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English

descended

Tagalog

coastal

Last Update: 2015-08-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

descendants

Tagalog

pinagmulan

Last Update: 2015-06-21
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

descend

Tagalog

pinagsasaligan

Last Update: 2015-01-20
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

descending

Tagalog

pababang

Last Update: 2014-10-13
Subject: History
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

descending

Tagalog

pataas

Last Update: 2014-09-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

descend

Tagalog

bumaba

Last Update: 2013-07-14
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Cupid and Psyche Script 1. EXT. CENTER STAGE. SPOTLIGHT (Psyche). Psyche is sitting on a chair (alone and lonely) PSYCHE Is this gift a curse? I never wished for this beauty! My only desire is to love and to be loved… (Sigh) (Spotlight expanding) People visits her to give gifts and praise Man # 1 O Great Beauty… Accept this humble present from us, your faithful servants (Psyche refuses the gift) PSYCHE I cannot accept this gift because i do not deserve to be worshipped I am not a goddess! (Higher tone) Man # 2 But … your splendour cannot be compared with what Venus has 2. EXT. UPPER LEFT SIDE. SPOTLIGHT (Venus). Venus walking back and forth (worried and mad) Venus (SARCASTIC but Calm) I? The goddess of love and BEAUTY? Cannot be compared to a mere mortal like her? I am insulted… VERY Insulted!!! (Sits on her throne) Venus Very well… She leaves me with no other choice… I’m still the goddess of love and beauty after all… (Chuckle) EXT. UPPER RIGHT STAGE. Spotlight. (Cupid playing with his arrows) Venus (sweet and persuading tone) Cupid, my beloved son, an act of your kindness is what I needed now… (Cupid bows down) Cupid I am grateful that you have come to me… (Cupid stands up) VENUS (cheerful and devious) I need you to use your power… The power to make anyone… Fall in love with any person… CUPID Well… I can do that… VENUS But this time is different… You need to make her fall in love with most despicable Creature in the entire universe… CUPID There’s no problem in that… so where is this lady you are talking about… (Venus pointed at Psyche [make yourself pretty]) (2 spotlights) VENUS She is Psyche… Then, I’ll leave it all up to you Venus fled away. Cupid is speechless and has fallen into his knees. 4. INT. CENTER STAGE. PSYCHE’S HOUSE. Psyche (helpless) I’m tired of this life… I’m tired of being admired instead of being loved. I need Love! I want Love! Psyche’s father enters PSYCHE’S FATHER (troubled) I don’t know how or what are you feeling right now… But I am sure that you are in great pain He hugs Psyche PSYCHE’S FATHER (determined) And so… I must travel to Apollo’s oracle and asks what we need to do… Wait for me and I’ll bring the joy of your life… Psyche nods. Father left. 5. INT. CENTER STAGE. PSYCHE’S HOUSE. Psyche’s father enters (depressed) PSYCHE (excited) And? what did it tell you? PSYCHE’S FATHER The or… (Gulp) the oracle told me…that… That you should be dressed in the deepest mourning… Then, we should leave you on the summit of a rocky hill… Psyche forced herself to smile PSYCHE Is that all? Then, I shouldn’t be standing here… I should get ready to meet my future spouse! Psyche tried to run into her room PSYCHE’S FATHER WAIT! I’m not yet finished… Your Future husband is not a human… But a fearful winged serpent! All was shocked SISTER # 1 Psyche, you should stop this! It will only give you a greater pain… MOTHER (exclaimed) Your sister is right… I won’t hand you to a despicable creature! PSYCHE (Sad smile) You are wrong! This is the end of my lifelong suffering! Rejoice for me for I have found my destiny… They hugged together. 6. EXT. UPPER RIGHT SIDE STAGE. HILLTOP. Psyche sat on hilltop. (Trembling with fear). Zephyr slowly lifts her up. Then, gently lands her on a grassy meadow. PSYCHE Whoa… it’s better than my bed back home… (Yawn) Psyche slowly fell into a deep sleep. (Dim Light) Woke up in front of Cupid’s mansion. VOICE # 1 Lady Psyche, Welcome to your new Home! PSYCHE (surprised) Who are you? What do you want from me? VOICE # 2 Do not be afraid, my lady, we are your most faithful servants… We were trained to fulfil your desires. VOIICE # 3 We know that you are tired and starving, my lady… So we prepared a feast for you. Psyche sat on the chair, and enjoys the most delicious food she ever tasted. 7. INT. CENTER STAGE. CUPID’S BEDROOM Psyche sits on their bed. PSYCHE When will my husband come? Did he really want me? Am I not qualified to be his wife? VOICE # 2 Relax my lady; I assure you he will come… PSYCHE But when? VOICE # 3 He will be coming soon… Very soon… Psyche lied down and slept. (Spotlight Cupid) Cupid lies down beside Psyche and hugs her. CUPID (whispers) Welcome home, my dearest wife… Psyche slowly opens her eyes (half). She smiled. Play the Recorded Voice Over. Psyche (THOUGHT) I knew it… he is not a horrible creature… His warm hands are the evident… Psyche grabs the hands of Cupid from behind. 8. INT. CENTER STAGE. CUPID’S BEDROOM. Psyche is sitting on their bed. Brushing her hair. CUPID [VOICE] Psyche, I’ve come here to warn you to a great danger you’ll face… PSYCHE What danger? Explain it to me so I can avoid it… CUPID [VOICE] The danger is your sisters. They will come to the hill where you disappeared to mourn for you. PSYCHE My sisters? My sisters are not… and will never bring me harm! (Higher tone) So please, grant me this wish to see my dear sisters. I want to let them know that I am safe and happy in your care. CUPID [Voice] You will bring yourself to your own destruction. PSYCHE It will never be! CUPID {VOICE] I’ll let you see your sister, but promise me this… Don’t be persuaded by anyone to try to see me. PSYCHE I solemnly promise… I am so grateful for granting me this favour. Psyche smiled and slept. 9. INT. CENTER STAGE. CUPID’S LIVING ROOM. Psyche and her two sisters saw each other and tightly hugged together. SISTER # 2 Psyche, we miss you so much… we thought something terrible happened to you… SISTER # 1 We are so glad that you are still alive…. and still… beautiful… PSYCHE (Chuckled) Well… I was scared at first but after knowing my husband…. The fright that I felt changed into love… SISTER # 1 (day dreaming) So how was he? Gorgeous? Muscular? Or Charming? PSYCHE (stutter) Well… um… he is a young man…um… he is now away for… umm… For a Hunting expedition! Psyche acted strange and secretive. PSYCHE It’s getting late, you should go now… Psyche handed some jewels and gold. PSYCHE Here, accept these as a present from me and from my husband. The sisters left and Psyche was relieved to be alone. ALL was dark. 10. INT. CENTER STAGE. CUPID’S BEDROOM. CUPID [VOICE] (desperate) Psyche, I beg you…Please stop this nuisance… I f this continues, we both suffer and you will never ever see me again… PSYCHE (determined) But we have done nothing wrong to bring you harm… If we continue arguing, then this will be harmful for the both of us! CUPID [VOICE] (lax) Psyche, do what you want but don’t blame me if something happens. 11. EXT. CENTER STAGE. CUPID’S MANSION. The two sisters were waiting for Psyche and plotting their evil scheme. Psyche came and hugged her sisters. PSYCHE (Cheerful) Thank you for coming and filling these lonely hours for me. SISTER # 1 Lonely hours? Why? Where is your husband? PSYCHE (SHOCKED) Um… he is still in the hunting expedition… SISTER # 2 I see… well my husband and I like hunting; we might bump into each other someday. How does he look like? PSYCHE Well… I’m bad in describing people so I don’t know how to describe him, SISTER # 2 Then, how about his name? PSYCHE (almost crying) His name…. Na…. me…. is… I don’t know…. I don’t know his name… Psyche loudly cried. And has fallen into her knees. SISTER # 1(fake concern) Oh my, he might be the one that the oracle is talking about. SISTER # 2 (deep tone) The fearful winged serpent! Psyche pulled one of her sister’s legs. PSYCHE NO! He can’t be… He is gentle and sweet! SISTER # 1 How would you know? You never met him. It must be a disguise to trick you. Psyche let go of her sister’s leg. Sister # 2 will help her get up. SISTER # 2 Psyche, don’t be sad. There is a way that you can see his true nature! PSYCHE (Anxious) What? What is it? They whisper the plan to Psyche. Psyche looked sad after hearing it. 12. INT. CENTER STAGE. CUPID’S BEDROOM. Psyche is lying in her bed. Cupid came and slept beside Psyche. Voice over Playing. PSYCHE (THOUGHT) [confused] Should I do it? Should I? What if? Just what if it’s true? Will I be able to handle the truth? I wanted to be with him forever! But I wanted to see him so much! I want to see his smile…. his eyes… his everything… (Descending tone) Psyche slowly stands up. Took the lamp. (Spotlight: Cupid). Took out the dagger. Psyche looked at Cupid and stare (teary eyes) PSYCHE He … he is my husband? Not a horrifying creature… but the most stunning I have ever seen… She dropped the dagger. Psyche slowly reached for Cupid’s face. PSYCHE One touch… one touch will be enough!!! Some hot oil from the lamp dropped on Cupid’s shoulder. Cupid woke up. Psyche gently touch Cupid. PSYCHE (worried) Oh no! Are you alright? Does it hurt? Cupid pushed Psyche away. CUPID (angry) Don’t touch me! You betrayed me and disobey me! Why didn’t you believe me that they will bring us harm? Don’t you trust me, your husband? PSYCHE (scared and worried) I’m sorry… I’m sorry… I got confused… and… And… I didn’t know what I should do… And… And… I don’t know… I just want to see you!!! Cupid runs away. CUPID (Voice) Love cannot live if there is no trust! PSYCHE The god of love? Cupid? Psyche loudly cried. (Shivers) PSYCHE He was my husband… and wretch that I am for not believing him… I s he gone forever? Will I never see him again? What should I do? I want him back!!! I want him back… PSYCHE stood up. PSYCHE I’ll bring him back… even if it takes a lifetime! 13. EXT. RIGHT SIDE. VENUS’ TEMPLE. Psyche offers some gifts to the statue of Venus. Voice over playing. PSYCHE (THOUGHT) I know this is not a good plan, but it might work. He might be at his mother’s. There is a greater possibility that we’ll meet again Psyche prayed to Venus. PSYCHE O great goddess. I brought you destruction… but hear me out and I’ll be your servant! When she was about to return, Venus appeared in front of her. VENUS Finally, I have met the devious mortal that put shame in my family. PSYCHE It wasn’t my intention… Venus looked at her angrily. Psyche bows her head. VENUS Why are you here? Aren’t my son enough for you? Do you still want to hurt other with you bewitched beauty? PSYCHE (exclaimed) Wait! You misunderstood me. I never wanted this beauty in the first place! VENUS How dare you! You aren’t grateful for the gift that the heaven bestowed unto you? You disgust me! Psyche looked ashamed VENUS Something must be done with that ill mannered attitude of yours! I’ll discipline you with most diligent and painful training. Venus smiled and laughed wickedly. She left and Psyche followed her. 14. INT. LEFT SIDE. Closed ROOM. Venus and Psyche entered the room. Venus pointed at the sacks in the corner. VENUS Those sacks are filled with different kinds of seeds… You must sort them out by nightfall…. PSYCHE By nightfall? I can’t do it all alone… It will take days or even months to sort them out! VENUS It’s not my problem… I mean, this is for your own sake… Venus departed. Psyche is “playing” with the seeds. PSYCHE (helpless then determined) What do I need to do? (Sigh) But I shouldn’t give up; I must try hard for Cupid. ANT #1 (squeaky voice) Psyche… Psyche… look down! PSYCHE Ants? Little ants? Are you here to help me? ANTS # 2 We are at you service, our Lady. It is our pleasure to help a great beauty like you… PSYCHE Thank you… oh… thank you very much!!! I’ll never forget you my little ones… The ants Helped Psyche in sorting the seeds. Morning came. The ants went away after sorting. Venus came. VENUS (annoyed) How… How… How did you do it? Someone help you right? PSYCHE Aaaaaa…. It’s a secret… (Chuckled) VENUS (Sarcastic warning) So this task is easy for you, but the next is harder so be careful… EXT. LEFT SIDE. RIVERBANK. Venus and Psyche are standing at the riverbank. VENUS I need you to fetch me some wool! PSYCHE Then wool it is! VENUS Not just any wool but Shining Golden wool!!! Down there near the riverbank. Go now and I don’t like waiting. Venus pushed her a little and went away. Psyche stared at her reflection. PSYCHE I talk too much, I thought that I can do everything but I can’t… arghh!!! Dying! Dying will end my suffering! REED Wait! You mustn’t drown yourself! Indeed your life is miserable but it will end. Before this, you need to accomplish this task. Psyche wipe off her tears and listen to the reed. REED Wait until the sun sets, the sheep will rest beside the river that is your chance to Get the wool stuck on the briars. PSYCHE Thank you my dear friend!! I owe you!!! Psyche did what she was told. She went back to Venus. 16. INT. BACK CENTER STAGE. VENUS’ MANSION. Psyche gave Venus the golden wool! VENUS (Irritated) So these tasks are easy for you? then beware of the next one! It is very impossible for a mortal to accomplish this task. Psyche looked worried. Venus threw the flask to Psyche. Psyche caught the flask. VENUS (devious tone) You need that for this job. I need you to fill that with black water from that hill. That water is the source of the most fearful river, the river Styx! PSYCHE But I can’t reach it. It’s too high for me? How will I get some water? VENUS Well… it’s for you to found out! 17. EXT. BACK RIGH STAGE. FALLS. Psyche was staring at the falls and tries to figure out how she can fill the flask. PSYCHE The stones are sharp so I can’t climb up… I mean I know someone will help me with this task but what will it be? An eagle soar towards Psyche. Psyche sat at the back of the eagle. The eagle flew towards the fall. Psyche filled the flask with black water. PSYCHE Thank you my big friend!!! I can’t do it without you. 18. INT. BACK CENTER STAGE. VENUS’ MANSION. Psyche gave the flask to Venus. Venus accepts it. VENUS This will be your final task! Go to the underworld and ask Persephone if she could lend me some of her beauty. Venus gave the box to Psyche. VENUS You will carry her beauty with this. PSYCHE What will I tell her if she asks why? VENUS Tell her that… that… um… I am so worn-out from nursing my beloved Cupid… Psyche went on to find the road to Hades. 19. EXT. LEFT SIDE. TOWER. A man approached Psyche. GUIDE You are looking for the roads to Hades right? PSYCHE Yes, I do! Do you know how to get there? GUIDE Yes, of course… But before I tell you the directions, you need this penny and this cake. Guide gave Psyche the penny and the cake. PSYCHE What will I do with these? GUIDE These are you gate passes. You give the penny to Charon, He will lead you to Proserpine’s mansion. And at the mansion, you’ll encounter a three-headed dog called Cerberus. You will give this piece of cake to it so that he will let you pass the gate. PSYCHE Phew… I’m scared but ready… so where should I head to… The guide showed Psyche how she will get there. 20. INT. WHOLE STAGE. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. UNDERWORLD. Psyche rode the boat led by Charon. Passed the gate guarded by Cerberus. She met Proserpine. PSYCHE Goddess of the underworld, I am here on behalf of Venus. She needed your help. She needs to restore her beauty. Her beauty was drained because of nursing his son. PROSERPINE Wel… I am delighted to help the goddess of Beauty. Proserpine held the box and slowly move it towards her face. She closed the box,. Gave it back to Psyche. PSYCHE Thnak you… Thank you for this great help… She rushed towards back to the upper world. PSYCHE What if I use some of this beauty charm?… i looked so weary and Cupid might not love me anymore if i look like this. Psyche opened the box and was surprised that nothing was there. Then a lanquor took over her and fell into deep sleep. Cupid flew out from the window of he palace. Saw Psyche and flew towards her. CUPID Relax, my dear for I am here beside you. Cupid touched Psyche’s eyes and put the sleep back in the box. Then he took one of his arrows and pricked Psyche. Psyche woke up. They hugged each other. CUPID You fool, why did you hav to do that? Do you know how worried I am? PSYCHE I’m sorry… I’m sorry… Please don’t leave me again… Stay by my side… CUPID I won’t ever…so come to me… and all our sufferings will end. 21. INT. WHOLE STAGE. OLYMPIA. Cupid and Psyche were rushing towards Jupiter. Bows down to Jupiter CUPID Grant me this great favour. Let us live a happy marriage life. Let us become one with blessing you’ll bestow unto us. JUPITER Even though you brought me great harm in the past for making me fall in love Over and over again, but I cannot refuse your desire. So do not be worried. Jupiter stood up. JUPITER I declare to all of you that with my blessing I pronounce Cupid and Psyche as husband and wife. No one shall ever interrupt their marriage or you shall face me and my thunderbolts. The gods and goddesses whisper to each other. JUPITER There won’t be any complaints if Psyche was immortal, right? Then, Hermes, bring me the ambrosia and I’ll bestow immortality to this young lady. Hermes gave the ambrosia to Psyche. Psyche tasted it and she became immortal. Cupid and Psyche hugged each other. CUPID We will now be together forever. Nothing will stand between our love. PSYCHE What about your mother? Will she accept me? Venus walked towards them. VENUS I accept you! You are the love of my son so I don’t have any choice but to accept you. And… its because you are a goddess now that i agree on your marriage. Cupid, Psyche and Venus hugged each other. Spotlight ; Cupid and Psyche. Still Hugging each other. PSYCHE Cupis, You are the LOVE of my life. CUPID Psyche, You are my SOUL. I can’t live without you. Cupid and Psyche looked at each other and slowly moving their face towards each other. (one inch away—black out—Closed Curtains)

Tagalog

dula-dulaan Tungkol kay cupid sa psyche

Last Update: 2016-06-23
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

English

scary soon as I saw the bus when cellphone woman having followed the two men, one yumg one before and just after they pinagitnaan girl after girl while they withheld kinakapa one's pocket woman with cellphone, thanks they did not get the woman thief once you've done that man was descended

Tagalog

nakakatakot ang nakita ko sa bus pagsakay ng babae na may dalang cellphone kasunod ang dalawang lalaki, isa sa unahan at isa sa likod pinagitnaan nila yung babae tapos iniipit nila yung babae habang kinukuha ng isa ang cellphone sa bulsa ng babae buti na lang hindi nila nakuha sabay sabi ng babae magnanakaw ka tapos bumaba na yung dalawang lalaki

Last Update: 2015-04-24
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Siva And The Birth Of The River Ganga There came a sage whose name was Bhagīratha: he stayed in a forest of Himalaya practising terrible austerities. For a thousand years he remained with arms upraised, with four fires burning around, and with the sun blazing upon him. At last Brahma had compassion upon him. The Lord of All came to that sage and told him he could ask a boon as a reward for his austerities. Then the sage said, "The boon I ask is that King Sagara's sixty thousand sons win to Indra's heaven. Their ashes lie far down in the earth. And until a water which is not the water of earth flows over the ashes and purifies them they cannot win to heaven." The Lord of All was pleased with what the sage asked, and the boon was granted. And so Brahma promised that Gangā would descend upon earth. Now Gangā was the daughter of Himalaya, the Lord of Snow, and she had held herself back from leaving the heaven-world. She would leave at Brahma's command, but her downward rush would be so terrible that the earth would be dashed to pieces by it. Only one thing could save the earth from that tremendous stroke: if the head of Shiva received her stream the fall of Gangā upon earth would be broken. For a year the sage worshipped Shiva. Then he was taken into Shiva's heaven and he saw the God with his four faces. Once Brahma had created a nymph out of all that is loveliest in the world, and he had sent her to Shiva so that her beauty might distract him from his eternal meditation. As she walked around where he stayed a face appeared at each side of the God: the faces looking east and west and north are beautiful and pleasant to behold, but the face looking south is terrible. With the face looking east Shiva rules the world; with the face looking west he delights all beings; with the face looking north he rejoices in the company of his wife Umā. But the face looking south is his face of destruction. Shiva, moved by the prayers of the great ascetic, agreed to take the fall of Gangā upon his head. He went forth with his trident, and standing upon a high peak he bade the daughter of Himalaya descend upon the world. She was made angry by his imperious call. "I shall descend, and I will sweep Shiva away," she said. And so, in a mighty fall, Gangā came down from the heaven-world. But Shiva, knowing what Gangā would have done, smiled to himself. He would shame her for her arrogance. He made her streams wander through the locks and clusters of his hair. For seasons and seasons Ganga wandered through them as through the forests of Himalaya, and she was made ashamed by her powerlessness to reach the earth. Then the sage, not seeing the river come down, prayed to Shiva once more, and once more went through awful austerities. Shiva, for the sake of Bhagīratha, allowed Gangā to make her way through the locks and clusters of his hair and come down upon the earth. In seven streams she descended. The Gods came in their golden chariots to watch that descent upon earth, and the flashing of their chariots made it seem as if a thousand suns were in the sky. Fish of all kind and colours, dolphins of every shape and hue, flashed in the river. And sages and saints came and purified themselves in the water, for the stream that had wandered upon Shiva's head made even the wicked pure. The Gladdener, the Purifier, the Lotus-clad, the Faireyed, were the names that were given to four of her seven streams. Three flowed to the east, three flowed to the west. The middle stream, the fullest, the clearest, flowed to where Bhagīratha waited in his chariot. He drove on, and where he drove, there did the bright, full, clear river flow. On and on it flowed, following the chariot of the sage: now it was a sweeping current, and now it went on as though it was hardly able to bear on its wave the feather of the swan, and now full and calmly it flowed along. At last it came to the wide sea. There it sank down, and as it sank into the middle of the world the sage prayed that it would purify the ashes of King Sagara's sixty thousand sons. In an age before, King Sagara and his sixty thousand sons had been on the earth. The king would have himself proclaimed a world-ruler, and that this might be done a steed was loosed and set to range the distances. All the land the steed ranged over would be proclaimed the king's domain, and when the steed returned it would be sacrificed to the Gods. But Sagara's steed was stolen and led down into the very middle of the earth. The king commanded his sixty thousand sons to find the steed and bring it back for the sacrifice. They made their way down to the very middle of the earth. They went beyond where the Elephant of the East, the Elephant of the West, the Elephant of the South, and the great white Elephant of the North stand, bearing up the earth. These immortal ones they worshipped, and they passed on. At last they came to where Kapila, at the very centre of all things, sustains the world. There the steed was grazing. King Sagara's sixty thousand sons went to seize it, and as they did they attacked Kapila with trees and boulders, crying out that he was the robber of their father's steed. As they came near he turned a flame upon them, and the sixty thousand sank down in heaps of ashes. Kapila went on with his meditation and thought no more upon the destruction he had brought upon King Sagara's sons. The king then sent his princely grandson to find die steed. He came down to the very middle of the earth. He passed the immortal elephants; he found the steed grazing near Kapila and he saw the heaps of ashes that were there. Then the bird Garuda that was flying there told him of what had befallen the sons of King Sagara, and told him, too, that they could win to Indra's heaven only when Gangā was brought down and made flow over their ashes. The prince led the steed back to Sagara. He became king after his grandfather, and when his duties as king had been fulfilled he went into a forest of Himālaya and engaged in sacrifices to bring Gangā down from the heaven-world. After him his son engaged in sacrifices. Then his son's son, the sage Bhagīratha, engaged in austerities that had never before been known, and these austerities won Brahmā's compassion, and so, with the mighty aid of Shiva, Gangā was brought down upon the earth. There where Kapila ponders, sustaining the world, Ganga flowed. The river went over the heaps of ashes that were the sons of King Sagara. They were purified, and the sixty thousand, rejoicing, went into the heaven of great Indra.

Tagalog

ingles sa bikol

Last Update: 2015-02-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:
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English

flatwormsThe flatworms, or Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning worm)[2] are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously. In traditional zoology texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria, which are mostly nonparasitic animals such as planarians, and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic, this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments such as leaf litter. Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land vertebrates, and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of hermaphroditic, segment-like proglottids which detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host. Because they do not have internal body cavities, Platyhelminthes were regarded as a primitive stage in the evolution of bilaterians (animals with bilateral symmetry and hence with distinct front and rear ends). However, analyses since the mid-1980s have separated out one subgroup, the Acoelomorpha, as basal bilaterians - closer to the original bilaterians than to any other modern groups. The remaining Platyhelminthes form a monophyletic group - one that contains all and only descendants of a common ancestor that is itself a member of the group. The redefined Platyhelminthes is part of the Lophotrochozoa, one of the three main groups of more complex bilaterians. These analyses had concluded the redefined Platyhelminthes, excluding Acoelomorpha, consists of two monophyletic subgroups, Catenulida and Rhabditophora, with Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea forming a monophyletic subgroup within one branch of the Rhabditophora. Hence, the traditional platyhelminth subgroup "Turbellaria" is now regarded as paraphyletic, since it excludes the wholly parasitic groups, although these are descended from one group of "turbellarians". Over half of all known flatworm species are parasitic, and some do enormous harm to humans and their livestock. Schistosomiasis, caused by one genus of trematodes, is the second-most devastating of all human diseases caused by parasites, surpassed only by malaria. Neurocysticercosis, which arises when larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium penetrate the central nervous system, is the major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The threat of platyhelminth parasites to humans in developed countries is rising because of the popularity of raw or lightly cooked foods, and imports of food from high-risk areas. In less developed countries, people often cannot afford the fuel required to cook food thoroughly, and poorly designed water-supply and irrigation projects increase the dangers presented by poor sanitation and unhygienic farming. Two planarian species have been used successfully in the Philippines, Indonesia, Hawaii, New Guinea, and Guam to control populations of the imported giant African snail Achatina fulica, which was displacing native snails. However, there is now concern that these planarians may themselves become a serious threat to native snails. In northwest Europe, there are concerns about the spread of the New Zealand planarian Arthurdendyus triangulatus, which preys on earthworms.

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flatworms

Last Update: 2015-01-26
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