion. Between May 14 to June 5, 2003, a nationwide survey report conducted and administered by Asia Pacific Periscope put out this question: "Among our Presidents, who do you think had done most for the country?" The results were: Marcos 41%, Magsaysay 15%, Aquino 6%, Ramos 6%, Estrada 4%, Arroyo 2%, Quezon 0.3%, Quirino 0.3% and 22% could not give any name. Margin of error was +1- 2.7%. When Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana, died in 1974 all that 30% commission in gold became the legendary "MARCOS GOLD." After providing for his family in Marcos' Letter of Instruction, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. This was the "MARCOS WEALTH" that some politicians and churchmen kept on saying was the "ILL-GOTTEN" Marcos wealth that until today is in "Marcos secret accounts." On April 9, 1973 Marcos said: "My earthly goods have been placed in the custody and for the disposition of the Marcos Foundation dedicated to the welfare of the Filipino people." The Demolition Campaign In the 70's and 80's, "blood money" from the Roman Catholic Church, channeled into the Maharlika via the Vatican Bank and another foreign power, fueled the flames of dissension in the countryside and on the streets of Manila. A concerted church and foreign civil destabilization and demolition campaign was waged against Marcos. All that gold in the hands of one man like Marcos was a threat to those who have been used for so long with so much' money and power. Marcos became too powerful and would not tow the line of the two established power in the world, the VATICAN and the TRILATERAL COMMISSION (U.S.A.—GERMANY--JAPAN). But Marcos was no lap dog (lute') to any foreign power. In 1966, during President Marcos' First State Visit to the U.S.A., he renegotiated the Military Bases Agreement (MBA) of March 14, 1947. He refused to compromise the nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity and successfully negotiated the reduction of the Military Base Agreement lease, which was supposed to end in 2046 to just 25 more years — ending in 1991, instead of 2046. This made the USA angry. When the USA recognized Maharlika sovereignty over the military bases on January 7, 1979, President Marcos called it "the final liberation of the Philippines." Most significantly, the U.S. Ambassador Richard W. Murphy in • his letter to the Maharlika Minister for Foreign Affairs, Carlos P. Romulo, dated January 7, 1979 said: "Only the Philippine flag shall be flown singly at the Bases. The United States flag together with the Philippine flag that shall at all times occupy the place of honor, may be displayed within buildings anti other indoor sites on United States facilities and in front of headquarters of the United States Commanders and upon coordination with the Philippine Base Commanders for appropriate outdoor ceremonies such as military honors and parades on the facilities." In his grand plan, Marcos wanted to re-establish the former grandeur of the Maharlika and the whole region of Southeast Asia, the former Malayan Empire. In June 1983, Marcos appeared before the First World leaders in Toronto. He announced his plan to boost the economy of the Southeast Asian region by creating the ASIAN DOLLAR. This would be backed up by the 400,000 metric tons of gold in the Central Bank of the Maharlika and the other gold he scattered around the region. He would also add to this his own Personal 192,000 metric tons in Switzerland. his Asian Dollar, backed up by the "two thirds of all the gold in the World" that was in the Maharlika, would have made the Maharlika money more valuable and stronger than the American dollar. This was his vision to raise Southeast Asia to be at par with the rest of the First World countries. The very next day James Baker, the head of the C.I.A., replaced Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State. Subsequently, an intensified demolition job on Marcos and the destruction of his party were ingeniously planned and carried out. Two months later, on August 21, 1983 Senator Ninoy Aquino was assassinated at the Manila International Airport. The blame was placed on Marcos. To this day the assassination of Ninoy Aquino has not yet been solved. It has to be kept this way because solving it would open a Pandora's box and reveal skeletons in the closet of many prominent people very close to Ninoy Aquino who are still enjoying the high esteem of the public today. The Coup De Grace: EDSA Revolution A year and a half later, on December 26, 1984, the "CORY CONSTITUTION" was formulated. This was the first coup d'etat ever planned in the modern history of the Maharlika. The document was entitled: DECLARATION OF UNITY. It says: "WHEREAS it has become the imperative &Ay for all who oppose the Marcos regime to join forces to restore the freedom and sovereignty of the Filipino people and thereafter to reconstruct the national economy and improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, starting with the poor, the voiceless and the oppressed, and WHEREAS we believe that the foregoing objectives can best be attained by implementing the following values, principles and convictions which we all share.' There are eight points in the Cory Constitution. Point 6 says: "Belief in a Pluralistic Society. The new leadership will respect and protect freedom of expression and the right to disseminate all philosophies and non-violent programs. It trusts the capacity of the people to choose freely what is best for the nation, and will honor the choice of the people even if it differs from theirs. The Communist Party of the Philippines will be legalized. In order to remove obstacles to national unity, the new leadership will take steps, immediately upon assumption of office, to address all legitimate grievances of all who have resorted to armed struggle." Point 8.1 says: The new leadership commits itself to eliminate the social cancer of graft and corruption, public or private..." Point 8.3 says: "...(Marcos') Ill-gotten wealth, , property and assets shall be confiscated..." In conclusion, the CORY CONSTITUTION says. 'Therefore, we sign these presents to solemnly affirm our commitment to the foregoing values. principles and convictions and to signify our resolve to exhaust all means to unify all parties, organizations and fortes in opposition to the Marcos regime." Signed in Quezon City by: 1. Agapito "Butz" Aquino, 2. Jose W. Diokno, 3. Teofisto Guingona, 4. Eva Estrada Kalaw, 5. Salvador H. Laurel, 6. Raul S. Manglapus, 7. Ramon Mitra, Jr.. 8. Ambrosio Padilla, 9. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., 10. Rafael Sales, 11. Jovito Salonga. Signed by the conveyor group are: 1. Corazon C. Aquino, 2. Jaime V. Ongpin, 3. Lorenzo M. Tanada. U.S. Senator Paul Laxalt, in his article that appeared in the U.S. magazine Policy Review (1986) entitled "My Conversations with Ferdinand Marcos", said: "It appears from what I read in the papers that she (Cory Aquino) made a serious strategic mistake in releasing the

fulltext

Last Update: 2015-01-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

The culture of Thailand incorporates cultural beliefs and characteristics indigenous to the area known as modern-day Thailand coupled with much influence from ancient China, Cambodia, Laos, India along with the neighboring pre-historic cultures of Southeast Asia.[1] It is influenced primarily by animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, as well as by later migrations from China, and northern India. Contents 1 Religion 2 Customs 2.1 Traditional clothing 3 Marriage 4 Birth traditions and beliefs 5 Funerals 6 Arts 7 Holidays 8 Sports 9 Traditional Games of Thailand 9.1 Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit) 9.2 Banana rib hobbyhorse riding 10 Nicknames 11 See also 12 Notes and references 13 External links Religion Buddhist novices receiving joss sticks. Main article: Religion in Thailand Thailand is nearly 94%-95% Theravada Buddhist (which includes the Thai Forest Tradition and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya and Santi Asoke sects), with minorities of Muslims (5-6%), Christians (1%), Mahayana Buddhists, and other religions.[2] Thai Theravada Buddhism is supported and overseen by the government, with monks receiving a number of government benefits, such as free use of the public transportation infrastructure. Buddhism in Thailand is strongly influenced by traditional beliefs regarding ancestral and natural spirits, which have been incorporated into Buddhist cosmology. Most Thai people own spirit houses, miniature wooden houses in which they believe household spirits live. They present offerings of food and drink to these spirits to keep them happy. If these spirits aren't happy, it is believed that they will inhabit the larger household of the Thai, and cause chaos. These spirit houses can be found in public places and in the streets of Thailand, where the public make offerings.[3] Prior to the rise of Theravada Buddhism, both Indian Brahmanic religion and Mahayana Buddhism were present in Thailand. Influences from both these traditions can still be seen in present day Thai folklore. Brahmanist shrines play an important role in Thai folk religion, and the Mahayana Buddhist influence is reflected in the presence of figures like Lokesvara, a form of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara sometimes incorporated into Thailand's iconography.[4][5] Customs See also: Thai folklore Thai greeting, the smile is an important symbol of refinement in Thai culture. The traditional customs and the folklore of Thai people were gathered and described by Phya Anuman Rajadhon in the 20th century, at a time when modernity changed the face of Thailand and a great number of traditions disappeared or became adapted to modern life. Still, the striving towards refinement, rooted in ancient Siamese culture, consisting of promoting that which is refined and avoiding coarseness is a major focus of the daily life of Thai people and high on their scale of values.[6] One of the most distinctive Thai customs is the wai. Used in greetings, leave-taking, or as an acknowledgement, it comes in many forms, reflecting the relative status of those involved. Generally the salutation involves a prayer-like gesture with the hands, similar to the Añjali Mudrā of the Indian subcontinent, and it also may include a slight bow of the head. This salutation is often accompanied by a serene smile symbolizing a welcoming disposition and a pleasant attitude. Thailand is often referred to as the "land of smiles" in tourist brochures. Public displays of affection is not overly common in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers.[7] It is becoming more common, especially among the younger generation. A notable social norm holds that touching someone on the head may be considered rude. It is also considered rude to place one's feet at a level above someone else's head, especially if that person is of higher social standing. This is because the Thai people consider the foot to be the dirtiest and lowliest part of the body, and the head the most respected and highest part of the body. This also influences how Thais sit when on the ground—their feet always pointing away from others, tucked to the side or behind them. Pointing at or touching something with the feet is also considered rude. Display of respect of the younger towards the elder is a cornerstone value in Thailand. A family during the Buddhist ceremony for young men who are to be ordained as monks. Since serene detachment is valued, conflict and sudden displays of anger are eschewed in Thai culture and, as is many Asian cultures, the notion of face is extremely important. For these reasons, visitors should take care not to create conflict, to display anger or to cause a Thai person to lose face. Disagreements or disputes should be handled with a smile and no attempt should be made to assign blame to another. In everyday life in Thailand, there is a strong emphasis on the concept of sanuk; the idea that life should be fun. Because of this, Thais can be quite playful at work and during day-to-day activities. Displaying positive emotions in social interactions is also important in Thai culture. Often, Thais will deal with disagreements, minor mistakes, or misfortunes by using the phrase mai pen rai, translated as "it doesn't matter". The ubiquitous use of this phrase in Thailand reflects a disposition towards minimizing conflict, disagreements or complaints. A smile and the sentence "mai pen rai" indicates that the incident is not important and therefore there is no conflict or shame involved. Respect for hierarchy is a very important value for Thai people. The custom of bun khun emphasizes the indebtedness towards parents, as well as towards guardians, teachers, and caretakers. It describes the feelings and practices involved in certain relationships organized around generalized reciprocity, the slow-acting accounting of an exchange calculated according to locally interpreted scales and measures.[8] It is also considered rude to step on any type of Thai currency (Thai coin or banknote) as they include a likeness of the king. The 1941-42 Thai cultural mandates, promulgated by Plaek Pibulsonggram, made sweeping changes in Thai culture. Modernization efforts discouraged the wearing of women's traditional costumes, in favour of more modern forms of dress . There are a number of Thai customs relating to the special status of monks in Thai society. Thai monks are forbidden physical contact with women. Women are therefore expected to make way for passing monks to ensure that accidental contact does not occur. A variety of methods are employed to ensure that no incidental contact (or the appearance of such contact) between women and monks occurs. Women making offerings to monks place their donation at the feet of the monk, or on a cloth laid on the ground or a table. Powders or unguents intended to carry a blessing are applied to Thai women by monks using the end of a candle or stick. Laypersons are expected to sit or stand with their heads at a lower level than that of a monk. Within a temple, monks may sit on a raised platform during ceremonies to make this easier to achieve. When sitting in a temple, one is expected to point one's feet away from images of the Buddha. Shrines inside Thai residences are arranged so as to ensure that the feet are not pointed towards the religious icons, such as placing the shrine on the same wall as the head of a bed, if a house is too small to remove the shrine from the bedroom entirely. It is also customary to remove one's footwear before entering a home or the sacred areas within a temple, and not to step on the threshold. Traditional clothing A woman wearing a chut Thai Main article: Chut thai Traditional Thai clothing is called chut thai (Thai: ชุดไทย Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj]) which literally means "Thai outfit". It can be worn by men, women, and children. Chut thai for women usually consists of a pha nung or a chong kraben, a blouse, and a sabai. Northern and northeastern women may wear a sinh instead of a pha nung and a chong kraben with either a blouse or a suea pat. Chut thai for men includes a chong kraben or pants, a Raj pattern shirt, with optional knee-length white socks and a sabai. Chut thai for northern Thai men is composed of a sado, a white Manchu styled jacket, and sometimes a khian hua. In formal occasions, people may choose to wear a chut thai phraratchaniyom. Marriage A traditional wedding in Thailand. Main article: Thai marriage Thai Buddhist marriage ceremonies are generally divided into two parts: a Buddhist component, which includes the recitation of prayers and the offering of food and other gifts to monks and images of the Buddha, and a non-Buddhist component rooted in folk traditions, which centers on the couple's families. In former times, it was unknown for Buddhist monks to be present at any stage of the marriage ceremony itself. As monks were required to attend to the dead during funerals, their presence at a marriage (which was associated with fertility, and intended to produce children) was considered a bad omen. A couple would seek a blessing from their local temple before or after being married, and might consult a monk for astrological advice in setting an auspicious date for the wedding. The non-Buddhist portions of the wedding would take place away from the temple, and would often take place on a separate day. In modern times, these prohibitions have been significantly relaxed. It is not uncommon for a visit to a temple to be made on the same day as the non-Buddhist portions of a wedding, or even for the wedding to take place within the temple. While a division is still commonly observed between the "religious" and "secular" portions of a wedding service, it may be as simple as the monks present for the Buddhist ceremony departing to take lunch once their role is complete. During the Buddhist component of the wedding service, the couple first bow before the image of the Buddha. They then recite certain basic Buddhist prayers or chants (typically including taking the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts), and light incense and candles before the image. The parents of the couple may then be called upon to "connect" them, by placing upon the heads of the bride and groom twin loops of string or thread that link the couple together. The couple may then make offerings of food, flowers, and medicine to the monks present. Cash gifts (usually placed in an envelope) may also be presented to the temple at this time. The monks may then unwind a small length of thread that is held between the hands of the assembled monks. They begin a series of recitations of Pali scriptures intended to bring merit and blessings to the new couple. The string terminates with the lead monk, who may connect it to a container of water that will be "sanctified" for the ceremony. Merit is said to travel through the string and be conveyed to the water. A similar arrangement is used to transfer merit to the dead at a funeral, further evidence of the weakening of the taboo on mixing funerary imagery and trappings with marriage ceremonies. Blessed water may be mixed with wax drippings from a candle lit before the Buddha image and other unguents and herbs to create a paste that is then applied to the foreheads of the bride and groom to create a small dot, similar to the marking made with red ochre on Hindu devotees. The bride's mark is created with the butt end of the candle rather than the monk's thumb, in keeping with the Vinaya prohibition against touching women. The highest-ranking monk present may elect to say a few words to the couple, offering advice or encouragement. The couple may then make offerings of food to the monks, at which point the Buddhist portion of the ceremony is concluded. The Thai dowry system is known as the sin sodt Thai: สินสอด. Traditionally, the groom will be expected to pay a sum of money to the family, to compensate them and to demonstrate that the groom is financially capable of taking care of their daughter. Sometimes, this sum is purely symbolic, and will be returned to the bride and groom after the wedding has taken place. The religious component of marriage ceremonies between Thai Muslims are markedly different from that described above. The Imam of the local mosque, the groom, the father of the bride, men in the immediate family, and important men in the community sit in a circle during the ceremony, conducted by the Imam. All the women, including the bride, sit in a separate room and do not have any direct participation in the ceremony. The secular component of the ceremony, however, is often nearly identical to the secular part of Thai Buddhist wedding ceremonies. The only notable difference here is the type of meat served to guests (goat and/or beef instead of pork). Thai Muslims frequently, though not always, also follow the conventions of the Thai dowry system. Birth traditions and beliefs Main article: Birth in Thailand Traditional principles concerning pregnancy and childbirth are largely influenced by folk beliefs, especially in rural areas of central and north Thailand. Modern practices follow the Western medical model. Funerals See also: Funeral (Buddhism) Funeral pyre of Chan Kusalo, the patriarch-abbot of northern Thailand. Traditionally, funerals last for at least one week. Crying is discouraged during the funeral, so as not to worry the spirit of the deceased. Many activities surrounding the funeral are intended to make merit for the deceased. Copies of Buddhist scriptures may be printed and distributed in the name of the deceased, and gifts are usually given to a local temple. Monks are invited to chant prayers that are intended to provide merit for the deceased, as well as to provide protection against the possibility of the dead relative returning as a malicious spirit. A picture of the deceased from his/her best days will often be displayed next to the coffin. Often, a thread is connected to the corpse or coffin which is held by the chanting monks during their recitation; this thread is intended to transfer the merit of the monks' recitation to the deceased. The corpse is cremated, and the urn with the ash is usually kept in a chedi in the local temple. Thai Chinese and Thai Muslim minorities bury their deceased according to the rituals of their respective communities. Arts A depiction of a white elephant in 19th century Thai art. Main articles: Thai art and Music of Thailand Thai visual arts were traditionally Buddhist. Thai Buddha images from different periods have a number of distinctive styles. Thai temple art and architecture evolved from a number of sources, one of them being Khmer architecture. Contemporary Thai art often combines traditional Thai elements with modern techniques. Literature in Thailand is heavily influenced by Indian Hindu culture. The most notable works of Thai literature are a version of the Ramayana, a Hindu religious epic, called the Ramakien, written in part by Kings Rama I and Rama II, and the poetry of Sunthorn Phu. There is no tradition of spoken drama in Thailand, the role instead being filled by Thai dance. This is divided into three categories: khon, lakhon, and likay, khon being the most elaborate and likay the most popular. Nang drama, a form of shadow play, is found in the south. The music of Thailand includes classical and folk music traditions, e.g., piphat and mor lam, respectively) as well as string or pop music. Holidays Main article: Public holidays in Thailand Important holidays in Thai culture include Thai New Year, or Songkran, which is officially observed from 13–15 April each year. Falling at the end of the dry season and during the hot season in Thailand, the celebrations notoriously feature boisterous water throwing. The water throwing stemmed from washing Buddha images and lightly sprinkling scented water on the hands of elderly people. Small amounts of scented talcum powder were also used in the annual cleansing rite. In recent decades, water fights have been increasingly industrialised with use of hoses, barrels, squirt guns, water-filled surgical tubing, and copious amounts of powder. Loi Krathong is held on the 12th full moon of the Thai lunar calendar, usually early-November. While not a government-observed holiday, it is nonetheless an auspicious day in Thai culture, in which Thai people "loi", meaning "to float" a "krathong", a small raft traditionally made from elaborately folded banana leaves and including flowers, candles, incense sticks, and small offerings. The act of floating away the candle raft is symbolic of letting go of all one's grudges, anger, and defilements so that one can start life afresh on a better footing. Sports Thai boxing is the indigenous national sport in Thailand.[citation needed] Football is perhaps the most-watched sport. The English Premier League is surprisingly popular.[citation needed] Traditional Games of Thailand Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit) “Kratai Kha Deow” or “One Legged Rabbit” is one type of catch game. The catcher will call the rabbit, and the rabbit must stand on one leg and jump or tiptoe to catch the other players and switch to rabbit instead. This game will exercise your legs and practice balancing on one leg. The number of players are divided into two teams, or may not have a team at all. Normally, there are two or more players. At the first time, the player will select the rabbit or team by “Rock-Paper-Scissors”. The loser would have to be a rabbit. In the case of solo player, the rabbit must stand on one leg, then jump to chase and touch any part of the body of other children who have run away. Everyone must stay within the designated area. A player who runs out of space loses the game and must be switched to rabbit, but if the rabbit is exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, it was that defeated and must be punished. In team play, the rules are similar to the solo player, but the rabbit team will send a representative to catch the other team to all the people. Those arrested will have to wait outside until the rabbit team can catch all of the rival teams. Rabbit team can switch to teammates to catch on until they are exhausted, and if the all of the members in rabbit team are exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, the rabbit team lose the game and must be punished too. Banana rib hobbyhorse riding Banana rib hobbyhorse riding or "Khee Ma Khan Kluay" in Thai is a traditional game of Thailand that Thai kids frequently played in the past. They use a banana rib to make the parts of a horse such as head, ear, and horsetail. The kids can make a horse on their own by using banana rib from banana trees irrelevant. This game makes kids enjoy their imagination by assume themselves as a rider, and an exercise. That is a local traditional which is the kids can spent time together. The materials for making a banana rib hobbyhorse are banana rib, knife, small bamboo pin, and string. First, find a rib of a banana around 1.5 is long (1 meter = 2 wa). Cut it in a form of the head, neck, and ears then use a small bamboo pin to connect the ear to the head of a horse. The remaining part of a banana rib, becomes a horsetail. Attach a string between the head and the tail of this banana rib horse and place on the shoulder of the rider. How to play banana rib hobbyhorse riding. Kids will sit on the horse and behave like they are riding a real horse shouting ‘hee hee’ or ‘yee haaah’(making the usual sounds people shout when controlling their horses). They may race with other friends if they have player more than 2 players. Which team runs faster, will be the winner or continuously ride around a wide open space and have fun. Nicknames See also: Thai names Thai people universally have one, or occasionally more, short nicknames (Thai: ชื่อเล่น name-play) that they use with friends a

nilalaman

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fairy tale stHigh above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince. He was gilded all over with thin leaves of fine gold, for eyes he had two bright sapphires, and a large red ruby glowed on his sword-hilt. He was very much admired indeed.'He is as beautiful as a weathercock,' remarked one of the Town Councillors who wished to gain a reputation for having artistic taste; 'only not quite so useful,' he added, fearing lest people should think him unpractical, which he really was not. 'Why can't you be like the Happy Prince?' asked a sensible mother of her little boy who was crying for the moon. 'The Happy Prince never dreams of crying for anything.' 'I am glad there is some one in the world who is quite happy', muttered a disappointed man as he gazed at the wonderful statue. 'He looks just like an angel,' said the Charity Children as they came out of the cathedral in their bright scarlet cloaks, and their clean white pinafores. 'How do you know?' said the Mathematical Master, 'you have never seen one.' 'Ah! but we have, in our dreams,' answered the children; and the Mathematical Master frowned and looked very severe, for he did not approve of children dreaming. One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His friends had gone away to Egypt six weeks before, but he had stayed behind, for he was in love with the most beautiful Reed. He had met her early in the spring as he was flying down the river after a big yellow moth, and had been so attracted by her slender waist that he had stopped to talk to her. 'Shall I love you said the Swallow', who liked to come to the point at once, and the Reed made him a low bow. So he flew round and round her, touching the water with his wings, and making silver ripples. This was his courtship, and it lasted all through the summer. 'It is a ridiculous attachment,' twittered the other Swallows, 'she has no money, and far too many relations;' and indeed the river was quite full of Reeds. Then, when the autumn came, they all flew away. After they had gone he felt lonely, and began to tire of his lady-love. 'She has no conversation,' he said, 'and I am afraid that she is a coquette, for she is always flirting with the wind.' And certainly, whenever the wind blew, the Reed made the most graceful curtsies. I admit that she is domestic,' he continued, 'but I love travelling, and my wife, consequently, should love travelling also.' 'Will you come away with me?' he said finally to her; but the Reed shook her head, she was so attached to her home. 'You have been trifling with me,' he cried, 'I am off to the Pyramids. Good-bye!' and he flew away. All day long he flew, and at night-time he arrived at the city. 'Where shall I put up?' he said 'I hope the town has made preparations.' Then he saw the statue on the tall column. 'I will put up there,' he cried; 'it is a fine position with plenty of fresh air.' So he alighted just between the feet of the Happy Prince. 'I have a golden bedroom,' he said softly to himself as he looked round, and he prepared to go to sleep; but just as he was putting his head under his wing, a large drop of water fell on him.'What a curious thing!' he cried, 'there is not a single cloud in the sky, the stars are quite clear and bright, and yet it is raining. The climate in the north of Europe is really dreadful. The Reed used to like the rain, but that was merely her selfishness.' Then another drop fell. 'What is the use of a statue if it cannot keep the rain off?' he said; 'I must look for a good chimney-pot,' and he determined to fly away. But before he had opened his wings, a third drop fell, and he looked up, and saw - Ah! what did he see? The eyes of the Happy Prince were filled with tears, and tears were running down his golden cheeks. His face was so beautiful in the moonlight that the little Swallow was filled with pity. 'Who are you?' he said. 'I am the Happy Prince.' 'Why are you weeping then?' asked the Swallow; 'you have quite drenched me.' 'When I was alive and had a human heart,' answered the statue, 'I did not know what tears were, for I lived in the Palace of Sans-Souci where sorrow is not allowed to enter. In the daytime I played with my companions in the garden, and in the evening I led the dance in the Great Hall. Round the garden ran a very lofty wall, but I never cared to ask what lay beyond it, everything about me was so beautiful. My courtiers called me the Happy Prince, and happy indeed I was, if pleasure be happiness. So I lived, and so I died. And now that I am dead they have set me up here so high that I can see all the ugliness and all the misery of my city, and though my heart is made of lead yet I cannot choose but weep.' 'What, is he not solid gold?' said the Swallow to himself. He was too polite to make any personal remarks out loud. 'Far away,' continued the statue in a low musical voice,'far away in a little street there is a poor house. One of the windows is open, and through it I can see a woman seated at a table. Her face is thin and worn, and she has coarse, red hands, all pricked by the needle, for she is a seamstress. She is embroidering passion-fowers on a satin gown for the loveliest of the Queen's maids-of-honour to wear at the next Court-ball. In a bed in the corner of the room her little boy is lying ill. He has a fever, and is asking for oranges. His mother has nothing to give him but river water, so he is crying. Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow, will you not bring her the ruby out of my sword-hilt? My feet are fastened to this pedestal and I cannot move.' 'I am waited for in Egypt,' said the Swallow. 'My friends are flying up and down the Nile, and talking to the large lotus flowers. Soon they will go to sleep in the tomb of the great King. The King is there himself in his painted coffin. He is wrapped in yellow linen, and embalmed with spices. Round his neck is a chain of pale green jade, and his hands are like withered leaves.' 'Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,' said the Prince,'will you not stay with me for one night, and be my messenger? The boy is so thirsty, and the mother so sad. 'I don't think I like boys,' answered the Swallow. 'Last summer, when I was staying on the river, there were two rude boys, the miller's sons, who were always throwing stones at me. They never hit me, of course; we swallows fly far too well for that, and besides, I come of a family famous for its agility; but still, it was a mark of disrespect.' But the Happy Prince looked so sad that the little Swallow was sorry. 'It is very cold here,' he said 'but I will stay with you for one night, and be your messenger.' 'Thank you, little Swallow,' said the Prince. So the Swallow picked out the great ruby from the Prince's sword, and flew away with it in his beak over the roofs of the town. He passed by the cathedral tower, where the white marble angels were sculptured. He passed by the palace and heard the sound of dancing. A beautiful girl came out on the balcony with her lover. 'How wonderful the stars are,' he said to her,'and how wonderful is the power of love!' 'I hope my dress will be ready in time for the State-ball,' she answered; 'I have ordered passion-flowers to be embroidered on it; but the seamstresses are so lazy.' He passed over the river, and saw the lanterns hanging to the masts of the ships. He passed over the Ghetto, and saw the old Jews bargaining with each other, and weighing out money in copper scales. At last he came to the poor house and looked in. The boy was tossing feverishly on his bed, and the mother had fallen asleep, she was so tired. In he hopped, and laid the great ruby on the table beside the woman's thimble. Then he flew gently round the bed, fanning the boy's forehead with his wings. 'How cool I feel,' said the boy, 'I must be getting better;' and he sank into a delicious slumber. Then the Swallow flew back to the Happy Prince, and told him what he had done. 'It is curious,' he remarked, 'but I feel quite warm now, although it is so cold.' 'That is because you have done a good action,' said the Prince. And the little Swallow began to think, and then he fell asleep. Thinking always made him sleepy. When day broke he flew down to the river and had a bath. 'What a remarkable phenomenon,' said the Professor of Omithology as he was passing over the bridge. 'A swallow in winter!' And he wrote a long letter about it to the local newspaper. Every one quoted it, it was full of so many words that they could not understand. 'To-night I go to Egypt,' said the Swallow, and he was in high spirits at the prospect. He visited all the public monuments, and sat a long time on top of the church steeple. Wherever he went the Sparrows chirruped, and said to each other, 'What a distinguished stranger!' so he enjoyed himself very much. When the moon rose he flew back to the Happy Prince. 'Have you any commissions for Egypt?' he cried; 'I am just starting.' 'Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,' said the Prince, 'will you not stay with me one night longer?' 'I am waited for in Egypt,' answered the Swallow. To-morrow my friends will fly up to the Second Cataract. The river-horse couches there among the bulrushes, and on a great granite throne sits the God Memnon. All night long he watches the stars, and when the morning star shines he utters one cry of joy, and then he is silent. At noon the yellow lions come down to the water's edge to drink. They have eyes like green beryls, and their roar is louder than the roar of the cataract.' 'Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,' said the Prince,'far away across the city I see a young man in a garret. He is leaning over a desk covered with papers, and in a tumbler by his side there is a bunch of withered violets. His hair is brown and crisp, and his lips are red as a pomegranate, and he has large and dreamy eyes. He is trying to finish a play for the Director of the Theatre, but he is too cold to write any more. There is no fire in the grate, and hunger has made him faint.' 'I will wait with you one night longer,' said the Swallow, who really had a good heart. 'Shall I take him another ruby?' 'Alas! I have no ruby now,' said the Prince; 'my eyes are all that I have left. They are made of rare sapphires, which were brought out of India a thousand years ago. Pluck out one of them and take it to him. He will sell it to the jeweller, and buy food and firewood, and finish his play.' 'Dear Prince,' said the Swallow,'I cannot do that;' and he began to weep. 'Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,' said the Prince, 'do as I command you.' So the Swallow plucked out the Prince's eye, and flew away to the student's garret. It was easy enough to get in, as there was a hole in the roof. Through this he darted, and came into the room. The young man had his head buried in his hands, so he did not hear the flutter of the bird's wings, and when he looked up he found the beautiful sapphire lying on the withered violets. 'I am beginning to be appreciated,' he cried; 'this is from some great admirer. Now I can finish my play,' and he looked quite happy. The next day the Swallow flew down to the harbour. He sat on the mast of a large vessel and watched the sailors hauling big chests out of the hold with ropes. 'Heave a-hoy!' they shouted as each chest came up. 'I am going to Egypt!' cried the Swallow, but nobody minded, and when the moon rose he flew back to the Happy Prince. 'I am come to bid you good-bye,' he cried. 'Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,' said the Prince,'will you not stay with me one night longer?' 'It is winter,' answered the Swallow, and the chill snow will soon be here. In Egypt the sun is warm on the green palm-trees, and the crocodiles lie in the mud and look lazily about them. My companions are building a nest in the Temple of Baalbec, and the pink and white doves are watching them, and cooing to each other. Dear Prince, I must leave you, but I will never forget you, and next spring I will bring you back two beautiful jewels in place of those you have given away. The ruby shall be redder than a red rose, and the sapphire shall be as blue as the great sea. 'In the square below,' said the Happy Prince, 'there stands a little match-girl. She has let her matches fall in the gutter, and they are all spoiled. Her father will beat her if she does not bring home some money, and she is crying. She has no shoes or stockings, and her little head is bare. Pluck out my other eye, and give it to her, and her father will not beat her. 'I will stay with you one night longer,' said the Swallow,'but I cannot pluck out your eye. You would be quite blind then.' 'Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,' said the Prince, 'do as I command you.' So he plucked out the Prince's other eye, and darted down with it. He swooped past the match-girl, and slipped the jewel into the palm of her hand. 'What a lovely bit of glass,' cried the little girl; and she ran home, laughing. Then the Swallow came back to the Prince. 'You are blind now,' he said, 'so I will stay with you always.' 'No, little Swallow,' said the poor Prince, 'you must go away to Egypt.' 'I will stay with you always,' said the Swallow, and he slept at the Prince's feet. All the next day he sat on the Prince's shoulder, and told him stories of what he had seen in strange lands. He told him of the red ibises, who stand in long rows on the banks of the Nile, and catch gold fish in their beaks; of the Sphinx, who is as old as the world itself, and lives in the desert, and knows everything; of the merchants, who walk slowly by the side of their camels, and carry amber beads in their hands; of the King of the Mountains of the Moon, who is as black as ebony, and worships a large crystal; of the great green snake that sleeps in a palm-tree, and has twenty priests to feed it with honey-cakes; and of the pygmies who sail over a big lake on large flat leaves, and are always at war with the butterflies. 'Dear little Swallow,' said the Prince, 'you tell me of marvellous things, but more marvellous than anything is the suffering of men and of women. There is no Mystery so great as Misery. Fly over my city, little Swallow, and tell me what you see there.' So the Swallow flew over the great city, and saw the rich making merry in their beautiful houses, while the beggars were sitting at the gates. He flew into dark lanes, and saw the white faces of starving children looking out listlessly at the black streets. Under the archway of a bridge two little boys were lying in one another's arms to try and keep themselves warm. 'How hungry we are' they said. 'You must not lie here,' shouted the Watchman, and they wandered out into the rain. Then he flew back and told the Prince what he had seen. 'I am covered with fine gold,' said the Prince, 'you must take it off, leaf by leaf, and give it to my poor; the living always think that gold can make them happy.' Leaf after leaf of the fine gold the Swallow picked off, till the Happy Prince looked quite dull and grey. Leaf after leaf of the fine gold he brought to the poor, and the children's faces grew rosier, and they laughed and played games in the street. 'We have bread nod' they cried. Then the snow came, and after the snow came the frost. The streets looked as if they were made of silver, they were so bright and glistening; long icicles like crystal daggers hung down from the eaves of the houses, everybody went about in furs, and the little boys wore scarlet caps and skated on the ice. The poor little Swallow grew colder and colder, but he would not leave the Prince, he loved him too well. He picked up crumbs outside the baker's door when the baker was not looking, and tried to keep himself warm by flapping his wings. But at last he knew that he was going to die. He had just strength to fly up to the Prince's shoulder once more.'Good-bye, dear Prince!' he murmured, 'will you let me kiss your hand?' 'I am glad that you are going to Egypt at last, little Swallow,' said the Prince, 'you have stayed too long here; but you must kiss me on the lips, for I love you.' 'It is not to Egypt that I am going,' said the Swallow. I am going to the House of Death. Death is the brother of Sleep, is he not?' And he kissed the Happy Prince on the lips, and fell down dead at his feet. At that moment a curious crack sounded inside the statue, as if something had broken. The fact is that the leaden heart had snapped right in two. It certainly was a dreadfully hard frost. Early the next morning the Mayor was walking in the square below in company with the Town Councillors. As they passed the column he looked up at the statue: 'Dear me! how shabby the Happy Prince looks!' he said. 'How shabby indeed!' cried the Town Councillors, who always agreed with the Mayor, and they went up to look at it. 'The ruby has fallen out of his sword, his eyes are gone, and he is golden no longer,' said the Mayor; 'in fact, he is little better than a beggar!' 'Little better than a beggar,' said the Town Councillors. 'And there is actually a dead bird at his feet,' continued the Mayor. 'We must really issue a proclamation that birds are not to be allowed to die here.' And the Town Clerk made a note of the suggestion. So they pulled down the statue of the Happy Prince. 'As he is no longer beautiful he is no longer useful,' said the Art Professor at the University. Then they melted the statue in a furnace, and the Mayor held a meeting of the Corporation to decide what was to be done with the metal. 'We must have another statue, of course,' he said, 'and it shall be a statue of myself.' 'Of myself,' said each of the Town Councillors, and they quarrelled. When I last heard of them they were quarrelling still. 'What a strange thing!' said the overseer of the workmen at the foundry.'This broken lead heart will not melt in the furnace. We must throw it away.' So they threw it on a dust-heap where the dead Swallow was also lying. 'Bring me the two most precious things in the city,' said God to one of His Angels; and the Angel brought Him the leaden heart and the dead bird. 'You have rightly chosen,' said God,'for in my garden of Paradise this little bird shall sing for evermore, and in my city of gold the Happy Prince shall praise me.'ories

mga kuwento Fairy kuwento

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budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011) s example

What is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011)

Last Update: 2015-01-13
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011) s example

namumuko halaman halimbawa

Last Update: 2015-01-13
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You ask me how much i love you You ask me how much I love you Ah, lovely inquisitive lips! You would want to fathom the ocean And scale the infinite blue sky above us. Shall I count the sands on the seashore; Or pick the numberless stars of heaven Like some sweet woodland blossoms? Ask then the bold eagle of the air If he could soar the ends of the distances. Or the worm of the ground if it could crawl Down to the very core of the earth. Read! read the answers in my eyes And In the quirverless muteness of my lips... For there are things that are priceless And would be told only the silence!

Wikipedia

Last Update: 2014-11-19
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Radioactive decay will change one nucleus to another if the product nucleus has a greater nuclear binding energy than the initial decaying nucleus. The difference in binding energy (comparing the before and after states) determines which decays are energetically possible and which are not. The excess binding energy appears as kinetic energy or rest mass energy of the decay products. The Chart of the Nuclides, part of which is shown above is a plot of nuclei as a function of proton number, Z, and neutron number, N. All stable nuclei and known radioactive nuclei, both naturally occurring and manmade, are shown on this chart, along with their decay properties. Nuclei with an excess of protons or neutrons in comparison with the stable nuclei will decay toward the stable nuclei by changing protons into neutrons or neutrons into protons, or else by shedding neutrons or protons either singly or in combination. Nuclei are also unstable if they are excited, that is, not in their lowest energy states. In this case the nucleus can decay by getting rid of its excess energy without changing Z or N by emitting a gamma ray. Nuclear decay processes must satisfy several conservation laws, meaning that the value of the conserved quantity after the decay, taking into account all the decay products, must equal the same quantity evaluated for the nucleus before the decay. Conserved quantities include total energy (including mass), electric charge, linear and angular momentum, number of nucleons, and lepton number (sum of the number of electrons, neutrinos, positrons and antineutrinos–with antiparticles counting as -1).

Datilero

Last Update: 2014-11-06
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A F F I D A V I T O F L O S S I, RODEL V. BAUTISTA, Filipino, of legal age, married and a resident of M.Pagkalinawan St. P-2 New Lower Bicutan Taguig City, after being duly sworn in accordance with law, depose and state: That I am the true and licensed owner of a one (1) unit PISTL 45 ARMSCOR M1911 FS GI firearm with Serial No. 1260668. That on JUNE 2014, I was surprised to see our gate open and when I went to close it, I discovered that my vehicle parked at our garage was also opened; I then discovered that my belt bag that I had left in the said vehicle was gone and with it are the above-mentioned firearm, several rounds of ammunition, the original copy of my License to carry the said firearm, some identification cards, and other important documents; That despite diligent search and efforts to locate said firearm, my belt bag and its aforementioned contents, I could not find the same such that I now believe that all the foregoing items were stolen and are now lost beyond recovery. As such, I am executing this Affidavit of Loss to attest to the truth of the foregoing. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this _____________ at _____________, Philippines.

naluging kumpanya

Last Update: 2014-10-31
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