From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.
Mass mobilization (also known as social mobilization or popular mobilization) refers to mobilization of civilian population as part of contentious politics. Mass mobilization is often used by grassroots-based social movements, including revolutionary movements, but can also become a tool of elites and the state itself. The process usually takes the form of large public gatherings such as mass meetings, marches, parades, processions and demonstrations. Those gatherings usually are part of a protest action.
Mass mobilization is defined as a process that engages and motivates a wide range of partners and allies at national and local levels to raise awareness of and demand for a particular development objective through face-to-face dialogue. Members of institutions, community networks, civic and religious groups and others work in a coordinated way to reach specific groups of people for dialogue with planned messages. In other words, social mobilization seeks to facilitate change through a range of players engaged in interrelated and complementary efforts.
Good morning students, school board members,
superintendent and district staff.
First, I would like to thank all of you, from teachers to
friends and family, for being in attendance this morning. You
have all had a profound impact on the development of the
students that will be graduating today, and I feel it is safe to say
that I speak on behalf of the whole graduating Class of 2015, in
thanking you for all of your efforts that you have invested in us
to this day.
When I first sat down to write this speech, tons of thoughts
were flowing through my mind. Am I going to reminisce about
memories of great importance to me? How about speaking of
significant events for the entire school? What is the message I
should try to convey? Will I pass out or just be at a loss for
words, because to be honest, I did not think I had it in me to do
this. But the most important goal I strove for was to create a
speech that was truly different. Not that bored people to sleep or
followed the traditional “your journey ends here, but a new one
begins” format, but instead offered excitement and new insight
into this monumental day. However, it is more so about your
accomplishments and the best way for me to craft inspiration
and motivation in you all.
Today is no small feat. It perhaps is the most significant
and life altering achievement most of you can claim to this day.
Never hesitate to recognize how proud each and every person
here today is for you to complete such a long and difficult task.
Having worked for over thirteen years just for this moment, it is
hard to ignore the determination, perseverance, patience, hardwork
and even sacrifice that embodies itself the attitudes of
every graduate. The innumerable amount of opportunities your
diploma enables you to attain is without doubt, and I encourage
all of you to pursue what is most dear to you. Pursue that in
which you feel you can make a difference.
Looking at you, the Class of 2015, I realize that after today,
I may no longer see many of you. That is a painful thought. On
the other hand, I am also filled with anticipation, because I have
no doubt in my mind that every single one of you sitting before
me has the potential to succeed and make a difference in life. Of
course, not every one of us can be rich, famous, and powerful,
but often times it is the people who just offer words of advice
and encouragement that make the world a better place. It is
human nature to reflect the mood of others in your own actions,
so positive words and actions could have an overwhelming
impact on the moods and quality of life of others. The
future looks bright.
Throughout my years in high school, not only have I gained
knowledge of the subjects I have studied, but I have learned
many other lessons as well. At times I know some of you
questioned the need to attend class, but gaining intelligence is
not the only purpose of it. School has helped to build priceless
social skills, as well as, instilled a value to succeed. I don’t
know about you, but when I see others performing well, I take it
as a challenge to try my best as well. Having the correct mindset
makes all of the difference. If you believe you can achieve
anything, and don’t allow others to tell you differently, what you
are capable of achieving is genuinely amazing.
I would like to conclude my speech with a quote from
Robert Frost. “Two roads diverged in a wood, and I took the
road less traveled by, and that has made all the difference.” I
encourage you, the Class of 2015, to not only follow the
opportunities available to you, but to follow your heart and
pursue a cause of particular importance to you. Instead of
following the path of past generations and graduating classes, I
challenge you all to make your own path. The risks are always
present, but the battle always makes the win so much sweeter.
For me, it is neither about the money nor the notoriety of a
position, but instead whether I can make a difference and love
what I do.
Thanks again to all the families, friends, teachers, and any
others I have missed, for your contributions. They are greatly
Congratulations again, Class of 2010, and I wish you all the
best of luck. I know you’ll do your best. I’ll miss you all.
In the late 1960's, uncle' Pope Paul VI, priests, nuns and seminarians, particularly in Latin America, Africa and the MAHARLIKA, began teaching socialism, known as the 'Liberation Theology'. Because of close diplomatic ties between the Vatican and Communist Russia from 1917 to 1979, the Communists succeeded in attracting sympathizers and followers from among the Roman clergy and hierarchy. In 1962, Pope John XXIII, through French Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, signed the "Vatican-Moscow Agreement" stipulating, among other things, that the Roman Catholic Church would not denounce the errors of Communism. In Italy, a Roman Catholic country, communism was legalized.
The Vatican, heavily infiltrated by Masons and Communists, spread its new theology that was a blend of Marxism and Christianity. The generous funding from the "SINDONA--MARCINKLIS—CALVI—P2 LODGE" partnership encouraged subversive catholic movements to disrupt and destabilize the governments in countries where the Vatican had abundance of "blind followers." in the Third World countries, the rich and the government often oppress the poor who constitute the larger portion of the populace. Class struggle ensues, oftentimes, both classes using violence.
Countless seminarians, nuns and priests left the security of their convents and gave teach-ins, distributed subversive materials, marched on the streets, rallied and demonstrated in front of government offices and many, tragically, went to the mountains and joined the militant armed struggle. Some of them were killed during encounters with government forces.
All this idealism and sacrifice by "sincere and dedicated" people was inspired by the Roman Catholic Church seemingly to bring justice and relief to the SUFFERING POOR of the Maharlika, putting all the blame on the government. What unwitting pawns to a FOREIGN POWER, the VATICAN CHURCH, still obsessed • in playing the oldest game in the world called DOMINATION!
"Financial grants, often through religious organizations, sympathetic with left wing insurrections, meant the involvement, even if tangently, of the Vatican Bank whose financial bulk derives from deposits of religious organizations. Hence Catholic priests, being involved in actual armed insurrections in Latin America, the Philippines and Poland would automatically have spelled the potential traffic of clandestine sales of arms and, therefore, the involvement of shady banking concerns such as the mysterious 'shell' companies of the 10R, and as a result, indirectly of the Vatican itself." 1
If the Vatican indeed shed tears over the sufferings of the Filipino people, they were nothing but crocodile tears. As boldly exposed throughout this book, it was the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH that for 500 years perpetrated injustice, oppression and exploitation on the Filipino people. It LORDED OVER them with unequalled banditry and thievery. It coveted their wealth, trampled their dignity and messed up their future.
Is it any wonder, then, that those countries .that for centuries were "evangelized," colonized and ravaged like young maidens by the Roman Catholic Spain and Portugal, have dramatically evolved into unjust societies and poverty stricken nations?
After the tractors and chainsaws of greedy and irresponsible loggers have gone through virgin forests,. what do we see? Eroded mountains, swollen rivers and flooded valleys! When the TWO SWORDS OF POPE BONIFACE VIII were brought here by the Spanish conquistadors, they "raped" the spiritual, cultural and psychological identity of the people in the Maharlika Islands for 500 years. The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH left to the Filipinos nothing but a desolate economy, a desolate society, a desolate system of worship, a desolate self-image and a desolate spirit.
As a Third World country today, the Filipinos were transformed by this Church to the wretched status of beggars, knocking at the doors of affluent nations for measly morsels of food, used clothes (sold as `ukay-ukay') and other amenities. Thanks, but no thanks, to the Roman Catholic Church with its 'Liberation Theology'.
The Roman Catholic Church's preaching on the Liberation Theology was supposed to redeem downtrodden Filipinos from poverty and oppression caused by the 'unjust and oppressive Marcos dictatorship and his monies'. The ills of this country during the Marcos regime were not all caused by him. He merely inherited those same ills that were "inflicted by the Roman Catholic Church during the 333 years of lease to Spain for so much 'pound of flesh' by Pope Leo X. And even when this country‘ celebrated its 100 years of independence from Spain (the LESSEE), Filipinos are still dependent on the Vatican (the LESSOR) as evidenced by the manipulation of the country by the Roman Catholic Church's leftist indoctrination in the 70's and 80's. The Liberation Theology gospel spread fast, far and wide among the multitude of BLIND FOLLOWERES, THE ROMANO CATOLICO SARADO that still comprise the majority of the Filipinos today.
If the Roman Catholic Church really meant what it taught in its Liberation Theology, this is what it should have done. Instead of just making the suffering poor aware of their miserable conditions (they called this "conscientization") and organizing them to put pressure on the rich ('class struggle') to distribute its wealth, this new theology should have first acknowledged, confessed and apologized that it was this Roman Catholic Church that put them in this pitiful condition in the first place. Say "mea culpa"! Second, it should have rehabilitated the psychologically damaged Filipinos much like a traumatized child before a psychiatrist. The offender (Roman Catholic Church) should have rehabilitated the victim (Filipino people) by promising to make amends. Third, this church, as an example to the rich, should have dug from its overflowing treasure chests and distributed its enormous surplus wealth to the poor, thereby empowering them to start a new and dignified life. This should have been true restitution by the Roman Catholic Church after its 500 years of plunder and exploitation of the Maharlika.
THIS SHOULD HAVE BEEN A TRUE AND SINCERE LIBERATION THEOLOGY. It is liberating to the Roman Catholic Church that confesses its sins and makes amends for them. It is liberating as well to the poor, victimized Filipinos who will benefit from the honesty of that church.
Instead, what the Roman Catholic Church does today is to give a small share from its overflowing coffers to help the poor and drumbeat the rich to give to its charitable programs. A perfect example in Manila is seen everyday on television. A plea is heard showing street children and scavengers in the garbage dumps and asking generous souls to give to CARITAS. This program belongs to the billionaire Archdiocese of Manila and the announcer belongs to one of the super, super rich religious Roman Catholic congregations in the world.
Liberation Theology achieved its goal to topple the Marcos dictatorship, perceived as the root cause of the miseries of the Filipino people. But now after twenty years, the condition of the "oppressed poor" in the Maharlika has not changed. Instead, it has worsened by a millionfold. And the Roman Catholic Church until now is still mouthing its Liberation Theology refrain: "preferential option for the poor" and "solidarity with the poor." Until now a lot of Filipinos brainwashed with this Liberation Theology are on the mountains fighting and running for their survival, kill or be killed.
The Modern Vatican Covets The Maharlika
In the early 1930's, Europe was in a depression and Germany was financially bankrupt. An unknown party leader promised the German people that he could create jobs and boost its economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolph Hitler. In June 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic, signed a concordat for mutual protection and enhancement. Shortly after that, Hitler was loaded with money. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons for war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918, there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany. Throughout the Spanish occupation of the Maharlika„ members of the Tagean/Tallano clan have been visiting Europe since some of their relatives were English and Austrian. From 1866 to 1898, Prince -Julian 'Macleod Tallano had also been frequenting the Vatican. In 1934 under Pope Pius XII, the Vatican negotiated with a member of the Filipino Royal Family, the Christian Tallano clan in the Maharlika. An agreement was reached that 640,000 metric tons of the Tallano gold would be lent to the Pope. This was part of that gold accumulated by the Southeast Asian Srivijayan/Madjapahit Empire during its glorious reign of 900 years. In 1939, two members of the Tallano family and a Roman Catholic priest, Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, brought the gold from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, to the Vatican.2 After doing this, Fr. Diaz went back to the Maharlika and resided in Cabanatuan City. After World War II, he facilitated the safe return of the 640,000 metric tons of gold from the Vatican to the Maharlika. Manuel Acuna Roxas (a relative of the Acuna/Tageanfrallano clan), then a congressman and Bishop Enrique Sobrepena, Sr, in the presence of Atty. Lorenzo Tanada received the gold in Manila.
A lease agreement was made between the Tallano clan and the Maharlika government. A total of 617,500 metric tons of gold was deposited in the newly installed Central Bank of the Maharlika to comply with its requirement for GOLD RESERVE. Under the terms of the contract, the Central Bank became the HOLDER of that gold. That lease agreement will expire in the year 2005.3 Having gained the trust and confidence of Fr. Diaz, the Tallano clan made him the main negotiator and trustee of their gold. Fr. Diaz, in turn, hired the services of Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos, then a highly recommended brilliant young lawyer having attained notoriety when he successfully defended himself in the "Naiundasan Case" in 1939. The Tallano clan paid commission to Fr. Diaz and Atty. Marcos in gold, 30% from the principal of 640,000 metric tons.4
In 1949, the two richest men in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Between the two of them they legitimately earned and owned 192,000 metric tons of gold.
Ferdinand Marcos withdrew their share of the gold from the Central Bank and minted it "RP-CD." Sometime later, Fr. Diaz and Marcos brought their gold to Switzerland, in the Swiss Bank Corporation in Zurich. The remaining 400,000 metric tons of 1 Tallano gold is in the third floor basement of the Central Bank Minting Plant in East Ave., Quezon City. There are 950,000 metric tons of gold (declared missing in the International court of Justice) picked up by Yamashita from its European ally, Hitler. Another 250,000 tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Maharlika. This country then became the holder of 1.6 million metric tons of gold bars. Some of the Yamashita gold buried in the Maharlika has been found. But the bulk of it is still buried to this day. And even now, thousands are secretly digging for it, including Japanese treasure hunters.
The World Street Journal in its November 15, 1985 issue wrote that two thirds of all the gold in the world is in the Maharlika. One third is divided among the rest of the countries in the world. Very few Filipinos know this.
When Marcos took over the government in 1965, the Maharlika had a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. In 1986, when the Americans forcibly brought Marcos to Hawaii, President Aquino inherited a foreign debt of US$24 billion. But, of these, US$7 billion was incurred by the private sector. At his ouster, Marcos left US$2.5 billion in the Central Bank reserve. This means that Pres. Marcos during his 20 years of absolute rule only incurred a measly US$1 billion foreign debt to build up this nation with its fast growing population and numerous infrastructure projects.
How did President Marcos manage this government financially? Aside from the annual national budget of P35 billion financed by the national treasury, he had all this gold at his disposal for building the infrastructure projects that today stand unequaled to all the four succeeding presidents. Today, this country has a foreign debt of around US$75 billion. From 1986 to 2000, the government under three presidents incurred a debt of US$51 billion on top of its original US$24 billion — in just 14 years!
In the 1997 Philippine Yearbook (National Statistics Office) a Summary of Government Expenditures from 1966 to 1997 was made. From 1965-1986 (20 years) President Marcos spent P486, 273 Billion From 1986-1991 (6 years) President Aquino spent P1, 077,895 Trillion. From 1992-1997 (6 years) President Ramos spent P2, 237,907 Trillion.
Between May 14 to June 5, 2003, a nationwide survey report conducted and administered by Asia Pacific Periscope put out this question: "Among our Presidents, who do you think had done most for the country?" The results were: Marcos 41%, Magsaysay 15%, Aquino 6%, Ramos 6%, Estrada 4%, Arroyo 2%, Quezon 0.3%, Quirino 0.3% and 22% could not give any name. Margin of error was +1- 2.7%.
When Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana, died in 1974 all that 30% commission in gold became the legendary "MARCOS GOLD." After providing for his family in Marcos' Letter of Instruction, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. This was the "MARCOS WEALTH" that some politicians and churchmen kept on saying was the "ILL-GOTTEN" Marcos wealth that until today is in "Marcos secret accounts."
On April 9, 1973 Marcos said: "My earthly goods have been placed in the custody and for the disposition of the Marcos Foundation dedicated to the welfare of the Filipino people."
The Demolition Campaign
In the 70's and 80's, "blood money" from the Roman Catholic Church, channeled into the Maharlika via the Vatican Bank and another foreign power, fueled the flames of dissension in the countryside and on the streets of Manila. A concerted church and foreign civil destabilization and demolition campaign was waged against Marcos. All that gold in the hands of one man like Marcos was a threat to those who have been used for so long with so much' money and power. Marcos became too powerful and would not tow the line of the two established power in the world, the VATICAN and the TRILATERAL COMMISSION (U.S.A.—GERMANY--JAPAN). But Marcos was no lap dog (lute') to any foreign power.
In 1966, during President Marcos' First State Visit to the U.S.A., he renegotiated the Military Bases Agreement (MBA) of March 14, 1947. He refused to compromise the nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity and successfully negotiated the reduction of the Military Base Agreement lease, which was supposed to end in 2046 to just 25 more years — ending in 1991, instead of 2046. This made the USA angry.
When the USA recognized Maharlika sovereignty over the military bases on January 7, 1979, President Marcos called it "the final liberation of the Philippines." Most significantly, the U.S. Ambassador Richard W. Murphy in • his letter to the Maharlika Minister for Foreign Affairs, Carlos P. Romulo, dated January 7, 1979 said: "Only the Philippine flag shall be flown singly at the Bases. The United States flag together with the Philippine flag that shall at all times occupy the place of honor, may be displayed within buildings anti other indoor sites on United States facilities and in front of headquarters of the United States Commanders and upon coordination with the Philippine Base Commanders for appropriate outdoor ceremonies such as military honors and parades on the facilities."
In his grand plan, Marcos wanted to re-establish the former grandeur of the Maharlika and the whole region of Southeast Asia, the former Malayan Empire. In June 1983, Marcos appeared before the First World leaders in Toronto. He announced his plan to boost the economy of the Southeast Asian region by creating the ASIAN DOLLAR. This would be backed up by the 400,000 metric tons of gold in the Central Bank of the Maharlika and the other gold he scattered around the region. He would also add to this his own Personal 192,000 metric tons in Switzerland.
his Asian Dollar, backed up by the "two thirds of all the gold in the World" that was in the Maharlika, would have made the Maharlika money more valuable and stronger than the American dollar. This was his vision to raise Southeast Asia to be at par with the rest of the First World countries. The very next day James Baker, the head of the C.I.A., replaced Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State.
Subsequently, an intensified demolition job on Marcos and the destruction of his party were ingeniously planned and carried out. Two months later, on August 21, 1983 Senator Ninoy Aquino was assassinated at the Manila International Airport. The blame was placed on Marcos.
To this day the assassination of Ninoy Aquino has not yet been solved. It has to be kept this way because solving it would open a Pandora's box and reveal skeletons in the closet of many prominent people very close to Ninoy Aquino who are still enjoying the high esteem of the public today.
The Coup De Grace: EDSA Revolution
A year and a half later, on December 26, 1984, the "CORY CONSTITUTION" was formulated. This was the first coup d'etat ever planned in the modern history of the Maharlika. The document was entitled: DECLARATION OF UNITY. It says: "WHEREAS it has become the imperative &Ay for all who oppose the Marcos regime to join forces to restore the freedom and sovereignty of the Filipino people and thereafter to reconstruct the national economy and improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, starting with the poor, the voiceless and the oppressed, and WHEREAS we believe that the foregoing objectives can best be attained by implementing the following values, principles and convictions which we all share.'
There are eight points in the Cory Constitution. Point 6 says: "Belief in a Pluralistic Society. The new leadership will respect and protect freedom of expression and the right to disseminate all philosophies and non-violent programs. It trusts the capacity of the people to choose freely what is best for the nation, and will honor the choice of the people even if it differs from theirs. The Communist Party of the Philippines will be legalized. In order to remove obstacles to national unity, the new leadership will take steps, immediately upon assumption of office, to address all legitimate grievances of all who have resorted to armed struggle."
Point 8.1 says: The new leadership commits itself to eliminate the social cancer of graft and corruption, public or private..." Point 8.3 says: "...(Marcos') Ill-gotten wealth, , property and assets shall be confiscated..."
In conclusion, the CORY CONSTITUTION says. 'Therefore, we sign these presents to solemnly affirm our commitment to the foregoing values. principles and convictions and to signify our resolve to exhaust all means to unify all parties, organizations and fortes in opposition to the Marcos regime." Signed in Quezon City by: 1. Agapito "Butz" Aquino, 2. Jose W. Diokno, 3. Teofisto Guingona, 4. Eva Estrada Kalaw, 5. Salvador H. Laurel, 6. Raul S. Manglapus, 7. Ramon Mitra, Jr.. 8. Ambrosio Padilla, 9. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., 10. Rafael Sales, 11. Jovito Salonga. Signed by the conveyor group are: 1. Corazon C. Aquino, 2. Jaime V. Ongpin, 3. Lorenzo M. Tanada.
U.S. Senator Paul Laxalt, in his article that appeared in the U.S. magazine Policy Review (1986) entitled "My Conversations with Ferdinand Marcos", said: "It appears from what I read in the papers that she (Cory Aquino) made a serious strategic mistake in releasing the
First known selfie, taken by Robert Cornelius in 1839
Robert Cornelius, an American pioneer in photography, produced a daguerreotype of himself in 1839 which is also one of the first photographs of a person. Because the process was slow, Cornelius was able to run into the shot for a minute or more, and then replace the lens cap. He recorded on the back "The first light Picture ever taken. 1839."
Woman taking her picture in a mirror, ca. 1900
The debut of the portable Kodak Brownie box camera in 1900 led to photographic self-portraiture becoming a more widespread technique. The method was usually with the use of a mirror and stabilizing the camera either on a nearby object or on a tripod while framing via a viewfinder at the top of the box. Russian Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna at the age of 13 was one of the first teenagers to take her own picture using a mirror to send to a friend in 1914. In the letter that accompanied the photograph, she wrote, "I took this picture of myself looking at the mirror. It was very hard as my hands were trembling."
The earliest usage of the word selfie has been traced to 2002 when it first appeared in an Australian internet forum (ABC Online) on 13 September in a comment written by Nathan Hope: "Um, drunk at a mates 21st, I tripped ofer and landed lip first (with front teeth coming a very close second) on a set of steps. I had a hole about 1cm long right through my bottom lip. And sorry about the focus, it was a selfie." As with other new technologies, the protocols and etiquette for taking and disseminating selfies remains under development, with appropriate use a matter for consideration.
The term "selfie" was discussed by photographer Jim Krause in 2005, although photos anticipating some of the formal aspects of the selfie can be seen in the self-taken photographs that were particularly common on MySpace. Writer Kate Losse proposes that between 2006 and 2009 (when Facebook became more popular than MySpace), the "MySpace pic" (typically "an amateurish, flash-blinded self-portrait, often taken in front of a bathroom mirror") became an indication of bad taste for users of the newer Facebook social network. Early Facebook portraits, Losse claims in contrast, were usually well-focused and more formal, taken by others from distance. According to Losse, improvements in design—especially the front-facing camera copied by the iPhone 4 (2010) from Korean and Japanese mobile phones, mobile photo apps such as Instagram, and selfie sites such as ItisMee—led to the resurgence of selfies in the early 2010s.
Buzz Aldrin took the first EVA selfie in 1966.
Initially popular with young people, selfies gained wider popularity over time. By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time". According to a 2013 survey, two-thirds of Australian women age 18–35 take selfies—the most common purpose for which is posting on Facebook. A poll commissioned by smartphone and camera maker Samsung found that selfies make up 30% of the photos taken by people aged 18–24. By 2013, the word "selfie" had become commonplace enough to be monitored for inclusion in the online version of the Oxford English Dictionary. In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary, which gave the word itself an Australian origin.
Selfies have also taken beyond Earth. Selfies taken in space include those by astronauts, an image by NASA's Curiosity rover of itself on Mars, and images created by an indirect method, where a self-portrait photograph taken on Earth is displayed on a screen on a satellite, and captured by a camera.
In 2011 a crested black macaque stole a wildlife photographer's camera, and when the camera was later recovered it was found to contain hundreds of "selfies", including one of a grinning female macaque. This incident set off an unusual debate about copyright.
In October 2013, Imagist Labs released an iOS app called Selfie, which allows users to upload photos only from their front-facing smartphone camera. The app shows a feed of public photos of everyone’s selfies and from the people they follow. The app does not allow users to comment and users can only respond with selfies. The app soon gained popularity among teenagers.
In January 2014, during the Sochi Winter Olympics, a "Selfie Olympics" meme was popular on Twitter, where users took self-portraits in unusual situations. The spread of the meme took place with the usage of the hashtags #selfiegame and #selfieolympics.
In April 2014, the advertising agency iStrategyLabs produced a two-way mirror capable of automatically posting selfies to Twitter, using facial recognition software.
The popularity of selfies in social media has been astounding. Instagram has over 53 million photos tagged with the hashtag #selfie. The word "selfie" was mentioned in Facebook status updates over 368,000 times during a one week period in October 2013. During the same period on Twitter, the hashtag #selfie was used in more than 150,000 tweets.
Christina Novelli taking a selfie during a concert in Honolulu, Hawaii
San Francisco Giants fan taking a selfie in front of a bonfire during celebrations after the 2014 World Series
The appeal of selfies comes from how easy they are to create and share, and the control they give self-photographers over how they present themselves. Many selfies are intended to present a flattering image of the person, especially to friends whom the photographer expects to be supportive. However, a 2013 study of Facebook users found that posting photos of oneself correlates with lower levels of social support from and intimacy with Facebook friends (except for those marked as Close Friends). The lead author of the study suggests that "those who frequently post photographs on Facebook risk damaging real-life relationships." The photo messaging application Snapchat is also largely used to send selfies. Some users of Snapchat choose to send intentionally-unattractive selfies to their friends for comedic purposes.
Posting intentionally unattractive selfies has also become common in the early 2010s—in part for their humor value, but in some cases also to explore issues of body image or as a reaction against the perceived narcissism or over-sexualization of typical selfies.
Former South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak and footballer Ji So Yun
Many celebrities – especially sex symbols – post selfies for their followers on social media, and provocative or otherwise interesting celebrity selfies are the subject of regular press coverage. Some commentators, such as Emma Barnett of The Telegraph, have argued that sexy celebrity selfies (and sexy non-celebrity selfies) can be empowering to the selfie-takers but harmful to women in general as they promote viewing women as sex objects. Actor and avid selfie poster James Franco wrote an op-ed for The New York Times defending this frequent use of selfies on his Instagram page. Franco defends the self-portrait stating they should not be seen as an egocentric act, but instead a journalistic moment as it cultivates a "visual culture, the selfie quickly and easily shows, not tells, how you're feeling, where you are, what you're doing", much like a photojournalist image.
Franco continued to write how peoples' social lives are
more electronic, we become more adept at interpreting social media. And, as our social lives become more electronic, we become more adept at interpreting social media. A texting conversation might fall short of communicating how you are feeling, but a selfie might make everything clear in an instant. Selfies are tools of communication more than marks of vanity (but yes, they can be a little vain).
A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the 2 March 2014 broadcast is the most retweeted image ever. DeGeneres said she wanted to homage Meryl Streep's record 18 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited twelve other Oscar celebrities to join them, which included Meryl Streep, Julia Roberts, Channing Tatum, Bradley Cooper, Kevin Spacey, Angelina Jolie, Brad Pitt, Lupita Nyong'o, Jared Leto and Jennifer Lawrence. The resulting photo of the celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour. By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times, less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times. As of 24 June 2014, it has been retweeted 3,415,871 times. It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election.
One person who loves to take selfies and is known as the "selfie queen" is Kim Kardashian. This year in 2014 she made a selfie book that consists of selfies throughout the whole year. She earned this title by taking the social media website Instagram very seriously and posting her selfies numerous times per week. She even has a set of rules that she goes by when taking the "perfect selfie."
Bill Nye takes a selfie with US President Barack Obama and Neil deGrasse Tyson at the White House
President Barack Obama made news headlines during Nelson Mandela's memorial celebration at the Johannesburg's FNB Stadium with various world leaders, as he was snapped taking a selfie and sharing smiles with Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and later with British Prime Minister David Cameron, as they gathered to pay tribute to Mandela. The decision to take the selfies was considered to be in poor taste, as British political columnist Iain Martin critiqued the behaviour as "clowning around like muppets". The photos also depict the First Lady Michelle Obama sitting next to them looking "furious and mortified". Despite the criticism, Roberto Schmidt, the photographer who captured the photos taken at the celebration, reported to the Today show it was taken at "a jovial, celebratory portion of the service".
In India, BJP Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi posted a selfie on Twitter after voting in Gandhinagar, India. The post became a major trending item on the micro-blogging platform. In July 2014, the Swiss government is the first to take and post a picture of an entire national government (the picture was taken by one of the seven members of the government, Alain Berset).
A group selfie of tourists using a Selfie stick for a wider angle image.
In January 2014, Business Insider published a story referring to such images as "usies". A photograph of Pope Francis with visitors to the Vatican has been called an usie by The Daily Dot, and TMZ has used the term to describe a selfie taken of celebrity couple Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez.
The term "groufie" has been trademarked by Chinese phone manufacturer Huawei Technologies in China, France, Germany, Russia, and the U.S. The word was introduced during the launch of its Ascend P7 smartphone in 2014. Huawei defines the groufie as a panoramic selfie involving multiple subjects, as well as background scenery, captured using the front facing, 8-megapixel camera and panorama capabilities of its phones.
Another term for a group selfie is "wefie", originally trademarked by Samsung in the U.S. to promote the wide-angle lens of its NX series of cameras.
The world's largest group selfie included 2000 people and was taken on 23 November 2014 in Brooklyn, New York at the International Conference of Chabad-Lubavitch Emissaries.
In popular culture
In August 2013, The Guardian produced a film series titled Thinkfluencer exploring selfie exposure in the UK.
American dance music duo The Chainsmokers released a single #SELFIE in 2014.
In August 2014, selfie was officially accepted for use in the word game Scrabble
From September to November 2014, the American television sitcom Selfie aired on ABC, telling the story of a woman trying to achieve fame through social media.
Psychology and neuroscience
According to a study performed by Nicola Bruno and Marco Bertamini at the University of Parma, selfies by non-professional photographers show a slight bias for showing the left cheek of the selfie-taker. This is similar to what has been observed for portraits by professional painters from many different historical periods and styles, indicating that the left cheek bias may be rooted in asymmetries of brain lateralization that are well documented within cognitive neuroscience. In a second study, the same group tested if selfie takers without training in photography spontaneously adhere to widely prescribed rules of photographic composition, such as the rule of thirds. It seems that they do not, suggesting that these rules may be conventional rather than hardwired in the brain's perceptual preferences.
In April 2014, a man diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder recounted spending ten hours a day attempting to take the "right" selfie, attempting suicide after failing to produce what he perceived to be the perfect selfie. The same month brought several scholarly publications linking excessive selfie posting with body dysmorphic disorder.
Injuries while taking photos
In July 2014, a fourteen-year-old girl in the Philippines fell to her death after losing her balance while taking a selfie of herself and a friend near the staircase landing of their school in suburban Pasig City. In August 2014, a fifteen-year-old boy was critically wounded after accidentally shooting himself while taking a selfie in which his other hand was holding a gun to his chin. In November 2014 a Polish woman vacationing in Spain fell to her death while attempting a picturesque selfie from the Puente de Triana bridge in the city of Seville.
Scene 2: An Angel Visits Mary
MARY enters from the side and stands near the BASKET OF CLOTHES.
MARY begins folding the clothes.
God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee.
ANGEL begins sneakily tip-toeing from the side, making their way to stand behind MARY, who doesn’t notice.
He was sent to a girl named Mary. The angel greeted her and said...
(Jumps out from behind MARY)
MARY throws the piece of clothing she was folding in the air.
MARY takes a few steps away and hides behind the RECTANGULAR BOX.
The Lord has given you special favor. He is with you.
Mary was very upset because of his words. Mary wondered...
MARY stands up and scratches her head.
What kind of greeting this could be?
But the angel said to her...
(Holds out a hand out)
Do not be afraid, Mary. God is very pleased with you.
Then the angel said...
The ANGEL reaches into their sash, pulls out the FOLDED LETTER, walks over to the NARRATOR, and hands it to them.
The NARRATOR unfolds the letter and glances over it, then looks at the ANGEL quizzically.
The ANGEL leans over and whispers in the NARRATOR’S ear.
The NARRATOR nods.
Ladies and Gentlemen, the angel has informed me that, after a long and tiring trip from heaven, they’d like a little help delivering their long message from God. Any volunteers? (Waits a second.) Ah, yes, you over there.
The ANGEL’S MOM OR DAD comes and stands next to the NARRATOR.
The NARRATOR hands the LETTER to the ANGEL’S MOM OR DAD.
The ANGEL returns to where they were onstage.
The angel continued...
You will become pregnant...
The ANGEL pats their belly a few times.
And give birth to a son. You must name him Jesus.
The ANGEL grabs the JESUS SIGN from the back of the stage, holds it up for the audience to see, and hands it to MARY, who holds it in one hand.
He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High God.
The ANGEL flexes their muscles several times like a body builder.
The Lord God will make him a king like his father David of long ago.
The ANGEL grabs the CROWN SIGN from the back of the stage, holds it up for the audience to see, and hands it to MARY, who holds it in her other hand.
He will rule forever over his people, who came from Jacob's family. His kingdom will never end.
Mary asked the angel...
How can this happen?
The angel answered...
The Holy Spirit will come to you.
The ANGEL reaches up to the sky and slowly lowers their hands to waist level while wiggling their fingers.
The power of the Most High God will cover you. So the holy one that is born will be called the Son of God.
Nothing is impossible with God.
I serve the Lord. May it happen to me just as you said it would.
Then the angel left her.
The ANGEL exits to the side of the stage.
MARY sets the SIGNS back on the back of the stage.
MARY puts the clothes in the basket and exits to the side of the stage.
Scene 3: An Angel Visits Joseph in a Dream
This is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about.
JOSEPH enters from the side of the stage, holding a BOUQUET OF FLOWERS.
His mother Mary and Joseph had promised to get married.
JOSEPH gestures over to the side of the stage for someone to come over.
MARY enters in slowly from the side of the stage with a noticeably pregnant belly, holding one hand against the small of her back.
But before they started to live together, it became clear that she was going to have a baby. She became pregnant by the power of the Holy Spirit.
JOSEPH stares with his mouth open, throws the FLOWERS in the air, and puts his head in his hands.
MARY covers her face, crying, and runs, exiting to the side of the stage.
Her husband Joseph was a godly man.
JOSEPH paces back and forth, pretending to talk to himself.
He did not want to put her to shame in public. So he planned to divorce her quietly.
But as Joseph was thinking about this...
JOSEPH sits down on the RECTANGULAR BOX and poses like the thinker. He slowly leans his head and lays down on the RECTANGULAR BOX to sleep.
...an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream.
The ANGEL runs in from the side, does a somersault, and jumps up with arms outstretched.
The angel said...
(Holding out one hand to Joseph)
Joseph, son of David...
JOSEPH sits up, startled. He hides behind the RECTANGULAR BOX.
Don't be afraid to take Mary home as your wife.
The baby inside her...
The ANGEL pats their belly a few times.
...is from the Holy Spirit.
The ANGEL holds out their hands up to the sky and wiggles his fingers while hopping from foot to foot.
She is going to have a son. You must give him the name Jesus.
The ANGEL grabs the JESUS SIGN from the back of the stage, holds it up for the audience to see, and hands it to JOSEPH, who holds it in one hand.
That is because he will save his people from their sins.
The ANGEL grabs the SAVIOR SIGN from the back of the stage, holds it up for the audience to see, and hands it to JOSEPH, who holds it in one hand.
After a beat, the ANGEL takes the SIGNS back and sets the where they were before.
The ANGEL helps JOSEPH lay back down on the RECTANGULAR BOX. The ANGEL grabs the BLANKET from behind the RECTANGULAR BOX and lays it on JOSEPH.
The ANGEL then exits to the side of the stage, doing another somersault as they leave.
Joseph woke up.
JOSEPH sits up, pulls off the BLANKET, and sets it behind the RECTANGULAR BOX.
JOSEPH rubs his eyes with his palms, pinches himself, and stands up.
He did what the angel of the Lord commanded him to do.
MARY does a pregnant-style run over to JOSEPH.
JOSEPH pats down his torso, as if feeling in his pockets. He then does a “COME ON” gesture towards the NARRATOR.
The NARRATOR walks over to JOSEPH and hands him a ring.
JOSEPH bows down on one knee. MARY holds a hand, and JOSEPH puts a ring on it.
He took Mary home as his wife.
JOSEPH and MARY hold hands and exit to the side of the stage.
Scene 4: Mary and Joseph Travel to Bethlehem
In those days, Caesar Augustus made a law.
CAESAR AUGUSTUS enters from the side holding a SCROLL and stands in the center of the stage.
CAESAR AUGUSTUS lets the SCROLL roll to the ground and pretends to read it.
Hear ye, hear ye! Let there be a list be made of everyone in the whole Roman world.
CAESAR AUGUSTUS exits to the side of the stage.
All went to their own towns to be listed. So Joseph went also. He went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea.
The INNKEEPERS enter from the side of stage, holding INNKEEPER SIGNS, with their heads poking out from the cutout of the sign. They stand, spread out in a long line.
That is where Bethlehem, the town of David, was.
JOSEPH enters from the side, pulling a WAGON with MARY riding in it. MARY is looking very pregnant.
He went there with Mary to be listed. Mary was engaged to him. She was expecting a baby.
JOSEPH pulls the wagon up to INNKEEPER 1 and knocks on their INNKEEPER SIGN.
JOSEPH pulls the wagon up to INNKEEPER 2 and knocks on their INNKEEPER SIGN.
JOSEPH pulls the wagon up to INNKEEPER 3 and knocks on their INNKEEPER SIGN.
There was no room for them in the inn.
The INNKEEPERS exit to the side of the stage.
The STABLEKEEPER enters from the side carrying the STABLEKEEPER SIGN and stands in the center of the stage, in front of the RECTANGULAR BOX.
JOSEPH pulls the wagon over to the STABLEKEEPER and KNOCKS on their STABLEKEEPER SIGN.
There’s room in the barn!
JOSEPH gives the STABLEKEEPER a bow of thanks.
The STABLEKEEPER exits to the side of the stage.
JOSEPH and MARY sit on the RECTANGULAR BOX.
The STAGE HANDS carry the MANGER and set it in the middle of the stage.
Scene 5: Jesus is Born in a Stable
While Joseph and Mary were there, the time came for the child to be born.
JOSEPH kneels next to MARY and grabs her hand. He rubs his hand once along her hair.
She gave birth to her first baby.
JOSEPH reaches behind the RECTANGULAR BOX and grabs the BABY.
(Holding the BABY up)
It’s a boy!
MARY grabs the BLANKET from behind the RECTANGULAR BOX .
JOSEPH hands the BABY to MARY.
She wrapped him in large strips of cloth.
MARY wraps the BABY in the BLANKET.
Then she placed him in a manger.
MARY places the BABY in the manger.
MARY and JOSEPH exit to the side of the stage, taking the WAGON with them.
Scene 6: The Angels Visit Shepherds
There were shepherds living out in the fields nearby.
A group of SHEPHERDS enter from the side of the stage.
They were looking after their sheep.
A group of children dressed as SHEEP enter from the side of the stage wearing SHEEP HATS and sit down, scattered near the center.
It was night.
The SHEEP yawn and stretch.
The SHEPHERDS run to the side of the stage and grab blankets and pillows.
The SHEPHERDS proceed to tuck each of the sheep in by laying then down on the floor, placing a pillow under their heads, and pulling a blanket over them.
When the SHEPHERDS are finished, they sit down on or near the RECTANGULAR BOX .
An angel of the Lord appeared to them.
ANGEL 3 jumps out from the side of the stage with their hands up and stands near the SHEPHERDS.
And the glory of the Lord shone around them and they were terrified.
The SHEPHERDS kneel and cower in fear, hiding behind the RECTANGULAR BOX.
But the angel said to them...
(Holding out a hand)
Do not be afraid. I bring you good news of great joy.
It is for all the people.
The ANGEL gestures out toward the audience.
Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you. He is Christ the Lord.
The ANGEL makes the baseball “Safe!” sign with their arms.
Here is how you will know I am telling you the truth. You will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth...
The ANGEL grabs the BABY SIGN from the back of the stage, holds it up for the audience to see, and hands it to one of the SHEPHERDS, who holds it in their hand.
And lying in a manger.
The ANGEL grabs the MANGER SIGN from the back of the stage, holds it up for the audience to see, and hands it to one of the SHEPHERDS, who holds it in their hand.
Suddenly a large group of angels from heaven also appeared.
ANGEL 1 and ANGEL 2 run on stage and stand next to ANGEL 1.
They were praising God. They said...
ANGELS 1, 2 AND 3
(Raising their hands to the sky)
Glory to God in heaven!
And may peace be given to those he is pleased with on earth!
The angels left and went into heaven.
The ANGELS exit to the side of the stage.
Then the shepherds said to one another...
Let's go to Bethlehem.
Let's see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has told us about."
So they hurried off...
The SHEPHERDS and all of the SHEEP exit to the right of the stage.
They found Mary and Joseph and the baby.
MARY and JOSEPH enter from the side of the stage and sit on the RECTANGULAR BOX.
The baby was lying in the manger.
The SHEPHERDS enter from the side of the stage and kneel around the manger.
After the shepherds had seen him, they told everyone. They reported what the angel had said about this child.
The SHEPHERDS run all over into the audience, going to various people, putting their hands on their shoulders and saying, “Jesus is born!” After 30 seconds of this, they run to the back of the auditorium and wait.
Everyone who heard it were amazed at what the shepherds said to them.
I said, everyone who heard it were amazed at what the shepherds said to them.
(Gestures to the congregation)
But Mary kept all these things like a secret treasure in her heart.
MARY picks up the BABY and walks off the side of the stage, looking up contemplatively.
JOSEPH exits to the side of the stage after her.
She thought about them over and over.
The shepherds returned.
The SHEPHERDS run from the back on the auditorium and onto the stage.
They gave glory and praise to God.
The SHEPHERDS to a brief, silly dance of celebration.
Everything they had seen and heard was just as they had been told.
The SHEPHERDS exit to the side of the stage.
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