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English

either

Tagalog

mag

Last Update: 2015-11-24
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

either side

Tagalog

mag siping

Last Update: 2016-05-24
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

either mamano

Tagalog

mag mamano

Last Update: 2016-06-18
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

either as sound

Tagalog

mag-kasing tunog

Last Update: 2016-06-14
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

either we kantutan

Tagalog

mag kantutan tayo

Last Update: 2016-01-28
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

either one that I always

Tagalog

mag-isa na lang ako palagi

Last Update: 2016-05-31
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

English

[1] The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, [5] from the time when1 first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles. Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish, [10] because upon the priest Chryses the son of Atreus had wrought dishonour. For he had come to the swift ships of the Achaeans to free his daughter, bearing ransom past counting; and in his hands he held the wreaths of Apollo who strikes from afar,2 on a staff of gold; and he implored all the Achaeans, [15] but most of all the two sons of Atreus, the marshallers of the people: “Sons of Atreus, and other well-greaved Achaeans, to you may the gods who have homes upon Olympus grant that you sack the city of Priam, and return safe to your homes; but my dear child release to me, and accept the ransom [20] out of reverence for the son of Zeus, Apollo who strikes from afar.” Then all the rest of the Achaeans shouted assent, to reverence the priest and accept the glorious ransom, yet the thing did not please the heart of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, but he sent him away harshly, and laid upon him a stern command: [25] “Let me not find you, old man, by the hollow ships, either tarrying now or coming back later, lest your staff and the wreath of the god not protect you. Her I will not set free. Sooner shall old age come upon her in our house, in Argos, far from her native land, [30] as she walks to and fro before the loom and serves my bed. But go, do not anger me, that you may return the safer.”

Tagalog

kwentong iliad odyssey

Last Update: 2016-02-28
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Many men and women who are molding the minds of future generations have to look for other income sources to make both ends meet. One of them is Teacher V, who has been teaching in a local high school in Burgos, Pangasinan for two years now. Her passion for teaching came from her aunt, a teacher in a local elementary school in the province who supported her studies. “I’m happy with my teaching job because I know that in my own way, I’m not just teaching my students. I’m also touching their lives and inspiring them,” Teacher V said. Professors can be some of the most influential figures you will ever meet. While many school rankings include “academic rigor” as a way to determine the quality of scholarship at a given institution, this can fall short, and ignore a number of important factors. Factors like the ability of students to actually access professors, the extent to which the school enables collaboration between students and faculty, and if students rank professors positively or not. For this reason we’ve constructed our own rankings of the top 50 schools in the nation with the best professors. This member of the Five Colleges Consortium is the oldest college in Massachusetts, and perennially a top ranked liberal arts school. This year Amherst was ranked the second best liberal arts school in the nation by US News and World Report, and the 10th ranked liberal arts school by Forbes. The college is known for an unusually open curriculum, allowing freshman to take advanced courses and seniors to take introductory courses if they should choose. This places greater trust in quality students and instructors to create their own good outcomes and course interactions. A small student body (around 2,000 students) and a low student-teacher ratio (8 to 1) aids in creating quality interactions in class. Amherst has been known for quality instruction for years, so much so that in 2007,Harvard and Columbia consulted Amherst when reviewing their teaching programs. Swarthmore is one of the “little na buhay ,” and one of only three schools to hold the number one spot of the US News liberal arts rankings. Swarthmore is noted as the number one value for a private school in the US, and also for its rate of over 90% of graduates who attend either graduate or professional school, as well as 20% of graduates that proceed to garner their Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), numbers only topped by CalTech, Harvey Mudd, and Reed College. Swarthmore is a member of the Tri-College Consortium with Bryn Mawr and Haverford, allowing students to cross register at all three, as well as for Swarthmore students to register at UPenn’s College of arts and sciences (a school sharing a Quaker heritage). The school itself is quite small, with just over 1,500 students, with a student faculty ratio of 8 to 1. While not for everyone, for the select few who gain admission to West Point (you must both gain admission from the school and be nominated, often by a Senator), you are offered a full ride by the US Army (provided you serve in the armed forces upon graduation). Most graduates leave the academy commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army, though graduates may choose to be commissioned in another branch of the armed forces if wanted. Teaching styles at West Point follow the Thayer system, which focuses on daily homework, brought to class and collaboratively discussed. Curriculum is highly structured at West Point, with all students taking the same classes until junior year, including mathematics, information technology, chemistry, physics, engineering, history, physical geography, philosophy, leadership and general psychology, English composition and literature, foreign language, political science, international relations, economics, and constitutional law. Regardless of major, all graduates receive a Bachelor’s of Science. Slightly over 4,500 cadets attend the school, which has a student faculty ratio of seven to one. West Point was the 24th ranked national liberal arts school by US News this year. Bryn Mawr is a small (1,300+ undergraduate students) women’s liberal arts college that is one of the seven sisters colleges as well as the tri-college consortium (with other quaker-founded schools Haverford and Swarthmore). Bryn Mawr is tied for the 27th ranked liberal arts college in the nation by US News, and the 65th ranked overall college by Forbes. The college is noted for small class sizes, with over 3/4th of classes having under 20 students. The most popular majors are STEM heavy for a liberal arts school, with the most popular majors including (in decreasing rank) mathematics (11% of students), English, psychology, political science, and biology/biological sciences. There have been numerous professors of great fame at Bryn Mawr, and the institution itself has been progressive in organizing its academic programs, being the first institute of higher education to award doctorates in social work, as well as to award graduate and doctorate degrees to women. Washington and lee is the 14th ranked liberal arts school by US News, and the 33rd ranked overall university by Forbes. Though it has refused to send data to the Princeton Review for years, the 2007 edition of the Princeton Review ranked Washington and Lee 4th for “Professors get high marks” and sixth for “professor accessibility.” Home to 1,800 undergraduates housed in two college, Washington and Lee has a student-faculty ratio of eight to one. Washington and Lee has a great community centered around student, faculty, and community traditions. One of the more notable traditions enjoys coverage on national news every four years: the Mock Convention. A mock presidential election that has predicted the winning presidential nominee every election save two since 1948 (Ted Kennedy in 1972 and Barack Obama in 2008).

Tagalog

fulltext

Last Update: 2016-01-08
Subject: Social Science
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

either the general or the soldiers were aware of the new rule.

Tagalog

alinman sa pangkalahatang o ang mga sundalo ay may kamalayan sa mga bagong patakaran.

Last Update: 2016-01-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

true love can wait either how long the time how far the distance

Tagalog

tunay na pagmamahal ay maaaring maghintay alinman sa kung gaano katagal ang oras kung gaano kalayo ang distansya

Last Update: 2015-10-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

English

either before the game starts prayers

Tagalog

mag dasal bago magsimula ang laro

Last Update: 2015-09-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Enter a program--Substance abusers can choose to undergo the program either outside or inside the rehabilitation center. A patient receives a complete medical checkup and a two week period of detoxification (getting drug free) and go through the behavioral procedure of hte treatment process.

Tagalog

Magpasok ng isang program - mga nang-aabuso na substansiya ay maaaring pumili upang sumailalim sa programa ng alinman sa labas o loob ng rehabilitation center. Ang isang pasyente ay tumanggap ng isang kumpletong medikal checkup at isang dalawang linggong panahon ng detoxification (pagkuha ng gamot libre) at pumunta sa pamamagitan ng proseso ng asal ng prosesong hte treatment.

Last Update: 2015-08-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Primary Education Israel is a complex society with tensions between state and religion, and the cultural rights of jews and arabs. Notwithstanding this, the state curriculum is standardized by the ministry of education and culture who allow few exceptions. The academic year runs from september through to july 6 days a week, and the teaching medium is either Arabic or Hebrew. Education is compulsory and free (although some materials must be bought). Two years of nursery school are prescribed by law, as are the 8 years of primary education that follow. Here pupils learn the academic basics, as they prepare perhaps for the form of secondary education they may follow.

Tagalog

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2015-07-22
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

A cephalic presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal).[1] All other presentations are abnormal (malpresentations) which are either more difficult to deliver or not deliverable by natural means.

Tagalog

kepaliko

Last Update: 2015-07-20
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

English

To find yourself first learn about yourself." Finding the real you is an enlightening experience. You become self-sufficient and do things for yourself, for once. It's a hard feeling to put into words, but when you don't know who you are, it's hard to ignore. Finding yourself is not easy, but it's worth it. If you say it for yourself, as "I'm going to find myself", you mean you're going to remove yourself from your current situation, head off in a new direction (either physically or socially or emotionally), and see if you can discover who you really are, what you want out of life, who you want to become. You're making a major change in your life situation. If you tell this to someone, as "Go find yourself!" as a command, then you're telling them to "get lost", go away leave me alone. There were many frightening moments, many moments I didn’t think I would make it. I made mistake after mistake, which catapulted me in the exact direction I was meant to go. I don’t regret any of it, because all of the wrong choices led me to the right. There's nothing worse than finding yourself in a situation, a very demanding piece of work, and knowing that you're not a true ally to the person who's in charge of all that. When you make the finding yourself--even if you're the last person on Earth to see the light--you'll never forget it.

Tagalog

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2015-03-03
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:
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English

The game of In-Between or Acey-Deucey is often referred to as Red Dog, but its rules are very different from the standard Red Dog game. In-Between is not very popular at casinos, but is often played in home Poker games as a break from Poker itself. The rules below are for the home game, which is easily adaptable for casino play. Rank of Cards. A (high), K, Q, J, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. Object of the Game. The goal is to be the player with the most chips at the end of the game. The Ante. Chips are distributed to the players, and each players puts one chip in the center of the table to form a pool or pot. The Draw. Any player deals one card face up, to each player in turn, and the player with the highest card deals first. The Shuffle, Cut, and Deal. Any player may shuffle, and the dealer shuffles last. The player to the dealer's right cuts the cards. The dealer turns up two cards and places them in the middle of the table, positioning them so that there is ample room for a third card to fit in between. The Betting. The player on the dealer's left may bet up to the entire pot or any portion of the number of chips in the pot, but he must always bet a minimum of one chip. When the player has placed a bet, the dealer turns up the top card from the pack and places it between the two cards already face up. If the card ranks between the two cards already face up, the player wins and takes back the amount of his bet plus an equivalent amount from the pot. If the third card is not between the face-up cards, or is of the same rank as either of them, the player loses his bet, and it is added to the pot. If the two face-up cards up are consecutive, the player automatically loses, and a third card need not be turned up. If the two face-up cards are the same, the player wins two chips and, again, no third card is turned up. (In some games, the player is paid three chips when this occurs.) "Acey-Deucey" (ace, 2) is the best combination, and a player tends to bet the whole pot, if he can. This is because the only way an ace-deuce combination can lose is if the third card turned up is also an ace or a deuce. After the first player has finished, the dealer clears away the cards and places them face down in a pile. The next player then places a bet, and the dealer repeats the same procedure until all the players, including the dealer, have had a turn. If at any time, the pot has no more chips in it (because a player has "bet the pot" and won), each player again puts in one chip to restore the pot. When every player has had a turn to bet, the deal passes to the player on the dealer's left, and the game continues.

Tagalog

sa pagitan ng

Last Update: 2015-02-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
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English

act of lascivioThe crimes of Rape and Acts of Lasciviousness are very different from each other. Firstly, the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness is classified as a crime against chastity under Title Eleven of the Revised Penal Code. On the other hand, Rape, by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 8353 otherwise known as the Anti-Rape Law of 1997, is classified as a crime against persons. Secondly, the elements of these crimes are distinct from each other. In order that there be a crime of Rape, it must be shown that it was committed: (1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation; b) When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c) By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d) When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present; or (2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person (Article 266-A, Revised Penal Code (RPC) as amended). In contrast, the elements of the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness are: (1) the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness against the offended party who is another person of either sex; (2) that it is done: (a) by using force or intimidation; (b) by deprivation of reason or consciousness; or (c) when the offended party is under 12 years of age, even though neither of the circumstances mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs shall be present (Article 336, RPC). Applying the foregoing, it is only possible for your friend to file a criminal complaint for Rape against the person who has sexually assaulted her if the aforestated elements for the crime of Rape are present. A contrario, a complaint for Rape may not be entertained or may even be dismissed, notwithstanding the same has been filed before the proper authorities, if any of the mentioned elements is lacking. Nevertheless, a complaint for Acts of Lasciviousness may stand if she can establish that the elements provided under Article 336 of the RPC transpired during the time she was assailed sexually. We hope that we were able to answer your queries. Please be reminded that this advice is based solely on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. Our opinion may vary when other facts are changed or elaboratedusness

Tagalog

The crimes of Rape and Acts of Lasciviousness are very different from each other. Firstly, the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness is classified as a crime against chastity under Title Eleven of the Revised Penal Code. On the other hand, Rape, by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 8353 otherwise known as the Anti-Rape Law of 1997, is classified as a crime against persons. Secondly, the elements of these crimes are distinct from each other. In order that there be a crime of Rape, it must be shown that it was committed: (1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation; b) When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c) By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d) When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present; or (2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person (Article 266-A, Revised Penal Code (RPC) as amended). In contrast, the elements of the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness are: (1) the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness against the offended party who is another person of either sex; (2) that it is done: (a) by using force or intimidation; (b) by deprivation of reason or consciousness; or (c) when the offended party is under 12 years of age, even though neither of the circumstances mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs shall be present (Article 336, RPC). Applying the foregoing, it is only possible for your friend to file a criminal complaint for Rape against the person who has sexually assaulted her if the aforestated elements for the crime of Rape are present. A contrario, a complaint for Rape may not be entertained or may even be dismissed, notwithstanding the same has been filed before the proper authorities, if any of the mentioned elements is lacking. Nevertheless, a complaint for Acts of Lasciviousness may stand if she can establish that the elements provided under Article 336 of the RPC transpired during the time she was assailed sexually. We hope that we were able to answer your queries. Please be reminded that this advice is based solely on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. Our opinion may vary when other facts are changed or elaborated

Last Update: 2015-02-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

act of lascivioThe crimes of Rape and Acts of Lasciviousness are very different from each other. Firstly, the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness is classified as a crime against chastity under Title Eleven of the Revised Penal Code. On the other hand, Rape, by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 8353 otherwise known as the Anti-Rape Law of 1997, is classified as a crime against persons. Secondly, the elements of these crimes are distinct from each other. In order that there be a crime of Rape, it must be shown that it was committed: (1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation; b) When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c) By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d) When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present; or (2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person (Article 266-A, Revised Penal Code (RPC) as amended). In contrast, the elements of the crime of Acts of Lasciviousness are: (1) the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness against the offended party who is another person of either sex; (2) that it is done: (a) by using force or intimidation; (b) by deprivation of reason or consciousness; or (c) when the offended party is under 12 years of age, even though neither of the circumstances mentioned in the two next preceding paragraphs shall be present (Article 336, RPC). Applying the foregoing, it is only possible for your friend to file a criminal complaint for Rape against the person who has sexually assaulted her if the aforestated elements for the crime of Rape are present. A contrario, a complaint for Rape may not be entertained or may even be dismissed, notwithstanding the same has been filed before the proper authorities, if any of the mentioned elements is lacking. Nevertheless, a complaint for Acts of Lasciviousness may stand if she can establish that the elements provided under Article 336 of the RPC transpired during the time she was assailed sexually. We hope that we were able to answer your queries. Please be reminded that this advice is based solely on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. Our opinion may vary when other facts are changed or elaboratedusness

Tagalog

batas ng lasciviousness

Last Update: 2015-02-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

The culture of Thailand incorporates cultural beliefs and characteristics indigenous to the area known as modern-day Thailand coupled with much influence from ancient China, Cambodia, Laos, India along with the neighboring pre-historic cultures of Southeast Asia.[1] It is influenced primarily by animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, as well as by later migrations from China, and northern India. Contents 1 Religion 2 Customs 2.1 Traditional clothing 3 Marriage 4 Birth traditions and beliefs 5 Funerals 6 Arts 7 Holidays 8 Sports 9 Traditional Games of Thailand 9.1 Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit) 9.2 Banana rib hobbyhorse riding 10 Nicknames 11 See also 12 Notes and references 13 External links Religion Buddhist novices receiving joss sticks. Main article: Religion in Thailand Thailand is nearly 94%-95% Theravada Buddhist (which includes the Thai Forest Tradition and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya and Santi Asoke sects), with minorities of Muslims (5-6%), Christians (1%), Mahayana Buddhists, and other religions.[2] Thai Theravada Buddhism is supported and overseen by the government, with monks receiving a number of government benefits, such as free use of the public transportation infrastructure. Buddhism in Thailand is strongly influenced by traditional beliefs regarding ancestral and natural spirits, which have been incorporated into Buddhist cosmology. Most Thai people own spirit houses, miniature wooden houses in which they believe household spirits live. They present offerings of food and drink to these spirits to keep them happy. If these spirits aren't happy, it is believed that they will inhabit the larger household of the Thai, and cause chaos. These spirit houses can be found in public places and in the streets of Thailand, where the public make offerings.[3] Prior to the rise of Theravada Buddhism, both Indian Brahmanic religion and Mahayana Buddhism were present in Thailand. Influences from both these traditions can still be seen in present day Thai folklore. Brahmanist shrines play an important role in Thai folk religion, and the Mahayana Buddhist influence is reflected in the presence of figures like Lokesvara, a form of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara sometimes incorporated into Thailand's iconography.[4][5] Customs See also: Thai folklore Thai greeting, the smile is an important symbol of refinement in Thai culture. The traditional customs and the folklore of Thai people were gathered and described by Phya Anuman Rajadhon in the 20th century, at a time when modernity changed the face of Thailand and a great number of traditions disappeared or became adapted to modern life. Still, the striving towards refinement, rooted in ancient Siamese culture, consisting of promoting that which is refined and avoiding coarseness is a major focus of the daily life of Thai people and high on their scale of values.[6] One of the most distinctive Thai customs is the wai. Used in greetings, leave-taking, or as an acknowledgement, it comes in many forms, reflecting the relative status of those involved. Generally the salutation involves a prayer-like gesture with the hands, similar to the Añjali Mudrā of the Indian subcontinent, and it also may include a slight bow of the head. This salutation is often accompanied by a serene smile symbolizing a welcoming disposition and a pleasant attitude. Thailand is often referred to as the "land of smiles" in tourist brochures. Public displays of affection is not overly common in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers.[7] It is becoming more common, especially among the younger generation. A notable social norm holds that touching someone on the head may be considered rude. It is also considered rude to place one's feet at a level above someone else's head, especially if that person is of higher social standing. This is because the Thai people consider the foot to be the dirtiest and lowliest part of the body, and the head the most respected and highest part of the body. This also influences how Thais sit when on the ground—their feet always pointing away from others, tucked to the side or behind them. Pointing at or touching something with the feet is also considered rude. Display of respect of the younger towards the elder is a cornerstone value in Thailand. A family during the Buddhist ceremony for young men who are to be ordained as monks. Since serene detachment is valued, conflict and sudden displays of anger are eschewed in Thai culture and, as is many Asian cultures, the notion of face is extremely important. For these reasons, visitors should take care not to create conflict, to display anger or to cause a Thai person to lose face. Disagreements or disputes should be handled with a smile and no attempt should be made to assign blame to another. In everyday life in Thailand, there is a strong emphasis on the concept of sanuk; the idea that life should be fun. Because of this, Thais can be quite playful at work and during day-to-day activities. Displaying positive emotions in social interactions is also important in Thai culture. Often, Thais will deal with disagreements, minor mistakes, or misfortunes by using the phrase mai pen rai, translated as "it doesn't matter". The ubiquitous use of this phrase in Thailand reflects a disposition towards minimizing conflict, disagreements or complaints. A smile and the sentence "mai pen rai" indicates that the incident is not important and therefore there is no conflict or shame involved. Respect for hierarchy is a very important value for Thai people. The custom of bun khun emphasizes the indebtedness towards parents, as well as towards guardians, teachers, and caretakers. It describes the feelings and practices involved in certain relationships organized around generalized reciprocity, the slow-acting accounting of an exchange calculated according to locally interpreted scales and measures.[8] It is also considered rude to step on any type of Thai currency (Thai coin or banknote) as they include a likeness of the king. The 1941-42 Thai cultural mandates, promulgated by Plaek Pibulsonggram, made sweeping changes in Thai culture. Modernization efforts discouraged the wearing of women's traditional costumes, in favour of more modern forms of dress . There are a number of Thai customs relating to the special status of monks in Thai society. Thai monks are forbidden physical contact with women. Women are therefore expected to make way for passing monks to ensure that accidental contact does not occur. A variety of methods are employed to ensure that no incidental contact (or the appearance of such contact) between women and monks occurs. Women making offerings to monks place their donation at the feet of the monk, or on a cloth laid on the ground or a table. Powders or unguents intended to carry a blessing are applied to Thai women by monks using the end of a candle or stick. Laypersons are expected to sit or stand with their heads at a lower level than that of a monk. Within a temple, monks may sit on a raised platform during ceremonies to make this easier to achieve. When sitting in a temple, one is expected to point one's feet away from images of the Buddha. Shrines inside Thai residences are arranged so as to ensure that the feet are not pointed towards the religious icons, such as placing the shrine on the same wall as the head of a bed, if a house is too small to remove the shrine from the bedroom entirely. It is also customary to remove one's footwear before entering a home or the sacred areas within a temple, and not to step on the threshold. Traditional clothing A woman wearing a chut Thai Main article: Chut thai Traditional Thai clothing is called chut thai (Thai: ชุดไทย Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj]) which literally means "Thai outfit". It can be worn by men, women, and children. Chut thai for women usually consists of a pha nung or a chong kraben, a blouse, and a sabai. Northern and northeastern women may wear a sinh instead of a pha nung and a chong kraben with either a blouse or a suea pat. Chut thai for men includes a chong kraben or pants, a Raj pattern shirt, with optional knee-length white socks and a sabai. Chut thai for northern Thai men is composed of a sado, a white Manchu styled jacket, and sometimes a khian hua. In formal occasions, people may choose to wear a chut thai phraratchaniyom. Marriage A traditional wedding in Thailand. Main article: Thai marriage Thai Buddhist marriage ceremonies are generally divided into two parts: a Buddhist component, which includes the recitation of prayers and the offering of food and other gifts to monks and images of the Buddha, and a non-Buddhist component rooted in folk traditions, which centers on the couple's families. In former times, it was unknown for Buddhist monks to be present at any stage of the marriage ceremony itself. As monks were required to attend to the dead during funerals, their presence at a marriage (which was associated with fertility, and intended to produce children) was considered a bad omen. A couple would seek a blessing from their local temple before or after being married, and might consult a monk for astrological advice in setting an auspicious date for the wedding. The non-Buddhist portions of the wedding would take place away from the temple, and would often take place on a separate day. In modern times, these prohibitions have been significantly relaxed. It is not uncommon for a visit to a temple to be made on the same day as the non-Buddhist portions of a wedding, or even for the wedding to take place within the temple. While a division is still commonly observed between the "religious" and "secular" portions of a wedding service, it may be as simple as the monks present for the Buddhist ceremony departing to take lunch once their role is complete. During the Buddhist component of the wedding service, the couple first bow before the image of the Buddha. They then recite certain basic Buddhist prayers or chants (typically including taking the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts), and light incense and candles before the image. The parents of the couple may then be called upon to "connect" them, by placing upon the heads of the bride and groom twin loops of string or thread that link the couple together. The couple may then make offerings of food, flowers, and medicine to the monks present. Cash gifts (usually placed in an envelope) may also be presented to the temple at this time. The monks may then unwind a small length of thread that is held between the hands of the assembled monks. They begin a series of recitations of Pali scriptures intended to bring merit and blessings to the new couple. The string terminates with the lead monk, who may connect it to a container of water that will be "sanctified" for the ceremony. Merit is said to travel through the string and be conveyed to the water. A similar arrangement is used to transfer merit to the dead at a funeral, further evidence of the weakening of the taboo on mixing funerary imagery and trappings with marriage ceremonies. Blessed water may be mixed with wax drippings from a candle lit before the Buddha image and other unguents and herbs to create a paste that is then applied to the foreheads of the bride and groom to create a small dot, similar to the marking made with red ochre on Hindu devotees. The bride's mark is created with the butt end of the candle rather than the monk's thumb, in keeping with the Vinaya prohibition against touching women. The highest-ranking monk present may elect to say a few words to the couple, offering advice or encouragement. The couple may then make offerings of food to the monks, at which point the Buddhist portion of the ceremony is concluded. The Thai dowry system is known as the sin sodt Thai: สินสอด. Traditionally, the groom will be expected to pay a sum of money to the family, to compensate them and to demonstrate that the groom is financially capable of taking care of their daughter. Sometimes, this sum is purely symbolic, and will be returned to the bride and groom after the wedding has taken place. The religious component of marriage ceremonies between Thai Muslims are markedly different from that described above. The Imam of the local mosque, the groom, the father of the bride, men in the immediate family, and important men in the community sit in a circle during the ceremony, conducted by the Imam. All the women, including the bride, sit in a separate room and do not have any direct participation in the ceremony. The secular component of the ceremony, however, is often nearly identical to the secular part of Thai Buddhist wedding ceremonies. The only notable difference here is the type of meat served to guests (goat and/or beef instead of pork). Thai Muslims frequently, though not always, also follow the conventions of the Thai dowry system. Birth traditions and beliefs Main article: Birth in Thailand Traditional principles concerning pregnancy and childbirth are largely influenced by folk beliefs, especially in rural areas of central and north Thailand. Modern practices follow the Western medical model. Funerals See also: Funeral (Buddhism) Funeral pyre of Chan Kusalo, the patriarch-abbot of northern Thailand. Traditionally, funerals last for at least one week. Crying is discouraged during the funeral, so as not to worry the spirit of the deceased. Many activities surrounding the funeral are intended to make merit for the deceased. Copies of Buddhist scriptures may be printed and distributed in the name of the deceased, and gifts are usually given to a local temple. Monks are invited to chant prayers that are intended to provide merit for the deceased, as well as to provide protection against the possibility of the dead relative returning as a malicious spirit. A picture of the deceased from his/her best days will often be displayed next to the coffin. Often, a thread is connected to the corpse or coffin which is held by the chanting monks during their recitation; this thread is intended to transfer the merit of the monks' recitation to the deceased. The corpse is cremated, and the urn with the ash is usually kept in a chedi in the local temple. Thai Chinese and Thai Muslim minorities bury their deceased according to the rituals of their respective communities. Arts A depiction of a white elephant in 19th century Thai art. Main articles: Thai art and Music of Thailand Thai visual arts were traditionally Buddhist. Thai Buddha images from different periods have a number of distinctive styles. Thai temple art and architecture evolved from a number of sources, one of them being Khmer architecture. Contemporary Thai art often combines traditional Thai elements with modern techniques. Literature in Thailand is heavily influenced by Indian Hindu culture. The most notable works of Thai literature are a version of the Ramayana, a Hindu religious epic, called the Ramakien, written in part by Kings Rama I and Rama II, and the poetry of Sunthorn Phu. There is no tradition of spoken drama in Thailand, the role instead being filled by Thai dance. This is divided into three categories: khon, lakhon, and likay, khon being the most elaborate and likay the most popular. Nang drama, a form of shadow play, is found in the south. The music of Thailand includes classical and folk music traditions, e.g., piphat and mor lam, respectively) as well as string or pop music. Holidays Main article: Public holidays in Thailand Important holidays in Thai culture include Thai New Year, or Songkran, which is officially observed from 13–15 April each year. Falling at the end of the dry season and during the hot season in Thailand, the celebrations notoriously feature boisterous water throwing. The water throwing stemmed from washing Buddha images and lightly sprinkling scented water on the hands of elderly people. Small amounts of scented talcum powder were also used in the annual cleansing rite. In recent decades, water fights have been increasingly industrialised with use of hoses, barrels, squirt guns, water-filled surgical tubing, and copious amounts of powder. Loi Krathong is held on the 12th full moon of the Thai lunar calendar, usually early-November. While not a government-observed holiday, it is nonetheless an auspicious day in Thai culture, in which Thai people "loi", meaning "to float" a "krathong", a small raft traditionally made from elaborately folded banana leaves and including flowers, candles, incense sticks, and small offerings. The act of floating away the candle raft is symbolic of letting go of all one's grudges, anger, and defilements so that one can start life afresh on a better footing. Sports Thai boxing is the indigenous national sport in Thailand.[citation needed] Football is perhaps the most-watched sport. The English Premier League is surprisingly popular.[citation needed] Traditional Games of Thailand Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit) “Kratai Kha Deow” or “One Legged Rabbit” is one type of catch game. The catcher will call the rabbit, and the rabbit must stand on one leg and jump or tiptoe to catch the other players and switch to rabbit instead. This game will exercise your legs and practice balancing on one leg. The number of players are divided into two teams, or may not have a team at all. Normally, there are two or more players. At the first time, the player will select the rabbit or team by “Rock-Paper-Scissors”. The loser would have to be a rabbit. In the case of solo player, the rabbit must stand on one leg, then jump to chase and touch any part of the body of other children who have run away. Everyone must stay within the designated area. A player who runs out of space loses the game and must be switched to rabbit, but if the rabbit is exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, it was that defeated and must be punished. In team play, the rules are similar to the solo player, but the rabbit team will send a representative to catch the other team to all the people. Those arrested will have to wait outside until the rabbit team can catch all of the rival teams. Rabbit team can switch to teammates to catch on until they are exhausted, and if the all of the members in rabbit team are exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, the rabbit team lose the game and must be punished too. Banana rib hobbyhorse riding Banana rib hobbyhorse riding or "Khee Ma Khan Kluay" in Thai is a traditional game of Thailand that Thai kids frequently played in the past. They use a banana rib to make the parts of a horse such as head, ear, and horsetail. The kids can make a horse on their own by using banana rib from banana trees irrelevant. This game makes kids enjoy their imagination by assume themselves as a rider, and an exercise. That is a local traditional which is the kids can spent time together. The materials for making a banana rib hobbyhorse are banana rib, knife, small bamboo pin, and string. First, find a rib of a banana around 1.5 is long (1 meter = 2 wa). Cut it in a form of the head, neck, and ears then use a small bamboo pin to connect the ear to the head of a horse. The remaining part of a banana rib, becomes a horsetail. Attach a string between the head and the tail of this banana rib horse and place on the shoulder of the rider. How to play banana rib hobbyhorse riding. Kids will sit on the horse and behave like they are riding a real horse shouting ‘hee hee’ or ‘yee haaah’(making the usual sounds people shout when controlling their horses). They may race with other friends if they have player more than 2 players. Which team runs faster, will be the winner or continuously ride around a wide open space and have fun. Nicknames See also: Thai names Thai people universally have one, or occasionally more, short nicknames (Thai: ชื่อเล่น name-play) that they use with friends a

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budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011) s example

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