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instead

kinuha

Last Update: 2015-05-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

instead

imbes

Last Update: 2014-10-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

instead

ilibing

Last Update: 2014-07-29
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

instead

terminator

Last Update: 2013-03-21
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

instead of a critical

imbis na baho kag nawong

Last Update: 2015-06-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

instead of your smelly face

imbis na baho kag nawong

Last Update: 2015-06-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Passed away instead of died

halimbawa eupemismo

Last Update: 2014-12-04
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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alice in wonderland tagalog veOnce upon a time . . . there lived a woman who had no children. She dreamed of having a little girl, but time went by, and her dream never came true. She then went to visit a witch, who gave her a magic grain of barley. She planted it in a flower pot. And the very next day, the grain had turned into a lovely flower, rather like a tulip. The woman softly kissed its half-shut petals. And as though by magic, the flower opened in full blossom. Inside sat a tiny girl, no bigger than a thumb. The woman called her Thumbelina. For a bed she had a walnut shell, violet petals for her mattress and a rose petal blanket. In the daytime, she played in a tulip petal boat, floating on a plate of water. Using two horse hairs as oars, Thumbelina sailed around her little lake, singing and singing in a gentle sweet voice. Then one night, as she lay fast asleep in her walnut shell, a large frog hopped through a hole in the window pane. As she gazed down at Thumbelina, she said to herself: "How pretty she is! She'd make the perfect bride for my own dear son!" She picked up Thumbelina, walnut shell and all, and hopped into the garden. Nobody saw her go.Back at the pond, her fat ugly son, who always did as mother told him, was pleased with her choice. But mother frog was afraid that her pretty prisoner might run away. So she carried Thumbellna out to a water lily leaf ln the middle of the pond. "She can never escape us now," said the frog to her son. "And we have plenty of time to prepare a new home for you and your bride." Thumbelina was left all alone. She felt so desperate. She knew she would never be able to escape the fate that awaited her with the two horrid fat frogs. All she could do was cry her eyes out. However, one or two minnows who had been enjoying the shade below the water lily leaf, had overheard the two frogs talking, and the little girl's bitter sobs. They decided to do something about it. So they nibbled away at the lily stem till it broke and drifted away in the weak current. A dancing butterfly had an idea: "Throw me the end of your belt! I'll help you to move a little faster!" Thumbelina gratefully did so, and the leaf soon floated away from the frog pond. But other dangers lay ahead. A large beetle snatched Thumbelina with his strong feet and took her away to his home at the top of a leafy tree. "Isn't she pretty?" he said to his friends. But they pointed out that she was far too different. So the beetle took her down the tree and set her free. It was summertime, and Thumbelina wandered all by herself amongst the flowers and through the long grass. She had pollen for her meals and drank the dew. Then the rainy season came, bringing nastyweather. The poor child found it hard to find food and shelter. When winter set in, she suffered from the cold and felt terrible pangs of hunger. One day, as Thumbelina roamed helplessly over the bare meadows, she met a large spider who promised to help her. He took her to a hollow tree and guarded the door with a stout web. Then he brought her some dried chestnuts and called his friends to come and admire her beauty. But just like the beetles, all the other spiders persuaded Thumbelina's rescuer to let her go. Crying her heart out, and quite certain that nobody wanted her because she was ugly, Thumbelina left the spider's house. As she wandered, shivering with the cold, suddenly she came across a solid little cottage, made of twigs and dead leaves. Hopefully, she knocked on the door. It was opened by a field mouse. "What are you doing outside in this weather?" he asked. "Come in and warm yourself." Comfortable and cozy, the field mouse's home was stocked with food. For her keep, Thumbelina did the housework and told the mouse stories. One day, the field mouse said a friend was coming to visit them. "He's a very rich mole, and has a lovely house. He wears a splendid black fur coat, but he's dreadfully shortsighted. He needs company and he'd like to marry you!" Thumbelina did not relish the idea. However, when the mole came, she sang sweetly to him and he fell head over heels in love. The mole invited Thumbelina and the field mouse to visit him, but . . . to their surprise and horror, they came upon a swallow in the tunnel. It looked dead. Mole nudged it wi his foot, saying: "That'll teach her! She should have come underground instead of darting about the sky all summer!" Thumbelina was so shocked by such cruel words that later, she crept back unseen to the tunnel. And every day, the little girl went to nurse the swallow and tenderly give it food. In the meantime, the swallow told Thumbelina its tale. Jagged by a thorn, it had been unable to follow its companions to a warmer climate. "It's kind of you to nurse me," it told Thumbelina. But, in spring, the swallow flew away, after offering to take the little girl with it. All summer, Thumbelina did her best to avoid marrying the mole. The little girl thought fearfully of how she'd have to live underground forever. On the eve of her wedding, she asked to spend a day in the open air. As she gently fingered a flower, she heard a familiar song: "Winter's on its way and I'll be off to warmer lands. Come with me!" Thumbelina quickly clung to her swallow friend, and the bird soared into the sky. They flew over plains and hills till they reached a country of flowers. The swallow gently laid Thumbelina in a blossom. There she met a tiny, white-winged fairy: the King of the Flower Fairies. Instantly, he asked her to marry him. Thumbelina eagerly said "yes", and sprouting tiny white wings, she became the Flower Queen!rsion

Once upon a time . . . there lived a woman who had no children. She dreamed of having a little girl, but time went by, and her dream never came true. She then went to visit a witch, who gave her a magic grain of barley. She planted it in a flower pot. And the very next day, the grain had turned into a lovely flower, rather like a tulip. The woman softly kissed its half-shut petals. And as though by magic, the flower opened in full blossom. Inside sat a tiny girl, no bigger than a thumb. The woman called her Thumbelina. For a bed she had a walnut shell, violet petals for her mattress and a rose petal blanket. In the daytime, she played in a tulip petal boat, floating on a plate of water. Using two horse hairs as oars, Thumbelina sailed around her little lake, singing and singing in a gentle sweet voice. Then one night, as she lay fast asleep in her walnut shell, a large frog hopped through a hole in the window pane. As she gazed down at Thumbelina, she said to herself: "How pretty she is! She'd make the perfect bride for my own dear son!" She picked up Thumbelina, walnut shell and all, and hopped into the garden. Nobody saw her go.Back at the pond, her fat ugly son, who always did as mother told him, was pleased with her choice. But mother frog was afraid that her pretty prisoner might run away. So she carried Thumbellna out to a water lily leaf ln the middle of the pond. "She can never escape us now," said the frog to her son. "And we have plenty of time to prepare a new home for you and your bride." Thumbelina was left all alone. She felt so desperate. She knew she would never be able to escape the fate that awaited her with the two horrid fat frogs. All she could do was cry her eyes out. However, one or two minnows who had been enjoying the shade below the water lily leaf, had overheard the two frogs talking, and the little girl's bitter sobs. They decided to do something about it. So they nibbled away at the lily stem till it broke and drifted away in the weak current. A dancing butterfly had an idea: "Throw me the end of your belt! I'll help you to move a little faster!" Thumbelina gratefully did so, and the leaf soon floated away from the frog pond. But other dangers lay ahead. A large beetle snatched Thumbelina with his strong feet and took her away to his home at the top of a leafy tree. "Isn't she pretty?" he said to his friends. But they pointed out that she was far too different. So the beetle took her down the tree and set her free. It was summertime, and Thumbelina wandered all by herself amongst the flowers and through the long grass. She had pollen for her meals and drank the dew. Then the rainy season came, bringing nastyweather. The poor child found it hard to find food and shelter. When winter set in, she suffered from the cold and felt terrible pangs of hunger. One day, as Thumbelina roamed helplessly over the bare meadows, she met a large spider who promised to help her. He took her to a hollow tree and guarded the door with a stout web. Then he brought her some dried chestnuts and called his friends to come and admire her beauty. But just like the beetles, all the other spiders persuaded Thumbelina's rescuer to let her go. Crying her heart out, and quite certain that nobody wanted her because she was ugly, Thumbelina left the spider's house. As she wandered, shivering with the cold, suddenly she came across a solid little cottage, made of twigs and dead leaves. Hopefully, she knocked on the door. It was opened by a field mouse. "What are you doing outside in this weather?" he asked. "Come in and warm yourself." Comfortable and cozy, the field mouse's home was stocked with food. For her keep, Thumbelina did the housework and told the mouse stories. One day, the field mouse said a friend was coming to visit them. "He's a very rich mole, and has a lovely house. He wears a splendid black fur coat, but he's dreadfully shortsighted. He needs company and he'd like to marry you!" Thumbelina did not relish the idea. However, when the mole came, she sang sweetly to him and he fell head over heels in love. The mole invited Thumbelina and the field mouse to visit him, but . . . to their surprise and horror, they came upon a swallow in the tunnel. It looked dead. Mole nudged it wi his foot, saying: "That'll teach her! She should have come underground instead of darting about the sky all summer!" Thumbelina was so shocked by such cruel words that later, she crept back unseen to the tunnel. And every day, the little girl went to nurse the swallow and tenderly give it food. In the meantime, the swallow told Thumbelina its tale. Jagged by a thorn, it had been unable to follow its companions to a warmer climate. "It's kind of you to nurse me," it told Thumbelina. But, in spring, the swallow flew away, after offering to take the little girl with it. All summer, Thumbelina did her best to avoid marrying the mole. The little girl thought fearfully of how she'd have to live underground forever. On the eve of her wedding, she asked to spend a day in the open air. As she gently fingered a flower, she heard a familiar song: "Winter's on its way and I'll be off to warmer lands. Come with me!" Thumbelina quickly clung to her swallow friend, and the bird soared into the sky. They flew over plains and hills till they reached a country of flowers. The swallow gently laid Thumbelina in a blossom. There she met a tiny, white-winged fairy: the King of the Flower Fairies. Instantly, he asked her to marry him. Thumbelina eagerly said "yes", and sprouting tiny white wings, she became the Flower Queen!

Last Update: 2015-06-22
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

alice in wonderland tagalog veOnce upon a time . . . there lived a woman who had no children. She dreamed of having a little girl, but time went by, and her dream never came true. She then went to visit a witch, who gave her a magic grain of barley. She planted it in a flower pot. And the very next day, the grain had turned into a lovely flower, rather like a tulip. The woman softly kissed its half-shut petals. And as though by magic, the flower opened in full blossom. Inside sat a tiny girl, no bigger than a thumb. The woman called her Thumbelina. For a bed she had a walnut shell, violet petals for her mattress and a rose petal blanket. In the daytime, she played in a tulip petal boat, floating on a plate of water. Using two horse hairs as oars, Thumbelina sailed around her little lake, singing and singing in a gentle sweet voice. Then one night, as she lay fast asleep in her walnut shell, a large frog hopped through a hole in the window pane. As she gazed down at Thumbelina, she said to herself: "How pretty she is! She'd make the perfect bride for my own dear son!" She picked up Thumbelina, walnut shell and all, and hopped into the garden. Nobody saw her go.Back at the pond, her fat ugly son, who always did as mother told him, was pleased with her choice. But mother frog was afraid that her pretty prisoner might run away. So she carried Thumbellna out to a water lily leaf ln the middle of the pond. "She can never escape us now," said the frog to her son. "And we have plenty of time to prepare a new home for you and your bride." Thumbelina was left all alone. She felt so desperate. She knew she would never be able to escape the fate that awaited her with the two horrid fat frogs. All she could do was cry her eyes out. However, one or two minnows who had been enjoying the shade below the water lily leaf, had overheard the two frogs talking, and the little girl's bitter sobs. They decided to do something about it. So they nibbled away at the lily stem till it broke and drifted away in the weak current. A dancing butterfly had an idea: "Throw me the end of your belt! I'll help you to move a little faster!" Thumbelina gratefully did so, and the leaf soon floated away from the frog pond. But other dangers lay ahead. A large beetle snatched Thumbelina with his strong feet and took her away to his home at the top of a leafy tree. "Isn't she pretty?" he said to his friends. But they pointed out that she was far too different. So the beetle took her down the tree and set her free. It was summertime, and Thumbelina wandered all by herself amongst the flowers and through the long grass. She had pollen for her meals and drank the dew. Then the rainy season came, bringing nastyweather. The poor child found it hard to find food and shelter. When winter set in, she suffered from the cold and felt terrible pangs of hunger. One day, as Thumbelina roamed helplessly over the bare meadows, she met a large spider who promised to help her. He took her to a hollow tree and guarded the door with a stout web. Then he brought her some dried chestnuts and called his friends to come and admire her beauty. But just like the beetles, all the other spiders persuaded Thumbelina's rescuer to let her go. Crying her heart out, and quite certain that nobody wanted her because she was ugly, Thumbelina left the spider's house. As she wandered, shivering with the cold, suddenly she came across a solid little cottage, made of twigs and dead leaves. Hopefully, she knocked on the door. It was opened by a field mouse. "What are you doing outside in this weather?" he asked. "Come in and warm yourself." Comfortable and cozy, the field mouse's home was stocked with food. For her keep, Thumbelina did the housework and told the mouse stories. One day, the field mouse said a friend was coming to visit them. "He's a very rich mole, and has a lovely house. He wears a splendid black fur coat, but he's dreadfully shortsighted. He needs company and he'd like to marry you!" Thumbelina did not relish the idea. However, when the mole came, she sang sweetly to him and he fell head over heels in love. The mole invited Thumbelina and the field mouse to visit him, but . . . to their surprise and horror, they came upon a swallow in the tunnel. It looked dead. Mole nudged it wi his foot, saying: "That'll teach her! She should have come underground instead of darting about the sky all summer!" Thumbelina was so shocked by such cruel words that later, she crept back unseen to the tunnel. And every day, the little girl went to nurse the swallow and tenderly give it food. In the meantime, the swallow told Thumbelina its tale. Jagged by a thorn, it had been unable to follow its companions to a warmer climate. "It's kind of you to nurse me," it told Thumbelina. But, in spring, the swallow flew away, after offering to take the little girl with it. All summer, Thumbelina did her best to avoid marrying the mole. The little girl thought fearfully of how she'd have to live underground forever. On the eve of her wedding, she asked to spend a day in the open air. As she gently fingered a flower, she heard a familiar song: "Winter's on its way and I'll be off to warmer lands. Come with me!" Thumbelina quickly clung to her swallow friend, and the bird soared into the sky. They flew over plains and hills till they reached a country of flowers. The swallow gently laid Thumbelina in a blossom. There she met a tiny, white-winged fairy: the King of the Flower Fairies. Instantly, he asked her to marry him. Thumbelina eagerly said "yes", and sprouting tiny white wings, she became the Flower Queen!rsion

Alice sa wonderland tagalog bersyon

Last Update: 2015-06-22
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

Pygmalion and Galatea Pygmalion and Galatea The story of Pygmalion and Galatea is found in Greek Mythology, and in the famous work "Metamorphoses", by the great Roman poet Ovid. Their love was so unique that it is difficult to define it. But from this legendary love story, one thing is clear, man can never love an inanimate object with as much passion as he loves a living, breathing being. Love gives rise to desire and without this passion any love remains unfulfilled. Pygmalion was a master sculptor in the ancient city of Greece. All day he sculpted beautiful statues from huge pieces of rock. In fact, his creations were so wonderful that whoever saw them were mesmerised by their sheer artistic beauty and exact finish. Pygmalion himself was a fine and handsome young man. He was liked by all men and women. Many women loved him for his great skill and looks. But Pygmalion never paid attention to any of these women. He saw so much to blame in women that he came at last to abhor the sex, and resolved to live unmarried. He was a sculptor, and with his with wonderful skill he sculpted a beautiful ivory statue which was so lifelike that it was difficult to believe that it was lifeless at the first glance. The beauty was such that no living woman could compete with it. It was indeed the perfect semblance of a maiden that seemed to be alive, and only prevented from moving by modesty. His art was so perfect that it concealed itself and its product looked like the workmanship of nature. Pygmalion spent hours admiring his creation. By and by Pygmalion's admiration for his own sculpture turned to love. Oftentimes he laid his hand upon it as if to assure himself whether it were living or not, and could not, even then, believe that it was only ivory. He caressed it, and gave it such presents as young girls love - bright shells and polished stones, little birds and flowers of various hues, beads and amber. He adorned his ivory maiden with jewels. He put rainment on its limbs, and jewels on its fingers, and a necklace about its neck. To the ears he hung earrings and strings of pearls upon the breast. Her dress became her, and she looked not less charming than when unattired. He laid her on a couch spread with cloths of Tyrian dye, and called her his wife, and put her head upon a pillow of the softest feathers, as if she could enjoy their softness. He gave the statue a name: "Galatea", meaning "sleeping love'. But what will be the consequence of falling in love with a lifeless ivory maiden? The festival of Aphrodite was at hand - a festival celebrated with great pomp at Cyprus. Victims were offered, the altars smoked, and the odor of incense filled the air. When the festivities of Aphrodite started, Pygmalion took part in the ceremonies. He went to the temple of Aphrodite to ask forgiveness for all the years he had shunned her. When Pygmalion had performed his part in the solemnities, he hesitantly prayed for a wife like his ivory virgin statue. He stood before the altar of Aphrodite and timidly said, "Ye gods, who can do all things, give me, I pray you, for my wife" - he dared not utter "my ivory virgin," but said instead - "one like my ivory virgin." But Goddess Aphrodite understood what the poor man was trying to say. She was curious. How can a man love a lifeless thing so much? Was it so beautiful that Pygmalion fell in love with his own creation? So she visited the studio of the sculptor while he was away. What she saw greatly amazed her. For the sculpture had a perfect likeness to her. In fact, it would not have been wrong to say that the sculpture was an image of Aphrodite herself. Goddess Aphrodite was charmed by Pygmalion's creation. She brought the statue to life. When Pygmalion returned to his home, he went before Galatea and knelt down before the woman of his dreams. He looked at her lovingly, with a lover's ardour. It seemed to him that Galatea was looking at her lovingly too. For a moment, it seemed to Pygmalion that it was just a figment of his imagination. He rubbed his eyes and looked again. But no. There was no mistake this time. Galatea was smiling at him. He laid his hand upon the limbs; the ivory felt soft to his touch and yielded to his fingers like the wax of Hymettus. It seemed to be warm. He stood up; his mind oscillated between doubt and joy. Fearing he may be mistaken, again and again with a lover's ardor he touches the object of his hopes. It was indeed alive! The veins when pressed yielded to the finger and again resumed their roundness. Slowly it dawned on Pygmalion that the animation of his sculpture was the result of his prayer to Goddess Aphrodite who knew his desire. At last, the votary of Aphrodite found words to thank the goddess. Pygmalion humbled himself at the Goddess' feet. Soon Pygmalion and Galatea were wed, and Pygmalion never forgot to thank Aphrodite for the gift she had given him. Aphrodite blessed the nuptials she had formed, and this union between Pygmalion and Galatea produced a son named Paphos, from whom the city Paphos, sacred to Aphrodite, received its name. He and Galatea brought gifts to her temple throughout their life and Aphrodite blessed them with happiness and love in return. The unusual love that blossomed between Pygmalion and Galatea enthralls all. Falling in love with one's creation and then getting the desired object as wife- perhaps this was destined for Pygmalion. Even to this day, countless people and young lovers are mesmerized by this exceptional love that existed between two persons at a time when civilization was in its infancy.

pygmalion sa galatea

Last Update: 2015-06-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

y Mr Sam on May 31, 2012 “Good morning and welcome. I am honored and pleased to have the privilege of speaking to all of you today. Being up here in front of the whole school body makes those nights of endless homework and sleep deprivation seem worth it. For most of the students here, I believe today is an important day for two reasons. First, today ENDS a small part of our lives that we cherished. Second, it gives us a new beginning in which we are able to move a step forward in life. I stand before you trying to say something that would be meaningful and still keep your interest. When I entered Brent School about 6 years ago, I was just a little girl from a normal Korean family who could not speak English at all. I never expected to one day be standing up in front of all of you giving a speech. So I will just give you a little advice that I hope you can find something in my words to help you along your way in the future. As many of you might think, being one of those at the top of your class is of course a result of getting all your work done in time, getting good GPA, or making the right decisions which could sometimes even require you to say no. But here is where I would really like to make my point. To be successful in what you do is far simpler when ‘you’ set up a goal to become what you want to be. Throughout my life, I’ve learned to work toward goals set by myself which have encouraged me to succeed in both academics and sports. For instance, my dream was and still is to go to one of the top three universities back in Korea. To get there, I needed to get a Toefl score of above 110 out of 120, and high GPAs throughout the 4 years of high school. The goals I set establish an endpoint. Do not always expect your goals to be reached easily. Instead, have short-term goals to help you continually work at reaching them. A series of short-term goals may lead you up to the final accomplishment that you wished for. I first worked to get a GPA point of 3.0, then worked to get 3.5, then Bishop Brent. These short-term goals helped me get to the place where I needed to be in order to achieve my goal. I believe that without goals, there is nothing to reach for because there is nothing to keep you going. For those of you who have done CAS, you may understand that the first thing you always do before starting any kind of project is to set up a goal – what you want to achieve through the project. For those of you who don’t know what CAS is, it’s a part of the IB program where students are required to do some community service projects like the POCCH outreach program which I just completed. I set goals to work with the orphanage children who I have never seen before. Through the goals I set up, I was able to provide positive help to these children, do a nice community service project, and satisfy my CAS requirements. By setting up these goals, I set a path for how to succeed. There were difficulties, but I continued to work and work until I met my goal. Set high goals for yourself and strive to achieve those goals, as famous American Scholar once said “If you can imagine it, you can achieve it; if you can dream it, you can become it.” There will be dark times with hardships and challenges. But always remember that the night is the darkest before the dawn. Set goals for yourself, believe in yourself, and work to achieve for yourself. Thank you all for coming here today and listening to my words. Rather than a final farewell, I would like to wish the best of luck to all of you, and especially to the graduating class of 2012. Thank you again and always remember to believe in yourselves. Have a great summer and safe travels!”

salutatorian addressy Mr Sam on May 31, 2012 “Good morning and welcome. I am honored and pleased to have the privilege of speaking to all of you today. Being up here in front of the whole school body makes those nights of endless homework and sleep deprivation seem worth it. For most of the students here, I believe today is an important day for two reasons. First, today ENDS a small part of our lives that we cherished. Second, it gives us a new beginning in which we are able to move a step forward in life. I stand before you trying to say something that would be meaningful and still keep your interest. When I entered Brent School about 6 years ago, I was just a little girl from a normal Korean family who could not speak English at all. I never expected to one day be standing up in front of all of you giving a speech. So I will just give you a little advice that I hope you can find something in my words to help you along your way in the future. As many of you might think, being one of those at the top of your class is of course a result of getting all your work done in time, getting good GPA, or making the right decisions which could sometimes even require you to say no. But here is where I would really like to make my point. To be successful in what you do is far simpler when ‘you’ set up a goal to become what you want to be. Throughout my life, I’ve learned to work toward goals set by myself which have encouraged me to succeed in both academics and sports. For instance, my dream was and still is to go to one of the top three universities back in Korea. To get there, I needed to get a Toefl score of above 110 out of 120, and high GPAs throughout the 4 years of high school. The goals I set establish an endpoint. Do not always expect your goals to be reached easily. Instead, have short-term goals to help you continually work at reaching them. A series of short-term goals may lead you up to the final accomplishment that you wished for. I first worked to get a GPA point of 3.0, then worked to get 3.5, then Bishop Brent. These short-term goals helped me get to the place where I needed to be in order to achieve my goal. I believe that without goals, there is nothing to reach for because there is nothing to keep you going. For those of you who have done CAS, you may understand that the first thing you always do before starting any kind of project is to set up a goal – what you want to achieve through the project. For those of you who don’t know what CAS is, it’s a part of the IB program where students are required to do some community service projects like the POCCH outreach program which I just completed. I set goals to work with the orphanage children who I have never seen before. Through the goals I set up, I was able to provide positive help to these children, do a nice community service project, and satisfy my CAS requirements. By setting up these goals, I set a path for how to succeed. There were difficulties, but I continued to work and work until I met my goal. Set high goals for yourself and strive to achieve those goals, as famous American Scholar once said “If you can imagine it, you can achieve it; if you can dream it, you can become it.” There will be dark times with hardships and challenges. But always remember that the night is the darkest before the dawn. Set goals for yourself, believe in yourself, and work to achieve for yourself. Thank you all for coming here today and listening to my words. Rather than a final farewell, I would like to wish the best of luck to all of you, and especially to the graduating class of 2012. Thank you again and always remember to believe in yourselves. Have a great summer and safe travels!”

Last Update: 2015-03-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Good morning students, school board members, superintendent and district staff. First, I would like to thank all of you, from teachers to friends and family, for being in attendance this morning. You have all had a profound impact on the development of the students that will be graduating today, and I feel it is safe to say that I speak on behalf of the whole graduating Class of 2015, in thanking you for all of your efforts that you have invested in us to this day. When I first sat down to write this speech, tons of thoughts were flowing through my mind. Am I going to reminisce about memories of great importance to me? How about speaking of significant events for the entire school? What is the message I should try to convey? Will I pass out or just be at a loss for words, because to be honest, I did not think I had it in me to do this. But the most important goal I strove for was to create a speech that was truly different. Not that bored people to sleep or followed the traditional “your journey ends here, but a new one begins” format, but instead offered excitement and new insight into this monumental day. However, it is more so about your accomplishments and the best way for me to craft inspiration and motivation in you all. Today is no small feat. It perhaps is the most significant and life altering achievement most of you can claim to this day. Never hesitate to recognize how proud each and every person here today is for you to complete such a long and difficult task. Having worked for over thirteen years just for this moment, it is hard to ignore the determination, perseverance, patience, hardwork and even sacrifice that embodies itself the attitudes of every graduate. The innumerable amount of opportunities your diploma enables you to attain is without doubt, and I encourage all of you to pursue what is most dear to you. Pursue that in which you feel you can make a difference. Looking at you, the Class of 2015, I realize that after today, I may no longer see many of you. That is a painful thought. On the other hand, I am also filled with anticipation, because I have no doubt in my mind that every single one of you sitting before me has the potential to succeed and make a difference in life. Of course, not every one of us can be rich, famous, and powerful, but often times it is the people who just offer words of advice and encouragement that make the world a better place. It is human nature to reflect the mood of others in your own actions, so positive words and actions could have an overwhelming impact on the moods and quality of life of others. The future looks bright. Throughout my years in high school, not only have I gained knowledge of the subjects I have studied, but I have learned many other lessons as well. At times I know some of you questioned the need to attend class, but gaining intelligence is not the only purpose of it. School has helped to build priceless social skills, as well as, instilled a value to succeed. I don’t know about you, but when I see others performing well, I take it as a challenge to try my best as well. Having the correct mindset makes all of the difference. If you believe you can achieve anything, and don’t allow others to tell you differently, what you are capable of achieving is genuinely amazing. I would like to conclude my speech with a quote from Robert Frost. “Two roads diverged in a wood, and I took the road less traveled by, and that has made all the difference.” I encourage you, the Class of 2015, to not only follow the opportunities available to you, but to follow your heart and pursue a cause of particular importance to you. Instead of following the path of past generations and graduating classes, I challenge you all to make your own path. The risks are always present, but the battle always makes the win so much sweeter. For me, it is neither about the money nor the notoriety of a position, but instead whether I can make a difference and love what I do. Thanks again to all the families, friends, teachers, and any others I have missed, for your contributions. They are greatly appreciated. Congratulations again, Class of 2010, and I wish you all the best of luck. I know you’ll do your best. I’ll miss you all. Thank you!

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In the late 1960's, uncle' Pope Paul VI, priests, nuns and seminarians, particularly in Latin America, Africa and the MAHARLIKA, began teaching socialism, known as the 'Liberation Theology'. Because of close diplomatic ties between the Vatican and Communist Russia from 1917 to 1979, the Communists succeeded in attracting sympathizers and followers from among the Roman clergy and hierarchy. In 1962, Pope John XXIII, through French Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, signed the "Vatican-Moscow Agreement" stipulating, among other things, that the Roman Catholic Church would not denounce the errors of Communism. In Italy, a Roman Catholic country, communism was legalized. The Vatican, heavily infiltrated by Masons and Communists, spread its new theology that was a blend of Marxism and Christianity. The generous funding from the "SINDONA--MARCINKLIS—CALVI—P2 LODGE" partnership encouraged subversive catholic movements to disrupt and destabilize the governments in countries where the Vatican had abundance of "blind followers." in the Third World countries, the rich and the government often oppress the poor who constitute the larger portion of the populace. Class struggle ensues, oftentimes, both classes using violence. Countless seminarians, nuns and priests left the security of their convents and gave teach-ins, distributed subversive materials, marched on the streets, rallied and demonstrated in front of government offices and many, tragically, went to the mountains and joined the militant armed struggle. Some of them were killed during encounters with government forces. All this idealism and sacrifice by "sincere and dedicated" people was inspired by the Roman Catholic Church seemingly to bring justice and relief to the SUFFERING POOR of the Maharlika, putting all the blame on the government. What unwitting pawns to a FOREIGN POWER, the VATICAN CHURCH, still obsessed • in playing the oldest game in the world called DOMINATION! "Financial grants, often through religious organizations, sympathetic with left wing insurrections, meant the involvement, even if tangently, of the Vatican Bank whose financial bulk derives from deposits of religious organizations. Hence Catholic priests, being involved in actual armed insurrections in Latin America, the Philippines and Poland would automatically have spelled the potential traffic of clandestine sales of arms and, therefore, the involvement of shady banking concerns such as the mysterious 'shell' companies of the 10R, and as a result, indirectly of the Vatican itself." 1 If the Vatican indeed shed tears over the sufferings of the Filipino people, they were nothing but crocodile tears. As boldly exposed throughout this book, it was the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH that for 500 years perpetrated injustice, oppression and exploitation on the Filipino people. It LORDED OVER them with unequalled banditry and thievery. It coveted their wealth, trampled their dignity and messed up their future. Is it any wonder, then, that those countries .that for centuries were "evangelized," colonized and ravaged like young maidens by the Roman Catholic Spain and Portugal, have dramatically evolved into unjust societies and poverty stricken nations? After the tractors and chainsaws of greedy and irresponsible loggers have gone through virgin forests,. what do we see? Eroded mountains, swollen rivers and flooded valleys! When the TWO SWORDS OF POPE BONIFACE VIII were brought here by the Spanish conquistadors, they "raped" the spiritual, cultural and psychological identity of the people in the Maharlika Islands for 500 years. The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH left to the Filipinos nothing but a desolate economy, a desolate society, a desolate system of worship, a desolate self-image and a desolate spirit. As a Third World country today, the Filipinos were transformed by this Church to the wretched status of beggars, knocking at the doors of affluent nations for measly morsels of food, used clothes (sold as `ukay-ukay') and other amenities. Thanks, but no thanks, to the Roman Catholic Church with its 'Liberation Theology'. The Roman Catholic Church's preaching on the Liberation Theology was supposed to redeem downtrodden Filipinos from poverty and oppression caused by the 'unjust and oppressive Marcos dictatorship and his monies'. The ills of this country during the Marcos regime were not all caused by him. He merely inherited those same ills that were "inflicted by the Roman Catholic Church during the 333 years of lease to Spain for so much 'pound of flesh' by Pope Leo X. And even when this country‘ celebrated its 100 years of independence from Spain (the LESSEE), Filipinos are still dependent on the Vatican (the LESSOR) as evidenced by the manipulation of the country by the Roman Catholic Church's leftist indoctrination in the 70's and 80's. The Liberation Theology gospel spread fast, far and wide among the multitude of BLIND FOLLOWERES, THE ROMANO CATOLICO SARADO that still comprise the majority of the Filipinos today. If the Roman Catholic Church really meant what it taught in its Liberation Theology, this is what it should have done. Instead of just making the suffering poor aware of their miserable conditions (they called this "conscientization") and organizing them to put pressure on the rich ('class struggle') to distribute its wealth, this new theology should have first acknowledged, confessed and apologized that it was this Roman Catholic Church that put them in this pitiful condition in the first place. Say "mea culpa"! Second, it should have rehabilitated the psychologically damaged Filipinos much like a traumatized child before a psychiatrist. The offender (Roman Catholic Church) should have rehabilitated the victim (Filipino people) by promising to make amends. Third, this church, as an example to the rich, should have dug from its overflowing treasure chests and distributed its enormous surplus wealth to the poor, thereby empowering them to start a new and dignified life. This should have been true restitution by the Roman Catholic Church after its 500 years of plunder and exploitation of the Maharlika. THIS SHOULD HAVE BEEN A TRUE AND SINCERE LIBERATION THEOLOGY. It is liberating to the Roman Catholic Church that confesses its sins and makes amends for them. It is liberating as well to the poor, victimized Filipinos who will benefit from the honesty of that church. Instead, what the Roman Catholic Church does today is to give a small share from its overflowing coffers to help the poor and drumbeat the rich to give to its charitable programs. A perfect example in Manila is seen everyday on television. A plea is heard showing street children and scavengers in the garbage dumps and asking generous souls to give to CARITAS. This program belongs to the billionaire Archdiocese of Manila and the announcer belongs to one of the super, super rich religious Roman Catholic congregations in the world. Liberation Theology achieved its goal to topple the Marcos dictatorship, perceived as the root cause of the miseries of the Filipino people. But now after twenty years, the condition of the "oppressed poor" in the Maharlika has not changed. Instead, it has worsened by a millionfold. And the Roman Catholic Church until now is still mouthing its Liberation Theology refrain: "preferential option for the poor" and "solidarity with the poor." Until now a lot of Filipinos brainwashed with this Liberation Theology are on the mountains fighting and running for their survival, kill or be killed. The Modern Vatican Covets The Maharlika In the early 1930's, Europe was in a depression and Germany was financially bankrupt. An unknown party leader promised the German people that he could create jobs and boost its economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolph Hitler. In June 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic, signed a concordat for mutual protection and enhancement. Shortly after that, Hitler was loaded with money. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons for war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918, there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany. Throughout the Spanish occupation of the Maharlika„ members of the Tagean/Tallano clan have been visiting Europe since some of their relatives were English and Austrian. From 1866 to 1898, Prince -Julian 'Macleod Tallano had also been frequenting the Vatican. In 1934 under Pope Pius XII, the Vatican negotiated with a member of the Filipino Royal Family, the Christian Tallano clan in the Maharlika. An agreement was reached that 640,000 metric tons of the Tallano gold would be lent to the Pope. This was part of that gold accumulated by the Southeast Asian Srivijayan/Madjapahit Empire during its glorious reign of 900 years. In 1939, two members of the Tallano family and a Roman Catholic priest, Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, brought the gold from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, to the Vatican.2 After doing this, Fr. Diaz went back to the Maharlika and resided in Cabanatuan City. After World War II, he facilitated the safe return of the 640,000 metric tons of gold from the Vatican to the Maharlika. Manuel Acuna Roxas (a relative of the Acuna/Tageanfrallano clan), then a congressman and Bishop Enrique Sobrepena, Sr, in the presence of Atty. Lorenzo Tanada received the gold in Manila. A lease agreement was made between the Tallano clan and the Maharlika government. A total of 617,500 metric tons of gold was deposited in the newly installed Central Bank of the Maharlika to comply with its requirement for GOLD RESERVE. Under the terms of the contract, the Central Bank became the HOLDER of that gold. That lease agreement will expire in the year 2005.3 Having gained the trust and confidence of Fr. Diaz, the Tallano clan made him the main negotiator and trustee of their gold. Fr. Diaz, in turn, hired the services of Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos, then a highly recommended brilliant young lawyer having attained notoriety when he successfully defended himself in the "Naiundasan Case" in 1939. The Tallano clan paid commission to Fr. Diaz and Atty. Marcos in gold, 30% from the principal of 640,000 metric tons.4 In 1949, the two richest men in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Between the two of them they legitimately earned and owned 192,000 metric tons of gold. Ferdinand Marcos withdrew their share of the gold from the Central Bank and minted it "RP-CD." Sometime later, Fr. Diaz and Marcos brought their gold to Switzerland, in the Swiss Bank Corporation in Zurich. The remaining 400,000 metric tons of 1 Tallano gold is in the third floor basement of the Central Bank Minting Plant in East Ave., Quezon City. There are 950,000 metric tons of gold (declared missing in the International court of Justice) picked up by Yamashita from its European ally, Hitler. Another 250,000 tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Maharlika. This country then became the holder of 1.6 million metric tons of gold bars. Some of the Yamashita gold buried in the Maharlika has been found. But the bulk of it is still buried to this day. And even now, thousands are secretly digging for it, including Japanese treasure hunters. The World Street Journal in its November 15, 1985 issue wrote that two thirds of all the gold in the world is in the Maharlika. One third is divided among the rest of the countries in the world. Very few Filipinos know this. When Marcos took over the government in 1965, the Maharlika had a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. In 1986, when the Americans forcibly brought Marcos to Hawaii, President Aquino inherited a foreign debt of US$24 billion. But, of these, US$7 billion was incurred by the private sector. At his ouster, Marcos left US$2.5 billion in the Central Bank reserve. This means that Pres. Marcos during his 20 years of absolute rule only incurred a measly US$1 billion foreign debt to build up this nation with its fast growing population and numerous infrastructure projects. How did President Marcos manage this government financially? Aside from the annual national budget of P35 billion financed by the national treasury, he had all this gold at his disposal for building the infrastructure projects that today stand unequaled to all the four succeeding presidents. Today, this country has a foreign debt of around US$75 billion. From 1986 to 2000, the government under three presidents incurred a debt of US$51 billion on top of its original US$24 billion — in just 14 years! In the 1997 Philippine Yearbook (National Statistics Office) a Summary of Government Expenditures from 1966 to 1997 was made. From 1965-1986 (20 years) President Marcos spent P486, 273 Billion From 1986-1991 (6 years) President Aquino spent P1, 077,895 Trillion. From 1992-1997 (6 years) President Ramos spent P2, 237,907 Trillion. Between May 14 to June 5, 2003, a nationwide survey report conducted and administered by Asia Pacific Periscope put out this question: "Among our Presidents, who do you think had done most for the country?" The results were: Marcos 41%, Magsaysay 15%, Aquino 6%, Ramos 6%, Estrada 4%, Arroyo 2%, Quezon 0.3%, Quirino 0.3% and 22% could not give any name. Margin of error was +1- 2.7%. When Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana, died in 1974 all that 30% commission in gold became the legendary "MARCOS GOLD." After providing for his family in Marcos' Letter of Instruction, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. This was the "MARCOS WEALTH" that some politicians and churchmen kept on saying was the "ILL-GOTTEN" Marcos wealth that until today is in "Marcos secret accounts." On April 9, 1973 Marcos said: "My earthly goods have been placed in the custody and for the disposition of the Marcos Foundation dedicated to the welfare of the Filipino people." The Demolition Campaign In the 70's and 80's, "blood money" from the Roman Catholic Church, channeled into the Maharlika via the Vatican Bank and another foreign power, fueled the flames of dissension in the countryside and on the streets of Manila. A concerted church and foreign civil destabilization and demolition campaign was waged against Marcos. All that gold in the hands of one man like Marcos was a threat to those who have been used for so long with so much' money and power. Marcos became too powerful and would not tow the line of the two established power in the world, the VATICAN and the TRILATERAL COMMISSION (U.S.A.—GERMANY--JAPAN). But Marcos was no lap dog (lute') to any foreign power. In 1966, during President Marcos' First State Visit to the U.S.A., he renegotiated the Military Bases Agreement (MBA) of March 14, 1947. He refused to compromise the nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity and successfully negotiated the reduction of the Military Base Agreement lease, which was supposed to end in 2046 to just 25 more years — ending in 1991, instead of 2046. This made the USA angry. When the USA recognized Maharlika sovereignty over the military bases on January 7, 1979, President Marcos called it "the final liberation of the Philippines." Most significantly, the U.S. Ambassador Richard W. Murphy in • his letter to the Maharlika Minister for Foreign Affairs, Carlos P. Romulo, dated January 7, 1979 said: "Only the Philippine flag shall be flown singly at the Bases. The United States flag together with the Philippine flag that shall at all times occupy the place of honor, may be displayed within buildings anti other indoor sites on United States facilities and in front of headquarters of the United States Commanders and upon coordination with the Philippine Base Commanders for appropriate outdoor ceremonies such as military honors and parades on the facilities." In his grand plan, Marcos wanted to re-establish the former grandeur of the Maharlika and the whole region of Southeast Asia, the former Malayan Empire. In June 1983, Marcos appeared before the First World leaders in Toronto. He announced his plan to boost the economy of the Southeast Asian region by creating the ASIAN DOLLAR. This would be backed up by the 400,000 metric tons of gold in the Central Bank of the Maharlika and the other gold he scattered around the region. He would also add to this his own Personal 192,000 metric tons in Switzerland. his Asian Dollar, backed up by the "two thirds of all the gold in the World" that was in the Maharlika, would have made the Maharlika money more valuable and stronger than the American dollar. This was his vision to raise Southeast Asia to be at par with the rest of the First World countries. The very next day James Baker, the head of the C.I.A., replaced Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State. Subsequently, an intensified demolition job on Marcos and the destruction of his party were ingeniously planned and carried out. Two months later, on August 21, 1983 Senator Ninoy Aquino was assassinated at the Manila International Airport. The blame was placed on Marcos. To this day the assassination of Ninoy Aquino has not yet been solved. It has to be kept this way because solving it would open a Pandora's box and reveal skeletons in the closet of many prominent people very close to Ninoy Aquino who are still enjoying the high esteem of the public today. The Coup De Grace: EDSA Revolution A year and a half later, on December 26, 1984, the "CORY CONSTITUTION" was formulated. This was the first coup d'etat ever planned in the modern history of the Maharlika. The document was entitled: DECLARATION OF UNITY. It says: "WHEREAS it has become the imperative &Ay for all who oppose the Marcos regime to join forces to restore the freedom and sovereignty of the Filipino people and thereafter to reconstruct the national economy and improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, starting with the poor, the voiceless and the oppressed, and WHEREAS we believe that the foregoing objectives can best be attained by implementing the following values, principles and convictions which we all share.' There are eight points in the Cory Constitution. Point 6 says: "Belief in a Pluralistic Society. The new leadership will respect and protect freedom of expression and the right to disseminate all philosophies and non-violent programs. It trusts the capacity of the people to choose freely what is best for the nation, and will honor the choice of the people even if it differs from theirs. The Communist Party of the Philippines will be legalized. In order to remove obstacles to national unity, the new leadership will take steps, immediately upon assumption of office, to address all legitimate grievances of all who have resorted to armed struggle." Point 8.1 says: The new leadership commits itself to eliminate the social cancer of graft and corruption, public or private..." Point 8.3 says: "...(Marcos') Ill-gotten wealth, , property and assets shall be confiscated..." In conclusion, the CORY CONSTITUTION says. 'Therefore, we sign these presents to solemnly affirm our commitment to the foregoing values. principles and convictions and to signify our resolve to exhaust all means to unify all parties, organizations and fortes in opposition to the Marcos regime." Signed in Quezon City by: 1. Agapito "Butz" Aquino, 2. Jose W. Diokno, 3. Teofisto Guingona, 4. Eva Estrada Kalaw, 5. Salvador H. Laurel, 6. Raul S. Manglapus, 7. Ramon Mitra, Jr.. 8. Ambrosio Padilla, 9. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., 10. Rafael Sales, 11. Jovito Salonga. Signed by the conveyor group are: 1. Corazon C. Aquino, 2. Jaime V. Ongpin, 3. Lorenzo M. Tanada. U.S. Senator Paul Laxalt, in his article that appeared in the U.S. magazine Policy Review (1986) entitled "My Conversations with Ferdinand Marcos", said: "It appears from what I read in the papers that she (Cory Aquino) made a serious strategic mistake in releasing the

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The culture of Thailand incorporates cultural beliefs and characteristics indigenous to the area known as modern-day Thailand coupled with much influence from ancient China, Cambodia, Laos, India along with the neighboring pre-historic cultures of Southeast Asia.[1] It is influenced primarily by animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, as well as by later migrations from China, and northern India. Contents 1 Religion 2 Customs 2.1 Traditional clothing 3 Marriage 4 Birth traditions and beliefs 5 Funerals 6 Arts 7 Holidays 8 Sports 9 Traditional Games of Thailand 9.1 Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit) 9.2 Banana rib hobbyhorse riding 10 Nicknames 11 See also 12 Notes and references 13 External links Religion Buddhist novices receiving joss sticks. Main article: Religion in Thailand Thailand is nearly 94%-95% Theravada Buddhist (which includes the Thai Forest Tradition and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya and Santi Asoke sects), with minorities of Muslims (5-6%), Christians (1%), Mahayana Buddhists, and other religions.[2] Thai Theravada Buddhism is supported and overseen by the government, with monks receiving a number of government benefits, such as free use of the public transportation infrastructure. Buddhism in Thailand is strongly influenced by traditional beliefs regarding ancestral and natural spirits, which have been incorporated into Buddhist cosmology. Most Thai people own spirit houses, miniature wooden houses in which they believe household spirits live. They present offerings of food and drink to these spirits to keep them happy. If these spirits aren't happy, it is believed that they will inhabit the larger household of the Thai, and cause chaos. These spirit houses can be found in public places and in the streets of Thailand, where the public make offerings.[3] Prior to the rise of Theravada Buddhism, both Indian Brahmanic religion and Mahayana Buddhism were present in Thailand. Influences from both these traditions can still be seen in present day Thai folklore. Brahmanist shrines play an important role in Thai folk religion, and the Mahayana Buddhist influence is reflected in the presence of figures like Lokesvara, a form of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara sometimes incorporated into Thailand's iconography.[4][5] Customs See also: Thai folklore Thai greeting, the smile is an important symbol of refinement in Thai culture. The traditional customs and the folklore of Thai people were gathered and described by Phya Anuman Rajadhon in the 20th century, at a time when modernity changed the face of Thailand and a great number of traditions disappeared or became adapted to modern life. Still, the striving towards refinement, rooted in ancient Siamese culture, consisting of promoting that which is refined and avoiding coarseness is a major focus of the daily life of Thai people and high on their scale of values.[6] One of the most distinctive Thai customs is the wai. Used in greetings, leave-taking, or as an acknowledgement, it comes in many forms, reflecting the relative status of those involved. Generally the salutation involves a prayer-like gesture with the hands, similar to the Añjali Mudrā of the Indian subcontinent, and it also may include a slight bow of the head. This salutation is often accompanied by a serene smile symbolizing a welcoming disposition and a pleasant attitude. Thailand is often referred to as the "land of smiles" in tourist brochures. Public displays of affection is not overly common in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers.[7] It is becoming more common, especially among the younger generation. A notable social norm holds that touching someone on the head may be considered rude. It is also considered rude to place one's feet at a level above someone else's head, especially if that person is of higher social standing. This is because the Thai people consider the foot to be the dirtiest and lowliest part of the body, and the head the most respected and highest part of the body. This also influences how Thais sit when on the ground—their feet always pointing away from others, tucked to the side or behind them. Pointing at or touching something with the feet is also considered rude. Display of respect of the younger towards the elder is a cornerstone value in Thailand. A family during the Buddhist ceremony for young men who are to be ordained as monks. Since serene detachment is valued, conflict and sudden displays of anger are eschewed in Thai culture and, as is many Asian cultures, the notion of face is extremely important. For these reasons, visitors should take care not to create conflict, to display anger or to cause a Thai person to lose face. Disagreements or disputes should be handled with a smile and no attempt should be made to assign blame to another. In everyday life in Thailand, there is a strong emphasis on the concept of sanuk; the idea that life should be fun. Because of this, Thais can be quite playful at work and during day-to-day activities. Displaying positive emotions in social interactions is also important in Thai culture. Often, Thais will deal with disagreements, minor mistakes, or misfortunes by using the phrase mai pen rai, translated as "it doesn't matter". The ubiquitous use of this phrase in Thailand reflects a disposition towards minimizing conflict, disagreements or complaints. A smile and the sentence "mai pen rai" indicates that the incident is not important and therefore there is no conflict or shame involved. Respect for hierarchy is a very important value for Thai people. The custom of bun khun emphasizes the indebtedness towards parents, as well as towards guardians, teachers, and caretakers. It describes the feelings and practices involved in certain relationships organized around generalized reciprocity, the slow-acting accounting of an exchange calculated according to locally interpreted scales and measures.[8] It is also considered rude to step on any type of Thai currency (Thai coin or banknote) as they include a likeness of the king. The 1941-42 Thai cultural mandates, promulgated by Plaek Pibulsonggram, made sweeping changes in Thai culture. Modernization efforts discouraged the wearing of women's traditional costumes, in favour of more modern forms of dress . There are a number of Thai customs relating to the special status of monks in Thai society. Thai monks are forbidden physical contact with women. Women are therefore expected to make way for passing monks to ensure that accidental contact does not occur. A variety of methods are employed to ensure that no incidental contact (or the appearance of such contact) between women and monks occurs. Women making offerings to monks place their donation at the feet of the monk, or on a cloth laid on the ground or a table. Powders or unguents intended to carry a blessing are applied to Thai women by monks using the end of a candle or stick. Laypersons are expected to sit or stand with their heads at a lower level than that of a monk. Within a temple, monks may sit on a raised platform during ceremonies to make this easier to achieve. When sitting in a temple, one is expected to point one's feet away from images of the Buddha. Shrines inside Thai residences are arranged so as to ensure that the feet are not pointed towards the religious icons, such as placing the shrine on the same wall as the head of a bed, if a house is too small to remove the shrine from the bedroom entirely. It is also customary to remove one's footwear before entering a home or the sacred areas within a temple, and not to step on the threshold. Traditional clothing A woman wearing a chut Thai Main article: Chut thai Traditional Thai clothing is called chut thai (Thai: ชุดไทย Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj]) which literally means "Thai outfit". It can be worn by men, women, and children. Chut thai for women usually consists of a pha nung or a chong kraben, a blouse, and a sabai. Northern and northeastern women may wear a sinh instead of a pha nung and a chong kraben with either a blouse or a suea pat. Chut thai for men includes a chong kraben or pants, a Raj pattern shirt, with optional knee-length white socks and a sabai. Chut thai for northern Thai men is composed of a sado, a white Manchu styled jacket, and sometimes a khian hua. In formal occasions, people may choose to wear a chut thai phraratchaniyom. Marriage A traditional wedding in Thailand. Main article: Thai marriage Thai Buddhist marriage ceremonies are generally divided into two parts: a Buddhist component, which includes the recitation of prayers and the offering of food and other gifts to monks and images of the Buddha, and a non-Buddhist component rooted in folk traditions, which centers on the couple's families. In former times, it was unknown for Buddhist monks to be present at any stage of the marriage ceremony itself. As monks were required to attend to the dead during funerals, their presence at a marriage (which was associated with fertility, and intended to produce children) was considered a bad omen. A couple would seek a blessing from their local temple before or after being married, and might consult a monk for astrological advice in setting an auspicious date for the wedding. The non-Buddhist portions of the wedding would take place away from the temple, and would often take place on a separate day. In modern times, these prohibitions have been significantly relaxed. It is not uncommon for a visit to a temple to be made on the same day as the non-Buddhist portions of a wedding, or even for the wedding to take place within the temple. While a division is still commonly observed between the "religious" and "secular" portions of a wedding service, it may be as simple as the monks present for the Buddhist ceremony departing to take lunch once their role is complete. During the Buddhist component of the wedding service, the couple first bow before the image of the Buddha. They then recite certain basic Buddhist prayers or chants (typically including taking the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts), and light incense and candles before the image. The parents of the couple may then be called upon to "connect" them, by placing upon the heads of the bride and groom twin loops of string or thread that link the couple together. The couple may then make offerings of food, flowers, and medicine to the monks present. Cash gifts (usually placed in an envelope) may also be presented to the temple at this time. The monks may then unwind a small length of thread that is held between the hands of the assembled monks. They begin a series of recitations of Pali scriptures intended to bring merit and blessings to the new couple. The string terminates with the lead monk, who may connect it to a container of water that will be "sanctified" for the ceremony. Merit is said to travel through the string and be conveyed to the water. A similar arrangement is used to transfer merit to the dead at a funeral, further evidence of the weakening of the taboo on mixing funerary imagery and trappings with marriage ceremonies. Blessed water may be mixed with wax drippings from a candle lit before the Buddha image and other unguents and herbs to create a paste that is then applied to the foreheads of the bride and groom to create a small dot, similar to the marking made with red ochre on Hindu devotees. The bride's mark is created with the butt end of the candle rather than the monk's thumb, in keeping with the Vinaya prohibition against touching women. The highest-ranking monk present may elect to say a few words to the couple, offering advice or encouragement. The couple may then make offerings of food to the monks, at which point the Buddhist portion of the ceremony is concluded. The Thai dowry system is known as the sin sodt Thai: สินสอด. Traditionally, the groom will be expected to pay a sum of money to the family, to compensate them and to demonstrate that the groom is financially capable of taking care of their daughter. Sometimes, this sum is purely symbolic, and will be returned to the bride and groom after the wedding has taken place. The religious component of marriage ceremonies between Thai Muslims are markedly different from that described above. The Imam of the local mosque, the groom, the father of the bride, men in the immediate family, and important men in the community sit in a circle during the ceremony, conducted by the Imam. All the women, including the bride, sit in a separate room and do not have any direct participation in the ceremony. The secular component of the ceremony, however, is often nearly identical to the secular part of Thai Buddhist wedding ceremonies. The only notable difference here is the type of meat served to guests (goat and/or beef instead of pork). Thai Muslims frequently, though not always, also follow the conventions of the Thai dowry system. Birth traditions and beliefs Main article: Birth in Thailand Traditional principles concerning pregnancy and childbirth are largely influenced by folk beliefs, especially in rural areas of central and north Thailand. Modern practices follow the Western medical model. Funerals See also: Funeral (Buddhism) Funeral pyre of Chan Kusalo, the patriarch-abbot of northern Thailand. Traditionally, funerals last for at least one week. Crying is discouraged during the funeral, so as not to worry the spirit of the deceased. Many activities surrounding the funeral are intended to make merit for the deceased. Copies of Buddhist scriptures may be printed and distributed in the name of the deceased, and gifts are usually given to a local temple. Monks are invited to chant prayers that are intended to provide merit for the deceased, as well as to provide protection against the possibility of the dead relative returning as a malicious spirit. A picture of the deceased from his/her best days will often be displayed next to the coffin. Often, a thread is connected to the corpse or coffin which is held by the chanting monks during their recitation; this thread is intended to transfer the merit of the monks' recitation to the deceased. The corpse is cremated, and the urn with the ash is usually kept in a chedi in the local temple. Thai Chinese and Thai Muslim minorities bury their deceased according to the rituals of their respective communities. Arts A depiction of a white elephant in 19th century Thai art. Main articles: Thai art and Music of Thailand Thai visual arts were traditionally Buddhist. Thai Buddha images from different periods have a number of distinctive styles. Thai temple art and architecture evolved from a number of sources, one of them being Khmer architecture. Contemporary Thai art often combines traditional Thai elements with modern techniques. Literature in Thailand is heavily influenced by Indian Hindu culture. The most notable works of Thai literature are a version of the Ramayana, a Hindu religious epic, called the Ramakien, written in part by Kings Rama I and Rama II, and the poetry of Sunthorn Phu. There is no tradition of spoken drama in Thailand, the role instead being filled by Thai dance. This is divided into three categories: khon, lakhon, and likay, khon being the most elaborate and likay the most popular. Nang drama, a form of shadow play, is found in the south. The music of Thailand includes classical and folk music traditions, e.g., piphat and mor lam, respectively) as well as string or pop music. Holidays Main article: Public holidays in Thailand Important holidays in Thai culture include Thai New Year, or Songkran, which is officially observed from 13–15 April each year. Falling at the end of the dry season and during the hot season in Thailand, the celebrations notoriously feature boisterous water throwing. The water throwing stemmed from washing Buddha images and lightly sprinkling scented water on the hands of elderly people. Small amounts of scented talcum powder were also used in the annual cleansing rite. In recent decades, water fights have been increasingly industrialised with use of hoses, barrels, squirt guns, water-filled surgical tubing, and copious amounts of powder. Loi Krathong is held on the 12th full moon of the Thai lunar calendar, usually early-November. While not a government-observed holiday, it is nonetheless an auspicious day in Thai culture, in which Thai people "loi", meaning "to float" a "krathong", a small raft traditionally made from elaborately folded banana leaves and including flowers, candles, incense sticks, and small offerings. The act of floating away the candle raft is symbolic of letting go of all one's grudges, anger, and defilements so that one can start life afresh on a better footing. Sports Thai boxing is the indigenous national sport in Thailand.[citation needed] Football is perhaps the most-watched sport. The English Premier League is surprisingly popular.[citation needed] Traditional Games of Thailand Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit) “Kratai Kha Deow” or “One Legged Rabbit” is one type of catch game. The catcher will call the rabbit, and the rabbit must stand on one leg and jump or tiptoe to catch the other players and switch to rabbit instead. This game will exercise your legs and practice balancing on one leg. The number of players are divided into two teams, or may not have a team at all. Normally, there are two or more players. At the first time, the player will select the rabbit or team by “Rock-Paper-Scissors”. The loser would have to be a rabbit. In the case of solo player, the rabbit must stand on one leg, then jump to chase and touch any part of the body of other children who have run away. Everyone must stay within the designated area. A player who runs out of space loses the game and must be switched to rabbit, but if the rabbit is exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, it was that defeated and must be punished. In team play, the rules are similar to the solo player, but the rabbit team will send a representative to catch the other team to all the people. Those arrested will have to wait outside until the rabbit team can catch all of the rival teams. Rabbit team can switch to teammates to catch on until they are exhausted, and if the all of the members in rabbit team are exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, the rabbit team lose the game and must be punished too. Banana rib hobbyhorse riding Banana rib hobbyhorse riding or "Khee Ma Khan Kluay" in Thai is a traditional game of Thailand that Thai kids frequently played in the past. They use a banana rib to make the parts of a horse such as head, ear, and horsetail. The kids can make a horse on their own by using banana rib from banana trees irrelevant. This game makes kids enjoy their imagination by assume themselves as a rider, and an exercise. That is a local traditional which is the kids can spent time together. The materials for making a banana rib hobbyhorse are banana rib, knife, small bamboo pin, and string. First, find a rib of a banana around 1.5 is long (1 meter = 2 wa). Cut it in a form of the head, neck, and ears then use a small bamboo pin to connect the ear to the head of a horse. The remaining part of a banana rib, becomes a horsetail. Attach a string between the head and the tail of this banana rib horse and place on the shoulder of the rider. How to play banana rib hobbyhorse riding. Kids will sit on the horse and behave like they are riding a real horse shouting ‘hee hee’ or ‘yee haaah’(making the usual sounds people shout when controlling their horses). They may race with other friends if they have player more than 2 players. Which team runs faster, will be the winner or continuously ride around a wide open space and have fun. Nicknames See also: Thai names Thai people universally have one, or occasionally more, short nicknames (Thai: ชื่อเล่น name-play) that they use with friends a

nilalaman

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Benjamin "Benjie" Santos VIII (Vice Ganda) comes from a long line of warriors and soldiers. His grandfather, Benjamin Santos VI (Eddie Garcia), expects him to be in the army and to be like his ancestors who fought every battle in the country. He lives with his parents and two sisters named Jesamine (Angelie Urquico) and Anjamin (Abby Bautista). His father, Benjamin Santos VII (Jimmy Santos), gave up being a military soldier to be what he wants to be, a scientist and an inventor. Benjie's grandfather did not agree with his decision, so they were forced to leave his grandfather's house and to never come back. They now live in a cramped house, where they started a new life. His father, as expected, followed what makes him happy. He invented gadgets and unique deadly weapons. Some examples are the Fart-gun, or the Utot-gun in Tagalog, a fan that shoots bullets, and a tiara that can kill thousands of people. A few years later they were invited to his grandfather's 75th birthday by a relative. His grandfather finds out Benjie is gay. They were asked to leave and to never show their faces again for they are a disgrace to the Santos family. When a civil war in the Philippines breaks out, Benjie is forced to enlist in place of his ailing father, who was said to have high blood pressure and diabetes. After a long time training, Benjie's group was to be dissolved for being not good enough. His group decides to train at night, and show their improvement in the morning. A rival group, incensed with constantly losing to Benjie's group during training, sought to reveal Benjie's sexuality by getting Benjie drunk and filming a sex video of him. The following morning, the High-General calls Benjie because of the video, and makes him leave the army. When Benjamin was about to leave, his friends joined him saying, "Hindi kami masaya kung wala ka!" ("We are not happy without you!"). They left the army, and while travelling through a wooded area, they heard some trucks and cars moving. They wake up, and followed the cars, resulting in them discovering the location of the enemy base by accident. They went back to the army, and told the High-General about what they saw, but he wouldn't believe them. They believed the real enemy base was in Tanay, based on the army's gathered information and decided to attack there instead. While the army searched for enemy forces at the Tanay base, they were ambushed by hundreds of terrorists. Meanwhile, Benjie's group returns to the enemy's real base, where they saw the terrorist's trucks with the captured forces, including Benjie's grandfather and Brandon Estolas (Derek Ramsay)—the group's former commander in the army and Benjie's love-interest. They then make plans to rescue their allies by dressing up as girls to trick the enemy guards into letting them inside their base. Once inside, the group kills many people with the tiara, fan, and Fart-gun that Benjie's father invented. As they enter the base, the group split up in different ways. When one of the terrorists spots what he thought was Benjie hiding in a metal barrel, he then tells Abe Sayyep (named after the Abu Sayyaf), the squadron commander, about what he saw. Abe Sayyep pulls out the wig Benjie put in the barrel, only to find out it was some sort of trickery. Benjie finds his grandfather, Brandon, and the other generals. Benjie's grandfather thanks him and asks for forgiveness for treating him so badly. Benjie is then reunited with his group, where Abe Sayyep appears and shoots Benjie's grandfather. Benjie jumps in front of his grandfather in order to save him. He sees himself in heaven, and sees his great-grandfathers, who tell him that he did very well and it is not yet the time for him to die. He is soon revived, and the group returns home, where they celebrate their victory with a party

buod Ng pelikulang praybeyt Benjamin

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History[edit] First known selfie, taken by Robert Cornelius in 1839 Robert Cornelius, an American pioneer in photography, produced a daguerreotype of himself in 1839 which is also one of the first photographs of a person. Because the process was slow, Cornelius was able to run into the shot for a minute or more, and then replace the lens cap.[1] He recorded on the back "The first light Picture ever taken. 1839."[1][2] Woman taking her picture in a mirror, ca. 1900 The debut of the portable Kodak Brownie box camera in 1900 led to photographic self-portraiture becoming a more widespread technique. The method was usually with the use of a mirror and stabilizing the camera either on a nearby object or on a tripod while framing via a viewfinder at the top of the box.[3] Russian Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna at the age of 13 was one of the first teenagers to take her own picture using a mirror to send to a friend in 1914. In the letter that accompanied the photograph, she wrote, "I took this picture of myself looking at the mirror. It was very hard as my hands were trembling."[4] The earliest usage of the word selfie has been traced to 2002 when it first appeared in an Australian internet forum (ABC Online) on 13 September in a comment written by Nathan Hope: "Um, drunk at a mates 21st, I tripped ofer and landed lip first (with front teeth coming a very close second) on a set of steps. I had a hole about 1cm long right through my bottom lip. And sorry about the focus, it was a selfie."[5][6] As with other new technologies, the protocols and etiquette for taking and disseminating selfies remains under development, with appropriate use a matter for consideration.[7] Popularity[edit] The term "selfie" was discussed by photographer Jim Krause in 2005,[8] although photos anticipating some of the formal aspects of the selfie can be seen in the self-taken photographs that were particularly common on MySpace. Writer Kate Losse proposes that between 2006 and 2009 (when Facebook became more popular than MySpace), the "MySpace pic" (typically "an amateurish, flash-blinded self-portrait, often taken in front of a bathroom mirror") became an indication of bad taste for users of the newer Facebook social network. Early Facebook portraits, Losse claims in contrast, were usually well-focused and more formal, taken by others from distance. According to Losse, improvements in design—especially the front-facing camera copied by the iPhone 4 (2010) from Korean and Japanese mobile phones, mobile photo apps such as Instagram, and selfie sites such as ItisMee—led to the resurgence of selfies in the early 2010s.[9] Buzz Aldrin took the first EVA selfie in 1966. Initially popular with young people, selfies gained wider popularity over time.[10][11] By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time".[12] According to a 2013 survey, two-thirds of Australian women age 18–35 take selfies—the most common purpose for which is posting on Facebook.[11] A poll commissioned by smartphone and camera maker Samsung found that selfies make up 30% of the photos taken by people aged 18–24.[13] By 2013, the word "selfie" had become commonplace enough to be monitored for inclusion in the online version of the Oxford English Dictionary.[14] In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary, which gave the word itself an Australian origin.[15] Selfies have also taken beyond Earth. Selfies taken in space include those by astronauts,[16] an image by NASA's Curiosity rover of itself on Mars,[17] and images created by an indirect method, where a self-portrait photograph taken on Earth is displayed on a screen on a satellite, and captured by a camera.[18] In 2011 a crested black macaque stole a wildlife photographer's camera, and when the camera was later recovered it was found to contain hundreds of "selfies", including one of a grinning female macaque. This incident set off an unusual debate about copyright.[19] In October 2013, Imagist Labs released an iOS app called Selfie, which allows users to upload photos only from their front-facing smartphone camera.[20] The app shows a feed of public photos of everyone’s selfies and from the people they follow. The app does not allow users to comment and users can only respond with selfies. The app soon gained popularity among teenagers. In January 2014, during the Sochi Winter Olympics, a "Selfie Olympics" meme was popular on Twitter, where users took self-portraits in unusual situations.[21] The spread of the meme took place with the usage of the hashtags #selfiegame and #selfieolympics.[22] In April 2014, the advertising agency iStrategyLabs produced a two-way mirror capable of automatically posting selfies to Twitter, using facial recognition software.[23] The popularity of selfies in social media has been astounding.[24] Instagram has over 53 million photos tagged with the hashtag #selfie. The word "selfie" was mentioned in Facebook status updates over 368,000 times during a one week period in October 2013. During the same period on Twitter, the hashtag #selfie was used in more than 150,000 tweets. Christina Novelli taking a selfie during a concert in Honolulu, Hawaii San Francisco Giants fan taking a selfie in front of a bonfire during celebrations after the 2014 World Series Sociology[edit] The appeal of selfies comes from how easy they are to create and share, and the control they give self-photographers over how they present themselves. Many selfies are intended to present a flattering image of the person, especially to friends whom the photographer expects to be supportive.[10][11] However, a 2013 study of Facebook users found that posting photos of oneself correlates with lower levels of social support from and intimacy with Facebook friends (except for those marked as Close Friends).[25] The lead author of the study suggests that "those who frequently post photographs on Facebook risk damaging real-life relationships."[26] The photo messaging application Snapchat is also largely used to send selfies. Some users of Snapchat choose to send intentionally-unattractive selfies to their friends for comedic purposes. Posting intentionally unattractive selfies has also become common in the early 2010s—in part for their humor value, but in some cases also to explore issues of body image or as a reaction against the perceived narcissism or over-sexualization of typical selfies.[27] Celebrity selfies[edit] Former South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak and footballer Ji So Yun Many celebrities – especially sex symbols – post selfies for their followers on social media, and provocative or otherwise interesting celebrity selfies are the subject of regular press coverage. Some commentators, such as Emma Barnett of The Telegraph, have argued that sexy celebrity selfies (and sexy non-celebrity selfies) can be empowering to the selfie-takers but harmful to women in general as they promote viewing women as sex objects.[28] Actor and avid selfie poster James Franco wrote an op-ed for The New York Times defending this frequent use of selfies on his Instagram page.[29] Franco defends the self-portrait stating they should not be seen as an egocentric act, but instead a journalistic moment as it cultivates a "visual culture, the selfie quickly and easily shows, not tells, how you're feeling, where you are, what you're doing", much like a photojournalist image.[29] Franco continued to write how peoples' social lives are more electronic, we become more adept at interpreting social media. And, as our social lives become more electronic, we become more adept at interpreting social media. A texting conversation might fall short of communicating how you are feeling, but a selfie might make everything clear in an instant. Selfies are tools of communication more than marks of vanity (but yes, they can be a little vain).[29] A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the 2 March 2014 broadcast is the most retweeted image ever.[30][31] DeGeneres said she wanted to homage Meryl Streep's record 18 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited twelve other Oscar celebrities to join them, which included Meryl Streep, Julia Roberts, Channing Tatum, Bradley Cooper, Kevin Spacey, Angelina Jolie, Brad Pitt, Lupita Nyong'o, Jared Leto and Jennifer Lawrence. The resulting photo of the celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour.[32][33][34] By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times, less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times.[31][32] As of 24 June 2014, it has been retweeted 3,415,871 times.[35] It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election.[34][36][37] One person who loves to take selfies and is known as the "selfie queen" is Kim Kardashian. This year in 2014 she made a selfie book that consists of selfies throughout the whole year. She earned this title by taking the social media website Instagram very seriously and posting her selfies numerous times per week. She even has a set of rules that she goes by when taking the "perfect selfie." Politician selfies[edit] Bill Nye takes a selfie with US President Barack Obama and Neil deGrasse Tyson at the White House President Barack Obama made news headlines during Nelson Mandela's memorial celebration at the Johannesburg's FNB Stadium with various world leaders, as he was snapped taking a selfie and sharing smiles with Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and later with British Prime Minister David Cameron, as they gathered to pay tribute to Mandela.[38] The decision to take the selfies was considered to be in poor taste, as British political columnist Iain Martin critiqued the behaviour as "clowning around like muppets".[38] The photos also depict the First Lady Michelle Obama sitting next to them looking "furious and mortified".[38] Despite the criticism, Roberto Schmidt, the photographer who captured the photos taken at the celebration, reported to the Today show it was taken at "a jovial, celebratory portion of the service".[39] In India, BJP Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi posted a selfie on Twitter after voting in Gandhinagar, India. The post became a major trending item on the micro-blogging platform.[40] In July 2014, the Swiss government is the first to take and post a picture of an entire national government (the picture was taken by one of the seven members of the government, Alain Berset).[41] Group selfies[edit] A group selfie of tourists using a Selfie stick for a wider angle image. In January 2014, Business Insider published a story referring to such images as "usies".[42] A photograph of Pope Francis with visitors to the Vatican has been called an usie by The Daily Dot,[43][44] and TMZ has used the term to describe a selfie taken of celebrity couple Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez.[42][45] The term "groufie" has been trademarked by Chinese phone manufacturer Huawei Technologies in China, France, Germany, Russia, and the U.S.[46][47] The word was introduced during the launch of its Ascend P7 smartphone in 2014.[48] Huawei defines the groufie as a panoramic selfie involving multiple subjects, as well as background scenery, captured using the front facing, 8-megapixel camera and panorama capabilities of its phones.[49][50][51] Another term for a group selfie is "wefie", originally trademarked by Samsung in the U.S. to promote the wide-angle lens of its NX series of cameras.[47][52][53][54] World record[edit] The world's largest group selfie included 2000 people and was taken on 23 November 2014 in Brooklyn, New York at the International Conference of Chabad-Lubavitch Emissaries.[55] In popular culture[edit] In August 2013, The Guardian produced a film series titled Thinkfluencer[56] exploring selfie exposure in the UK. American dance music duo The Chainsmokers released a single #SELFIE in 2014. In August 2014, selfie was officially accepted for use in the word game Scrabble[57][58] From September to November 2014, the American television sitcom Selfie aired on ABC, telling the story of a woman trying to achieve fame through social media. Psychology and neuroscience[edit] According to a study performed by Nicola Bruno and Marco Bertamini at the University of Parma, selfies by non-professional photographers show a slight bias for showing the left cheek of the selfie-taker.[59] This is similar to what has been observed for portraits by professional painters from many different historical periods and styles,[60] indicating that the left cheek bias may be rooted in asymmetries of brain lateralization that are well documented within cognitive neuroscience. In a second study,[61] the same group tested if selfie takers without training in photography spontaneously adhere to widely prescribed rules of photographic composition, such as the rule of thirds. It seems that they do not, suggesting that these rules may be conventional rather than hardwired in the brain's perceptual preferences. In April 2014, a man diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder recounted spending ten hours a day attempting to take the "right" selfie, attempting suicide after failing to produce what he perceived to be the perfect selfie.[62] The same month brought several scholarly publications linking excessive selfie posting with body dysmorphic disorder.[citation needed] Injuries while taking photos[edit] In July 2014, a fourteen-year-old girl in the Philippines fell to her death after losing her balance while taking a selfie of herself and a friend near the staircase landing of their school in suburban Pasig City.[63] In August 2014, a fifteen-year-old boy was critically wounded after accidentally shooting himself while taking a selfie in which his other hand was holding a gun to his chin.[64] In November 2014 a Polish woman vacationing in Spain fell to her death while attempting a picturesque selfie from the Puente de Triana bridge in the city of Seville.

selfie

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emotivistsHe focuses on propositions of the first class—moral judgments—saying that those of the second class belong to science, those of the third are mere commands, and those of the fourth (which are considered in normative ethics as opposed to meta-ethics) are too concrete for ethical philosophy. While class three statements were irrelevant to Ayer's brand of emotivism, they would later play a significant role in Stevenson's. Ayer argues that moral judgments cannot be translated into non-ethical, empirical terms and thus cannot be verified; in this he agrees with ethical intuitionists. But he differs from intuitionists by discarding appeals to intuition as "worthless" for determining moral truths,[17] since the intuition of one person often contradicts that of another. Instead, Ayer concludes that ethical concepts are "mere pseudo-concepts":

emotivists

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