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Enter a program--Substance abusers can choose to undergo the program either outside or inside the rehabilitation center. A patient receives a complete medical checkup and a two week period of detoxification (getting drug free) and go through the behavioral procedure of hte treatment process.
Magpasok ng isang program - mga nang-aabuso na substansiya ay maaaring pumili upang sumailalim sa programa ng alinman sa labas o loob ng rehabilitation center. Ang isang pasyente ay tumanggap ng isang kumpletong medikal checkup at isang dalawang linggong panahon ng detoxification (pagkuha ng gamot libre) at pumunta sa pamamagitan ng proseso ng asal ng prosesong hte treatment.
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On November 12, 1936, the Philippine Legislative passed Commonwealth Act No. 168, better known as the Civil Aviation Law of the Philippines which created the Bureau of Aeronautics. After the liberation of the Philippines in March, 1945, the Bureau was reorganized and placed under the Department of National Defense. Among its functions was to promulgate Civil Aviation Regulations.
Sa Nobyembre 12, 1936, ang Philippine Pambatasan lumipas Commonwealth Act No. 168, mas kilala bilang ang Civil Aviation Law ng Pilipinas kung saan ginawa ang Bureau of Aeronautics. Pagkatapos ng pagpapalaya ng Pilipinas noong Marso, 1945, ang Bureau ay reorganised at inilagay sa ilalim ng Department of National Defense. Kabilang sa mga pag-andar nito ay upang maglagda ng Civil Aviation Regulations.
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Duties: Serving as an Expeditionary Disposal Remediation in Contingency Operations Enduring Freedom providing disposition services to forward operating bases through all Afghanistan. Ensuring units achieve an operational readiness status. Performing periodic staff visits on site for assessing, training and removal assistance at all levels of leadership ensuring proper procedures and correct handling of military and civilian contracting property. Recommend redistribution of excess equipment and material. Responsible of providing technical expertise and knowledge of logistics management, property, segregation/ identification and scrap removal. Provide knowledge of logistical guidance, reutilization and advice to staff members; reviewing requisitions against authorized allowances; making recommendations concerning movement of equipment and material to meet activity requirements and, analyzing recurring reports. Monitor the budget for logistical requirements. Performing effectively in a good working environment with multiple security forces (Special Forces, Delta Forces, Seabees) give then support in many levels as NCOIC in charge of reutilization section. Served as a Safety NCO ensuring OSHA requirements and Department of Defense safety measures were performed accordingly. Monitor the budget for logistical requirements.
Assisted in actual aspects of the DLA Logistics Management Program by providing necessary feeder data and performing some of the less complex coordinating and executing logistical requirements. I reviewed requisitions against authorized allowances according to the appropriate authorization document and reviewed force modernization initiatives and actions. In addition, I coordinated and implemented appropriate actions to obtain material and equipment and update or change authorization documents.
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The game of In-Between or Acey-Deucey is often referred to as Red Dog, but its rules are very different from the standard Red Dog game. In-Between is not very popular at casinos, but is often played in home Poker games as a break from Poker itself. The rules below are for the home game, which is easily adaptable for casino play.
Rank of Cards. A (high), K, Q, J, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2.
Object of the Game. The goal is to be the player with the most chips at the end of the game.
The Ante. Chips are distributed to the players, and each players puts one chip in the center of the table to form a pool or pot.
The Draw. Any player deals one card face up, to each player in turn, and the player with the highest card deals first.
The Shuffle, Cut, and Deal. Any player may shuffle, and the dealer shuffles last. The player to the dealer's right cuts the cards. The dealer turns up two cards and places them in the middle of the table, positioning them so that there is ample room for a third card to fit in between.
The Betting. The player on the dealer's left may bet up to the entire pot or any portion of the number of chips in the pot, but he must always bet a minimum of one chip. When the player has placed a bet, the dealer turns up the top card from the pack and places it between the two cards already face up. If the card ranks between the two cards already face up, the player wins and takes back the amount of his bet plus an equivalent amount from the pot. If the third card is not between the face-up cards, or is of the same rank as either of them, the player loses his bet, and it is added to the pot. If the two face-up cards up are consecutive, the player automatically loses, and a third card need not be turned up. If the two face-up cards are the same, the player wins two chips and, again, no third card is turned up. (In some games, the player is paid three chips when this occurs.)
"Acey-Deucey" (ace, 2) is the best combination, and a player tends to bet the whole pot, if he can. This is because the only way an ace-deuce combination can lose is if the third card turned up is also an ace or a deuce.
After the first player has finished, the dealer clears away the cards and places them face down in a pile. The next player then places a bet, and the dealer repeats the same procedure until all the players, including the dealer, have had a turn.
If at any time, the pot has no more chips in it (because a player has "bet the pot" and won), each player again puts in one chip to restore
When every player has had a turn to bet, the deal passes to the player on the dealer's left, and the game continues.
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Hope for a diabetes cure
For the first time, human stem cells have been converted into insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Douglas Melton of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and colleagues report on a complex process that over 35 days produces some 200 million β cells, which would be enough, in theory, to treat a human patient. Transplanted into mice, the β cells work, secreting human insulin and improving hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. In human diabetics, these cells might still be destroyed in the person’s immune system, like the original β cells, but recipients of transplanted cadaveric human tissue transplants have been insulin-free for five years – a procedure that is limited owing to the scarcity of suitable donor tissue. While not yet a cure, this is the first example of making functional, transplantable insulin-producing human cells, and of the importance of continuing stem-cell work.
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The culture of Thailand incorporates cultural beliefs and characteristics indigenous to the area known as modern-day Thailand coupled with much influence from ancient China, Cambodia, Laos, India along with the neighboring pre-historic cultures of Southeast Asia. It is influenced primarily by animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, as well as by later migrations from China, and northern India.
2.1 Traditional clothing
4 Birth traditions and beliefs
9 Traditional Games of Thailand
9.1 Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit)
9.2 Banana rib hobbyhorse riding
11 See also
12 Notes and references
13 External links
Buddhist novices receiving joss sticks.
Main article: Religion in Thailand
Thailand is nearly 94%-95% Theravada Buddhist (which includes the Thai Forest Tradition and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya and Santi Asoke sects), with minorities of Muslims (5-6%), Christians (1%), Mahayana Buddhists, and other religions. Thai Theravada Buddhism is supported and overseen by the government, with monks receiving a number of government benefits, such as free use of the public transportation infrastructure.
Buddhism in Thailand is strongly influenced by traditional beliefs regarding ancestral and natural spirits, which have been incorporated into Buddhist cosmology. Most Thai people own spirit houses, miniature wooden houses in which they believe household spirits live. They present offerings of food and drink to these spirits to keep them happy. If these spirits aren't happy, it is believed that they will inhabit the larger household of the Thai, and cause chaos. These spirit houses can be found in public places and in the streets of Thailand, where the public make offerings.
Prior to the rise of Theravada Buddhism, both Indian Brahmanic religion and Mahayana Buddhism were present in Thailand. Influences from both these traditions can still be seen in present day Thai folklore. Brahmanist shrines play an important role in Thai folk religion, and the Mahayana Buddhist influence is reflected in the presence of figures like Lokesvara, a form of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara sometimes incorporated into Thailand's iconography.
See also: Thai folklore
Thai greeting, the smile is an important symbol of refinement in Thai culture.
The traditional customs and the folklore of Thai people were gathered and described by Phya Anuman Rajadhon in the 20th century, at a time when modernity changed the face of Thailand and a great number of traditions disappeared or became adapted to modern life. Still, the striving towards refinement, rooted in ancient Siamese culture, consisting of promoting that which is refined and avoiding coarseness is a major focus of the daily life of Thai people and high on their scale of values.
One of the most distinctive Thai customs is the wai. Used in greetings, leave-taking, or as an acknowledgement, it comes in many forms, reflecting the relative status of those involved. Generally the salutation involves a prayer-like gesture with the hands, similar to the Añjali Mudrā of the Indian subcontinent, and it also may include a slight bow of the head. This salutation is often accompanied by a serene smile symbolizing a welcoming disposition and a pleasant attitude. Thailand is often referred to as the "land of smiles" in tourist brochures.
Public displays of affection is not overly common in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers. It is becoming more common, especially among the younger generation.
A notable social norm holds that touching someone on the head may be considered rude. It is also considered rude to place one's feet at a level above someone else's head, especially if that person is of higher social standing. This is because the Thai people consider the foot to be the dirtiest and lowliest part of the body, and the head the most respected and highest part of the body. This also influences how Thais sit when on the ground—their feet always pointing away from others, tucked to the side or behind them. Pointing at or touching something with the feet is also considered rude.
Display of respect of the younger towards the elder is a cornerstone value in Thailand. A family during the Buddhist ceremony for young men who are to be ordained as monks.
Since serene detachment is valued, conflict and sudden displays of anger are eschewed in Thai culture and, as is many Asian cultures, the notion of face is extremely important. For these reasons, visitors should take care not to create conflict, to display anger or to cause a Thai person to lose face. Disagreements or disputes should be handled with a smile and no attempt should be made to assign blame to another. In everyday life in Thailand, there is a strong emphasis on the concept of sanuk; the idea that life should be fun. Because of this, Thais can be quite playful at work and during day-to-day activities. Displaying positive emotions in social interactions is also important in Thai culture.
Often, Thais will deal with disagreements, minor mistakes, or misfortunes by using the phrase mai pen rai, translated as "it doesn't matter". The ubiquitous use of this phrase in Thailand reflects a disposition towards minimizing conflict, disagreements or complaints. A smile and the sentence "mai pen rai" indicates that the incident is not important and therefore there is no conflict or shame involved.
Respect for hierarchy is a very important value for Thai people. The custom of bun khun emphasizes the indebtedness towards parents, as well as towards guardians, teachers, and caretakers. It describes the feelings and practices involved in certain relationships organized around generalized reciprocity, the slow-acting accounting of an exchange calculated according to locally interpreted scales and measures. It is also considered rude to step on any type of Thai currency (Thai coin or banknote) as they include a likeness of the king.
The 1941-42 Thai cultural mandates, promulgated by Plaek Pibulsonggram, made sweeping changes in Thai culture. Modernization efforts discouraged the wearing of women's traditional costumes, in favour of more modern forms of dress
There are a number of Thai customs relating to the special status of monks in Thai society. Thai monks are forbidden physical contact with women. Women are therefore expected to make way for passing monks to ensure that accidental contact does not occur. A variety of methods are employed to ensure that no incidental contact (or the appearance of such contact) between women and monks occurs. Women making offerings to monks place their donation at the feet of the monk, or on a cloth laid on the ground or a table. Powders or unguents intended to carry a blessing are applied to Thai women by monks using the end of a candle or stick. Laypersons are expected to sit or stand with their heads at a lower level than that of a monk. Within a temple, monks may sit on a raised platform during ceremonies to make this easier to achieve.
When sitting in a temple, one is expected to point one's feet away from images of the Buddha. Shrines inside Thai residences are arranged so as to ensure that the feet are not pointed towards the religious icons, such as placing the shrine on the same wall as the head of a bed, if a house is too small to remove the shrine from the bedroom entirely.
It is also customary to remove one's footwear before entering a home or the sacred areas within a temple, and not to step on the threshold.
A woman wearing a chut Thai
Main article: Chut thai
Traditional Thai clothing is called chut thai (Thai: ชุดไทย Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj]) which literally means "Thai outfit". It can be worn by men, women, and children. Chut thai for women usually consists of a pha nung or a chong kraben, a blouse, and a sabai. Northern and northeastern women may wear a sinh instead of a pha nung and a chong kraben with either a blouse or a suea pat. Chut thai for men includes a chong kraben or pants, a Raj pattern shirt, with optional knee-length white socks and a sabai. Chut thai for northern Thai men is composed of a sado, a white Manchu styled jacket, and sometimes a khian hua. In formal occasions, people may choose to wear a chut thai phraratchaniyom.
A traditional wedding in Thailand.
Main article: Thai marriage
Thai Buddhist marriage ceremonies are generally divided into two parts: a Buddhist component, which includes the recitation of prayers and the offering of food and other gifts to monks and images of the Buddha, and a non-Buddhist component rooted in folk traditions, which centers on the couple's families.
In former times, it was unknown for Buddhist monks to be present at any stage of the marriage ceremony itself. As monks were required to attend to the dead during funerals, their presence at a marriage (which was associated with fertility, and intended to produce children) was considered a bad omen. A couple would seek a blessing from their local temple before or after being married, and might consult a monk for astrological advice in setting an auspicious date for the wedding. The non-Buddhist portions of the wedding would take place away from the temple, and would often take place on a separate day.
In modern times, these prohibitions have been significantly relaxed. It is not uncommon for a visit to a temple to be made on the same day as the non-Buddhist portions of a wedding, or even for the wedding to take place within the temple. While a division is still commonly observed between the "religious" and "secular" portions of a wedding service, it may be as simple as the monks present for the Buddhist ceremony departing to take lunch once their role is complete.
During the Buddhist component of the wedding service, the couple first bow before the image of the Buddha. They then recite certain basic Buddhist prayers or chants (typically including taking the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts), and light incense and candles before the image. The parents of the couple may then be called upon to "connect" them, by placing upon the heads of the bride and groom twin loops of string or thread that link the couple together. The couple may then make offerings of food, flowers, and medicine to the monks present. Cash gifts (usually placed in an envelope) may also be presented to the temple at this time.
The monks may then unwind a small length of thread that is held between the hands of the assembled monks. They begin a series of recitations of Pali scriptures intended to bring merit and blessings to the new couple. The string terminates with the lead monk, who may connect it to a container of water that will be "sanctified" for the ceremony. Merit is said to travel through the string and be conveyed to the water. A similar arrangement is used to transfer merit to the dead at a funeral, further evidence of the weakening of the taboo on mixing funerary imagery and trappings with marriage ceremonies. Blessed water may be mixed with wax drippings from a candle lit before the Buddha image and other unguents and herbs to create a paste that is then applied to the foreheads of the bride and groom to create a small dot, similar to the marking made with red ochre on Hindu devotees. The bride's mark is created with the butt end of the candle rather than the monk's thumb, in keeping with the Vinaya prohibition against touching women.
The highest-ranking monk present may elect to say a few words to the couple, offering advice or encouragement. The couple may then make offerings of food to the monks, at which point the Buddhist portion of the ceremony is concluded.
The Thai dowry system is known as the sin sodt Thai: สินสอด. Traditionally, the groom will be expected to pay a sum of money to the family, to compensate them and to demonstrate that the groom is financially capable of taking care of their daughter. Sometimes, this sum is purely symbolic, and will be returned to the bride and groom after the wedding has taken place.
The religious component of marriage ceremonies between Thai Muslims are markedly different from that described above. The Imam of the local mosque, the groom, the father of the bride, men in the immediate family, and important men in the community sit in a circle during the ceremony, conducted by the Imam. All the women, including the bride, sit in a separate room and do not have any direct participation in the ceremony. The secular component of the ceremony, however, is often nearly identical to the secular part of Thai Buddhist wedding ceremonies. The only notable difference here is the type of meat served to guests (goat and/or beef instead of pork). Thai Muslims frequently, though not always, also follow the conventions of the Thai dowry system.
Birth traditions and beliefs
Main article: Birth in Thailand
Traditional principles concerning pregnancy and childbirth are largely influenced by folk beliefs, especially in rural areas of central and north Thailand. Modern practices follow the Western medical model.
See also: Funeral (Buddhism)
Funeral pyre of Chan Kusalo, the patriarch-abbot of northern Thailand.
Traditionally, funerals last for at least one week. Crying is discouraged during the funeral, so as not to worry the spirit of the deceased. Many activities surrounding the funeral are intended to make merit for the deceased. Copies of Buddhist scriptures may be printed and distributed in the name of the deceased, and gifts are usually given to a local temple. Monks are invited to chant prayers that are intended to provide merit for the deceased, as well as to provide protection against the possibility of the dead relative returning as a malicious spirit. A picture of the deceased from his/her best days will often be displayed next to the coffin. Often, a thread is connected to the corpse or coffin which is held by the chanting monks during their recitation; this thread is intended to transfer the merit of the monks' recitation to the deceased. The corpse is cremated, and the urn with the ash is usually kept in a chedi in the local temple.
Thai Chinese and Thai Muslim minorities bury their deceased according to the rituals of their respective communities.
A depiction of a white elephant in 19th century Thai art.
Main articles: Thai art and Music of Thailand
Thai visual arts were traditionally Buddhist. Thai Buddha images from different periods have a number of distinctive styles. Thai temple art and architecture evolved from a number of sources, one of them being Khmer architecture. Contemporary Thai art often combines traditional Thai elements with modern techniques.
Literature in Thailand is heavily influenced by Indian Hindu culture. The most notable works of Thai literature are a version of the Ramayana, a Hindu religious epic, called the Ramakien, written in part by Kings Rama I and Rama II, and the poetry of Sunthorn Phu.
There is no tradition of spoken drama in Thailand, the role instead being filled by Thai dance. This is divided into three categories: khon, lakhon, and likay, khon being the most elaborate and likay the most popular. Nang drama, a form of shadow play, is found in the south.
The music of Thailand includes classical and folk music traditions, e.g., piphat and mor lam, respectively) as well as string or pop music.
Main article: Public holidays in Thailand
Important holidays in Thai culture include Thai New Year, or Songkran, which is officially observed from 13–15 April each year. Falling at the end of the dry season and during the hot season in Thailand, the celebrations notoriously feature boisterous water throwing. The water throwing stemmed from washing Buddha images and lightly sprinkling scented water on the hands of elderly people. Small amounts of scented talcum powder were also used in the annual cleansing rite. In recent decades, water fights have been increasingly industrialised with use of hoses, barrels, squirt guns, water-filled surgical tubing, and copious amounts of powder.
Loi Krathong is held on the 12th full moon of the Thai lunar calendar, usually early-November. While not a government-observed holiday, it is nonetheless an auspicious day in Thai culture, in which Thai people "loi", meaning "to float" a "krathong", a small raft traditionally made from elaborately folded banana leaves and including flowers, candles, incense sticks, and small offerings. The act of floating away the candle raft is symbolic of letting go of all one's grudges, anger, and defilements so that one can start life afresh on a better footing.
Thai boxing is the indigenous national sport in Thailand. Football is perhaps the most-watched sport. The English Premier League is surprisingly popular.
Traditional Games of Thailand
Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit)
“Kratai Kha Deow” or “One Legged Rabbit” is one type of catch game. The catcher will call the rabbit, and the rabbit must stand on one leg and jump or tiptoe to catch the other players and switch to rabbit instead. This game will exercise your legs and practice balancing on one leg. The number of players are divided into two teams, or may not have a team at all. Normally, there are two or more players. At the first time, the player will select the rabbit or team by “Rock-Paper-Scissors”. The loser would have to be a rabbit.
In the case of solo player, the rabbit must stand on one leg, then jump to chase and touch any part of the body of other children who have run away. Everyone must stay within the designated area. A player who runs out of space loses the game and must be switched to rabbit, but if the rabbit is exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, it was that defeated and must be punished.
In team play, the rules are similar to the solo player, but the rabbit team will send a representative to catch the other team to all the people. Those arrested will have to wait outside until the rabbit team can catch all of the rival teams. Rabbit team can switch to teammates to catch on until they are exhausted, and if the all of the members in rabbit team are exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, the rabbit team lose the game and must be punished too.
Banana rib hobbyhorse riding
Banana rib hobbyhorse riding or "Khee Ma Khan Kluay" in Thai is a traditional game of Thailand that Thai kids frequently played in the past. They use a banana rib to make the parts of a horse such as head, ear, and horsetail. The kids can make a horse on their own by using banana rib from banana trees irrelevant. This game makes kids enjoy their imagination by assume themselves as a rider, and an exercise. That is a local traditional which is the kids can spent time together.
The materials for making a banana rib hobbyhorse are banana rib, knife, small bamboo pin, and string. First, find a rib of a banana around 1.5 is long (1 meter = 2 wa). Cut it in a form of the head, neck, and ears then use a small bamboo pin to connect the ear to the head of a horse. The remaining part of a banana rib, becomes a horsetail. Attach a string between the head and the tail of this banana rib horse and place on the shoulder of the rider.
How to play banana rib hobbyhorse riding. Kids will sit on the horse and behave like they are riding a real horse shouting ‘hee hee’ or ‘yee haaah’(making the usual sounds people shout when controlling their horses). They may race with other friends if they have player more than 2 players. Which team runs faster, will be the winner or continuously ride around a wide open space and have fun.
See also: Thai names
Thai people universally have one, or occasionally more, short nicknames (Thai: ชื่อเล่น name-play) that they use with friends a
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budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and
Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed.
This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion.
It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings.
Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps:
1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary;
2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions.
Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous;
3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward.
4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched;
5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance.
Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and
6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect.
(Ben G. Bareja. November 2011)
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