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Plato was born around the year 428 BCE in Athens. His father died while Plato was young, and his mother remarried to Pyrilampes, in whose house Plato would grow up. Plato's birth name was Aristocles, and he gained the nickname Platon, meaning broad, because of his broad build. His family had a history in politics, and Plato was destined to a life in keeping with this history. He studied at a gymnasium owned by Dionysios, and at the palaistra of Ariston of Argos. When he was young he studied music and poetry. According to Aristotle, Plato developed the foundations of his metaphysics and epistemology by studying the doctrines of Cratylus, and the work of Pythagoras and Parmenides. When Plato met Socrates, however, he had met his definitive teacher. As Socrates' disciple, Plato adopted his philosophy and style of debate, and directed his studies toward the question of virtue and the formation of a noble character.
Plato was in military service from 409 BC to 404 BC. When the Peloponnesian War ended in 404 BC he joined the Athenian oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants, one of whose leaders was his uncle Charmides. The violence of this group quickly prompted Plato to leave it. In 403 BC, when democracy was restored in Athens, he had hopes of pursuing his original goal of a political career. Socrates' execution in 399 BC had a profound effect on Plato, and was perhaps the final event that would convince him to leave Athenian politics forever.
Plato left Attica along with other friends of Socrates and traveled for the next twelve years. To all accounts it appears that he left Athens with Euclides for Megara, then went to visit Theodorus in Cyrene, moved on to study with the Pythagoreans in Italy, and finally to Egypt. During this period he studied the philosophy of his contemporaries, geometry, geology, astronomy and religion.
After 399 BC Plato began to write extensively. It is still up for debate whether he was writing before Socrates' death, and the order in which he wrote his major texts is also uncertain. However, most scholars agree to divide Plato's major work into three distinct groups. The first of these is known as the Socratic Dialogues because of how close he stays within the text to Socrates' teachings. They were probably written during the years of his travels between 399 and 387 BC. One of the texts in this group called the Apology seems to have been written shortly after Socrates' death. Other texts relegated to this group include the Crito, Laches, Lysis, Charmides, Euthyphro, and Hippias Minor and Major.
Plato returned to Athens in 387 BC and, on land that had once belonged to Academos, he founded a school of learning which he called the Academy. Plato's school is often described at the first European university. Its curriculum offered subjects including astronomy, biology, mathematics, political theory, and philosophy. Plato hoped the Academy would provide a place where thinkers could work toward better government in the Grecian cities. He would preside over the Academy until his death.
The period from 387 to 361 BC is often called Plato's "middle" or transitional period. It is thought that he may have written the Meno, Euthydemus, Menexenus, Cratylus, Repuglic, Phaedrus, Syposium and Phaedo during this time. The major difference between these texts and his earlier works is that he tends toward grander metaphysical themes and begins to establish his own voice in philosophy. Socrates still has a presence, however, sometimes as a fictional character. In the Meno for example Plato writes of the Socratic idea that no one knowingly does wrong, and adds the new doctrine of recollection questioning whether virtue can be taught. In the Phaedo we are introduced to the Platonic doctrine of the Forms, in which Plato makes claims as to the immortality of the human soul. The middle dialogues also reveal Plato's method of hypothesis.
Plato's most influential work, The Republic, is also a part of his middle dialogues. It is a discussion of the virtues of justice, courage, wisdom, and moderation, of the individual and in society. It works with the central question of how to live a good life, asking what an ideal State would be like, and what defines a just individual. These lead to more questions regarding the education of citizens, how government should be formed, the nature of the soul, and the afterlife. The dialogue finishes by reviewing various forms of government and describing the ideal state, where only philosophers are fit to rule. The Republic covers almost every aspect of Plato's thought.
In 367 BC Plato was invited to be the personal tutor to Dionysus II, the new ruler of Syracuse. Plato accepted the invitation, but found on his arrival that the situation was not conducive for philosophy. He continued to teach the young ruler until 365 BC when Syracuse entered into war. Plato returned to Athens, and it was around this time that Plato's famous pupil Aristotle began to study at the Academy. In 361 BC Plato returned to Syracuse in response to a letter from Dion, the uncle and guardian of Dionysus II, begging him to come back. However, finding the situation even more unpleasant than his first visit, he returned to Athens almost as fast as he had come.
Back at the Academy, Plato probably spent the rest of his life writing and conversing. The way he ran the Academy and his ideas of what constitutes an educated individual have been a major influence to education theory. His work has also been influential in the areas of logic and legal philosophy. His beliefs on the importance of mathematics in education has had a lasting influence on the subject, and his insistence on accurate definitions and clear hypotheses formed the foundations for Euclid's system of mathematics.
His final years at the Academy may be the years when he wrote the "Later" dialogues, including the Parmenides, Theatetus, Sophist,Statesmas,Timaeus,Critias,Philebus, and Laws. Socrates has been delegated a minor role in these texts. Plato uses these dialogues to take a closer look at his earlier metaphysical speculations. He discusses art, including dance, music, poetry, architecture and drama, and ethics in regards to immortality, the mind, and Realism. He also works with the philosophy of mathematics, politics and religion, covering such specifics as censorship, atheism, and pantheism. In the area of epistemology he discusses a priori knowledge and Rationalism. In his theory of Forms, Plato suggests that the world of ideas is constant and true, opposing it to the world we perceive through our senses, which is deceptive and changeable.
In 347 Plato died, leaving the Academy to his sister's son Speusippus. The Academy remained a model for institutions of higher learning until it was closed, in 529 CE, by the Emperor Justinian.
In the late 1960's, uncle' Pope Paul VI, priests, nuns and seminarians, particularly in Latin America, Africa and the MAHARLIKA, began teaching socialism, known as the 'Liberation Theology'. Because of close diplomatic ties between the Vatican and Communist Russia from 1917 to 1979, the Communists succeeded in attracting sympathizers and followers from among the Roman clergy and hierarchy. In 1962, Pope John XXIII, through French Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, signed the "Vatican-Moscow Agreement" stipulating, among other things, that the Roman Catholic Church would not denounce the errors of Communism. In Italy, a Roman Catholic country, communism was legalized.
The Vatican, heavily infiltrated by Masons and Communists, spread its new theology that was a blend of Marxism and Christianity. The generous funding from the "SINDONA--MARCINKLIS—CALVI—P2 LODGE" partnership encouraged subversive catholic movements to disrupt and destabilize the governments in countries where the Vatican had abundance of "blind followers." in the Third World countries, the rich and the government often oppress the poor who constitute the larger portion of the populace. Class struggle ensues, oftentimes, both classes using violence.
Countless seminarians, nuns and priests left the security of their convents and gave teach-ins, distributed subversive materials, marched on the streets, rallied and demonstrated in front of government offices and many, tragically, went to the mountains and joined the militant armed struggle. Some of them were killed during encounters with government forces.
All this idealism and sacrifice by "sincere and dedicated" people was inspired by the Roman Catholic Church seemingly to bring justice and relief to the SUFFERING POOR of the Maharlika, putting all the blame on the government. What unwitting pawns to a FOREIGN POWER, the VATICAN CHURCH, still obsessed • in playing the oldest game in the world called DOMINATION!
"Financial grants, often through religious organizations, sympathetic with left wing insurrections, meant the involvement, even if tangently, of the Vatican Bank whose financial bulk derives from deposits of religious organizations. Hence Catholic priests, being involved in actual armed insurrections in Latin America, the Philippines and Poland would automatically have spelled the potential traffic of clandestine sales of arms and, therefore, the involvement of shady banking concerns such as the mysterious 'shell' companies of the 10R, and as a result, indirectly of the Vatican itself." 1
If the Vatican indeed shed tears over the sufferings of the Filipino people, they were nothing but crocodile tears. As boldly exposed throughout this book, it was the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH that for 500 years perpetrated injustice, oppression and exploitation on the Filipino people. It LORDED OVER them with unequalled banditry and thievery. It coveted their wealth, trampled their dignity and messed up their future.
Is it any wonder, then, that those countries .that for centuries were "evangelized," colonized and ravaged like young maidens by the Roman Catholic Spain and Portugal, have dramatically evolved into unjust societies and poverty stricken nations?
After the tractors and chainsaws of greedy and irresponsible loggers have gone through virgin forests,. what do we see? Eroded mountains, swollen rivers and flooded valleys! When the TWO SWORDS OF POPE BONIFACE VIII were brought here by the Spanish conquistadors, they "raped" the spiritual, cultural and psychological identity of the people in the Maharlika Islands for 500 years. The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH left to the Filipinos nothing but a desolate economy, a desolate society, a desolate system of worship, a desolate self-image and a desolate spirit.
As a Third World country today, the Filipinos were transformed by this Church to the wretched status of beggars, knocking at the doors of affluent nations for measly morsels of food, used clothes (sold as `ukay-ukay') and other amenities. Thanks, but no thanks, to the Roman Catholic Church with its 'Liberation Theology'.
The Roman Catholic Church's preaching on the Liberation Theology was supposed to redeem downtrodden Filipinos from poverty and oppression caused by the 'unjust and oppressive Marcos dictatorship and his monies'. The ills of this country during the Marcos regime were not all caused by him. He merely inherited those same ills that were "inflicted by the Roman Catholic Church during the 333 years of lease to Spain for so much 'pound of flesh' by Pope Leo X. And even when this country‘ celebrated its 100 years of independence from Spain (the LESSEE), Filipinos are still dependent on the Vatican (the LESSOR) as evidenced by the manipulation of the country by the Roman Catholic Church's leftist indoctrination in the 70's and 80's. The Liberation Theology gospel spread fast, far and wide among the multitude of BLIND FOLLOWERES, THE ROMANO CATOLICO SARADO that still comprise the majority of the Filipinos today.
If the Roman Catholic Church really meant what it taught in its Liberation Theology, this is what it should have done. Instead of just making the suffering poor aware of their miserable conditions (they called this "conscientization") and organizing them to put pressure on the rich ('class struggle') to distribute its wealth, this new theology should have first acknowledged, confessed and apologized that it was this Roman Catholic Church that put them in this pitiful condition in the first place. Say "mea culpa"! Second, it should have rehabilitated the psychologically damaged Filipinos much like a traumatized child before a psychiatrist. The offender (Roman Catholic Church) should have rehabilitated the victim (Filipino people) by promising to make amends. Third, this church, as an example to the rich, should have dug from its overflowing treasure chests and distributed its enormous surplus wealth to the poor, thereby empowering them to start a new and dignified life. This should have been true restitution by the Roman Catholic Church after its 500 years of plunder and exploitation of the Maharlika.
THIS SHOULD HAVE BEEN A TRUE AND SINCERE LIBERATION THEOLOGY. It is liberating to the Roman Catholic Church that confesses its sins and makes amends for them. It is liberating as well to the poor, victimized Filipinos who will benefit from the honesty of that church.
Instead, what the Roman Catholic Church does today is to give a small share from its overflowing coffers to help the poor and drumbeat the rich to give to its charitable programs. A perfect example in Manila is seen everyday on television. A plea is heard showing street children and scavengers in the garbage dumps and asking generous souls to give to CARITAS. This program belongs to the billionaire Archdiocese of Manila and the announcer belongs to one of the super, super rich religious Roman Catholic congregations in the world.
Liberation Theology achieved its goal to topple the Marcos dictatorship, perceived as the root cause of the miseries of the Filipino people. But now after twenty years, the condition of the "oppressed poor" in the Maharlika has not changed. Instead, it has worsened by a millionfold. And the Roman Catholic Church until now is still mouthing its Liberation Theology refrain: "preferential option for the poor" and "solidarity with the poor." Until now a lot of Filipinos brainwashed with this Liberation Theology are on the mountains fighting and running for their survival, kill or be killed.
The Modern Vatican Covets The Maharlika
In the early 1930's, Europe was in a depression and Germany was financially bankrupt. An unknown party leader promised the German people that he could create jobs and boost its economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolph Hitler. In June 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic, signed a concordat for mutual protection and enhancement. Shortly after that, Hitler was loaded with money. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons for war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918, there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany. Throughout the Spanish occupation of the Maharlika„ members of the Tagean/Tallano clan have been visiting Europe since some of their relatives were English and Austrian. From 1866 to 1898, Prince -Julian 'Macleod Tallano had also been frequenting the Vatican. In 1934 under Pope Pius XII, the Vatican negotiated with a member of the Filipino Royal Family, the Christian Tallano clan in the Maharlika. An agreement was reached that 640,000 metric tons of the Tallano gold would be lent to the Pope. This was part of that gold accumulated by the Southeast Asian Srivijayan/Madjapahit Empire during its glorious reign of 900 years. In 1939, two members of the Tallano family and a Roman Catholic priest, Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, brought the gold from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, to the Vatican.2 After doing this, Fr. Diaz went back to the Maharlika and resided in Cabanatuan City. After World War II, he facilitated the safe return of the 640,000 metric tons of gold from the Vatican to the Maharlika. Manuel Acuna Roxas (a relative of the Acuna/Tageanfrallano clan), then a congressman and Bishop Enrique Sobrepena, Sr, in the presence of Atty. Lorenzo Tanada received the gold in Manila.
A lease agreement was made between the Tallano clan and the Maharlika government. A total of 617,500 metric tons of gold was deposited in the newly installed Central Bank of the Maharlika to comply with its requirement for GOLD RESERVE. Under the terms of the contract, the Central Bank became the HOLDER of that gold. That lease agreement will expire in the year 2005.3 Having gained the trust and confidence of Fr. Diaz, the Tallano clan made him the main negotiator and trustee of their gold. Fr. Diaz, in turn, hired the services of Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos, then a highly recommended brilliant young lawyer having attained notoriety when he successfully defended himself in the "Naiundasan Case" in 1939. The Tallano clan paid commission to Fr. Diaz and Atty. Marcos in gold, 30% from the principal of 640,000 metric tons.4
In 1949, the two richest men in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Between the two of them they legitimately earned and owned 192,000 metric tons of gold.
Ferdinand Marcos withdrew their share of the gold from the Central Bank and minted it "RP-CD." Sometime later, Fr. Diaz and Marcos brought their gold to Switzerland, in the Swiss Bank Corporation in Zurich. The remaining 400,000 metric tons of 1 Tallano gold is in the third floor basement of the Central Bank Minting Plant in East Ave., Quezon City. There are 950,000 metric tons of gold (declared missing in the International court of Justice) picked up by Yamashita from its European ally, Hitler. Another 250,000 tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Maharlika. This country then became the holder of 1.6 million metric tons of gold bars. Some of the Yamashita gold buried in the Maharlika has been found. But the bulk of it is still buried to this day. And even now, thousands are secretly digging for it, including Japanese treasure hunters.
The World Street Journal in its November 15, 1985 issue wrote that two thirds of all the gold in the world is in the Maharlika. One third is divided among the rest of the countries in the world. Very few Filipinos know this.
When Marcos took over the government in 1965, the Maharlika had a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. In 1986, when the Americans forcibly brought Marcos to Hawaii, President Aquino inherited a foreign debt of US$24 billion. But, of these, US$7 billion was incurred by the private sector. At his ouster, Marcos left US$2.5 billion in the Central Bank reserve. This means that Pres. Marcos during his 20 years of absolute rule only incurred a measly US$1 billion foreign debt to build up this nation with its fast growing population and numerous infrastructure projects.
How did President Marcos manage this government financially? Aside from the annual national budget of P35 billion financed by the national treasury, he had all this gold at his disposal for building the infrastructure projects that today stand unequaled to all the four succeeding presidents. Today, this country has a foreign debt of around US$75 billion. From 1986 to 2000, the government under three presidents incurred a debt of US$51 billion on top of its original US$24 billion — in just 14 years!
In the 1997 Philippine Yearbook (National Statistics Office) a Summary of Government Expenditures from 1966 to 1997 was made. From 1965-1986 (20 years) President Marcos spent P486, 273 Billion From 1986-1991 (6 years) President Aquino spent P1, 077,895 Trillion. From 1992-1997 (6 years) President Ramos spent P2, 237,907 Trillion.
Between May 14 to June 5, 2003, a nationwide survey report conducted and administered by Asia Pacific Periscope put out this question: "Among our Presidents, who do you think had done most for the country?" The results were: Marcos 41%, Magsaysay 15%, Aquino 6%, Ramos 6%, Estrada 4%, Arroyo 2%, Quezon 0.3%, Quirino 0.3% and 22% could not give any name. Margin of error was +1- 2.7%.
When Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana, died in 1974 all that 30% commission in gold became the legendary "MARCOS GOLD." After providing for his family in Marcos' Letter of Instruction, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. This was the "MARCOS WEALTH" that some politicians and churchmen kept on saying was the "ILL-GOTTEN" Marcos wealth that until today is in "Marcos secret accounts."
On April 9, 1973 Marcos said: "My earthly goods have been placed in the custody and for the disposition of the Marcos Foundation dedicated to the welfare of the Filipino people."
The Demolition Campaign
In the 70's and 80's, "blood money" from the Roman Catholic Church, channeled into the Maharlika via the Vatican Bank and another foreign power, fueled the flames of dissension in the countryside and on the streets of Manila. A concerted church and foreign civil destabilization and demolition campaign was waged against Marcos. All that gold in the hands of one man like Marcos was a threat to those who have been used for so long with so much' money and power. Marcos became too powerful and would not tow the line of the two established power in the world, the VATICAN and the TRILATERAL COMMISSION (U.S.A.—GERMANY--JAPAN). But Marcos was no lap dog (lute') to any foreign power.
In 1966, during President Marcos' First State Visit to the U.S.A., he renegotiated the Military Bases Agreement (MBA) of March 14, 1947. He refused to compromise the nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity and successfully negotiated the reduction of the Military Base Agreement lease, which was supposed to end in 2046 to just 25 more years — ending in 1991, instead of 2046. This made the USA angry.
When the USA recognized Maharlika sovereignty over the military bases on January 7, 1979, President Marcos called it "the final liberation of the Philippines." Most significantly, the U.S. Ambassador Richard W. Murphy in • his letter to the Maharlika Minister for Foreign Affairs, Carlos P. Romulo, dated January 7, 1979 said: "Only the Philippine flag shall be flown singly at the Bases. The United States flag together with the Philippine flag that shall at all times occupy the place of honor, may be displayed within buildings anti other indoor sites on United States facilities and in front of headquarters of the United States Commanders and upon coordination with the Philippine Base Commanders for appropriate outdoor ceremonies such as military honors and parades on the facilities."
In his grand plan, Marcos wanted to re-establish the former grandeur of the Maharlika and the whole region of Southeast Asia, the former Malayan Empire. In June 1983, Marcos appeared before the First World leaders in Toronto. He announced his plan to boost the economy of the Southeast Asian region by creating the ASIAN DOLLAR. This would be backed up by the 400,000 metric tons of gold in the Central Bank of the Maharlika and the other gold he scattered around the region. He would also add to this his own Personal 192,000 metric tons in Switzerland.
his Asian Dollar, backed up by the "two thirds of all the gold in the World" that was in the Maharlika, would have made the Maharlika money more valuable and stronger than the American dollar. This was his vision to raise Southeast Asia to be at par with the rest of the First World countries. The very next day James Baker, the head of the C.I.A., replaced Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State.
Subsequently, an intensified demolition job on Marcos and the destruction of his party were ingeniously planned and carried out. Two months later, on August 21, 1983 Senator Ninoy Aquino was assassinated at the Manila International Airport. The blame was placed on Marcos.
To this day the assassination of Ninoy Aquino has not yet been solved. It has to be kept this way because solving it would open a Pandora's box and reveal skeletons in the closet of many prominent people very close to Ninoy Aquino who are still enjoying the high esteem of the public today.
The Coup De Grace: EDSA Revolution
A year and a half later, on December 26, 1984, the "CORY CONSTITUTION" was formulated. This was the first coup d'etat ever planned in the modern history of the Maharlika. The document was entitled: DECLARATION OF UNITY. It says: "WHEREAS it has become the imperative &Ay for all who oppose the Marcos regime to join forces to restore the freedom and sovereignty of the Filipino people and thereafter to reconstruct the national economy and improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, starting with the poor, the voiceless and the oppressed, and WHEREAS we believe that the foregoing objectives can best be attained by implementing the following values, principles and convictions which we all share.'
There are eight points in the Cory Constitution. Point 6 says: "Belief in a Pluralistic Society. The new leadership will respect and protect freedom of expression and the right to disseminate all philosophies and non-violent programs. It trusts the capacity of the people to choose freely what is best for the nation, and will honor the choice of the people even if it differs from theirs. The Communist Party of the Philippines will be legalized. In order to remove obstacles to national unity, the new leadership will take steps, immediately upon assumption of office, to address all legitimate grievances of all who have resorted to armed struggle."
Point 8.1 says: The new leadership commits itself to eliminate the social cancer of graft and corruption, public or private..." Point 8.3 says: "...(Marcos') Ill-gotten wealth, , property and assets shall be confiscated..."
In conclusion, the CORY CONSTITUTION says. 'Therefore, we sign these presents to solemnly affirm our commitment to the foregoing values. principles and convictions and to signify our resolve to exhaust all means to unify all parties, organizations and fortes in opposition to the Marcos regime." Signed in Quezon City by: 1. Agapito "Butz" Aquino, 2. Jose W. Diokno, 3. Teofisto Guingona, 4. Eva Estrada Kalaw, 5. Salvador H. Laurel, 6. Raul S. Manglapus, 7. Ramon Mitra, Jr.. 8. Ambrosio Padilla, 9. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., 10. Rafael Sales, 11. Jovito Salonga. Signed by the conveyor group are: 1. Corazon C. Aquino, 2. Jaime V. Ongpin, 3. Lorenzo M. Tanada.
U.S. Senator Paul Laxalt, in his article that appeared in the U.S. magazine Policy Review (1986) entitled "My Conversations with Ferdinand Marcos", said: "It appears from what I read in the papers that she (Cory Aquino) made a serious strategic mistake in releasing the
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