From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.
I'm sorry just sent the letter, since I got here I was very busy. I followed the dynamics of the activities that are required for each new student. Dynamics is the study entered the campus held every Saturday for a month ago. Follow the dynamics of a very tiring. Saturday late last month already implemented closure dynamics. I'm really relieved. Now my Saturday is free. I could write you a letter. I stayed in the Wisama Anugerah Kalimongso, it is located behind the campus. Now I am in good health, only my skin is sensitive to water here, perhaps because the water is not clean. The weather here is also very hot. Every day my activities while these organizations have not followed the only course. Friends here are very friendly. They are smart and diligent. I used to study with them. 10 November tomorrow I will follow capacity building. And at the end of November tomorrow I will undergo a midterm, hopefully my grades good. Christmas holiday tomorrow when I will visit your house. Hopefully in the future I like living here. I hope the time goes quickly and I soon graduated in the year 2018. How are you? What about your new job
In economics marginal thingking requires desicion makers to evaluate wether the benefits of one more unit of somethingis greater than its cost . this can be quite challenging but understanding how to analyze desicions at the margin is essential to becoming a good economist
Sa economics marginal thingking nangangailangan desicion makers upang suriin weder ang mga pakinabang ng isa pang yunit ng somethingis mas malaki kaysa sa kanyang gastos. ito ay maaaring maging lubos na mahirap ngunit-unawa kung paano upang pag-aralan desicions sa margin ay mahalaga sa pagiging isang mahusay na ekonomista
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consularSPECIAL POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:
I/We, MR. JOEDEL BELMONTE MALAPO, Filipino, Single, of legal age/s, with postal address at #1818 Upo Napico Street, Manggahan
1611 Pasig City, do hereby name, constitute and appoint SANDRA OLAVERA NARON, Filipino, Single, of legal age, residing at #1818 Upo Napico
Street, Manggahan 1611 Pasig City whose specimen signature appears below, to be my/our true and lawful Attorney-in-fact, for me/us and in
my/our name/s, place and stead, and for my/our own use and benefit to do the following acts and deeds:
1. To acquire the property in paragraph 3 presently covered by Condominium/Transfer Certificate of Title No. ________________ under the name of
PROPERTY COMPANY OF FRIENDS INC. and to be registered and transferred in name/s of SANDRA OLAVERA NARON.
2. To apply for, negotiate, and obtain a loan from BDO UNIBANK, Inc (“the Bank”) in the principal amount not exceeding (PHP 1,357,300.xx) ONLY,
Philippine Currency, (the “Loan”), or any such higher amount as may be approved by the Bank ,at such terms and conditions as may be agreed by
my attorney-in-fact with the Bank:
3. To encumber or assign and convey by way of FIRST MORTGAGE unto the Bank, its successors and assigns my/our property/ies described below,
including its appurtenant parking space, laundry area, drying area, ledge, garden area, balcony, if any, as security for the prompt payment of the
Loan, including its renewals, extensions, rescheduling, restructuring, reavailments or amendments thereof:
Location Current TCT/ CCT No.,
Registry of Deeds & Registered Owner
To be transferred to
Block 11 Lot 3 Kensington 6 Barangay
Navarro, General Trias, Cavite
Province of Cavite
PROPERTY COMPANY OF FRIENDS INC.
SANDRA OLAVERA NARON
4. To indicate, confirm and instruct the Bank on the mode of payment for my/our above Loan, including without limitation, to authorize the Bank to
automatically debit from my/our account with the Bank’s __________________ Branch under Account No. __________________
(the “Account”) for any and all payments/amounts which may be due from me/us under the said Loan and/or the facility obtained in accordance with
paragraph 8 below, as my/our attorney-in-fact may deem appropriate or necessary;
5. To make, sign, execute, and deliver contracts, documents, agreements, and other writings of whatever nature or kind, such as but not limited to
Promissory Note(s), the Deed of Real Estate Mortgage / Mortgage Loan Agreement, Deed of Undertaking, Automatic Debit Authority and all other
documents (including without limitation, the enrollment form for any Mortgage Redemption/Credit Life Insurance or other bond/insurance
requirements and/or any renewal thereof, and such petitions, warranties, representations and undertakings in relation to the condition of the
foregoing property and the delivery of title over the same to the Bank, free and clear from any liens and encumbrances), with the Bank any and all
third persons, concerns, or entities, as may be necessary or proper in connection with the foregoing upon the terms and conditions as my/our said
Attorney-in-fact may, in his / her discretion, deem to be in my/our best interest:
6. To duly receive on my/our behalf the proceeds of the said Loan as well as legal notices or processes directed to me/us in the event of foreclosure
or other satisfaction of the suit premised on the Deed of Real Estate Mortgage / Mortgage Loan Agreement or any other document, warranty,
agreement to be executed by my/our Attorney-in-fact in favor of the Bank as security for the aforesaid Loan:
7. To claim from the Bank, upon full payment of the credit accommodations / facilities for which my/our property stands as collateral, the Owner’s
Duplicate Copy of title aforementioned.
8. To obtain a facility from the Bank in such amount as may be necessary to pay for the insurance policy such as but not limited to mortgage
redemption/credit life insurance and fire insurance policy, procured in connection with the Loan, and to sign, execute and deliver application forms,
contracts, documents, and agreements, as may be necessary or proper in connection with the facility to be obtained at such terms and conditions as
my/our said Attorney-in-fact may, in his/her discretion, deem to be proper, and to claim and receive from the Bank any and all documents in relation
to the insurance policy procured and/or facility obtained.
9. To cancel any lien / encumbrance such as but not limited to Sec. 4, Rule 74 of the Revised Rules of Court (Heirs' and / or Creditors' Lien), Sec. 7 of
Republic Act No. 26 (An Act Providing A Special Procedure For The Reconstitution of Torrens Certificates of Title Lost or Destroyed), and / or prior
mortgage annotations, if any.
10. To do and perform any and all acts necessary for the faithful execution of the foregoing acts and deeds.
HEREBY GIVING AND GRANTING unto my/our said Attorney-in-fact full power and authority to do and perform all and every act and thing
whatsoever requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as I might or could lawfully do if
personally present, and hereby ratifying and confirming all that my/our said attorney-in-fact has done, shall lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue
of these presents.
This Special Power of Attorney shall be valid and subsisting and shall remain in full force and effect unless otherwise revoked or amended
by me in writing and duly served upon the Bank.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this day of _________________ at _______________________.
JOEDEL BELMONTE MALAPO
SANDRA OLAVERA NARON
SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:
STEPHANIE JOY M YAO
ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND CERTIFICATE OF OATH
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES) S.S.
BEFORE ME, a Notary Public for and in the above jurisdiction personally appeared:
Name Competent Evidence of Identity Date & Place Issued
JOEDEL BELMONTE MALAPO 409-792-012-000 TIN
SANDRA OLAVERA NARON 427-167-706-000 TIN
Personally known to or identified by me to be the same person/s who executed the foregoing instrument and he / she / they acknowledged to me that
their signature on the instrument was voluntarily affixed for the purposes stated therein, the same is his / her / their own free and voluntary act and
deed and they were duly authorized to sign for the person/s or Corporation/s herein represented, and he / she / they further made oath as to the
truth of the representation and warranties thereof.
This instrument consisting of _________ (___) pages, including this page on which the Acknowledgment is written, has been signed by the party
and their instrumental witnesses on each and every page thereof and relates to a Special Power of Attorney granted in favor of
WITNESS MY HAND AND NOTARIAL SEAL on this day of ______________________________ at ____________________________________
Doc. No. _____________;
Page No. _____________; NOTARY PUBLIC
Book No. _____________;
Series of _____________;ized
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Yes. The FDA must first approve all generic drugs. The FDA requires that generic drugs must be as high in quality, and as strong, pure and stable as brand-name drugs. Generic drugs use the same active ingredients as brand-name drugs and work the same way. They have the same risks and the same benefits as the brand-name drugs
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Duties: Serving as an Expeditionary Disposal Remediation in Contingency Operations Enduring Freedom providing disposition services to forward operating bases through all Afghanistan. Ensuring units achieve an operational readiness status. Performing periodic staff visits on site for assessing, training and removal assistance at all levels of leadership ensuring proper procedures and correct handling of military and civilian contracting property. Recommend redistribution of excess equipment and material. Responsible of providing technical expertise and knowledge of logistics management, property, segregation/ identification and scrap removal. Provide knowledge of logistical guidance, reutilization and advice to staff members; reviewing requisitions against authorized allowances; making recommendations concerning movement of equipment and material to meet activity requirements and, analyzing recurring reports. Monitor the budget for logistical requirements. Performing effectively in a good working environment with multiple security forces (Special Forces, Delta Forces, Seabees) give then support in many levels as NCOIC in charge of reutilization section. Served as a Safety NCO ensuring OSHA requirements and Department of Defense safety measures were performed accordingly. Monitor the budget for logistical requirements.
Assisted in actual aspects of the DLA Logistics Management Program by providing necessary feeder data and performing some of the less complex coordinating and executing logistical requirements. I reviewed requisitions against authorized allowances according to the appropriate authorization document and reviewed force modernization initiatives and actions. In addition, I coordinated and implemented appropriate actions to obtain material and equipment and update or change authorization documents.
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reservoir are fairly large and deep human created bodies of standing freshwater often built behind dams. they are built primarily for water storage . unlike in lakes the volume of water contained in reservoir is determine by what is required for hydroelectric power production irrigation or domestic consumption .
reservoir ay medyo malaki at malalim na tao na nilikha katawan ng nakatayo tubig-tabang madalas na binuo sa likod ng Dam. sila ay binuo lalo na para sa imbakan ng tubig. hindi katulad sa lawa ang lakas ng tunog ng tubig na nilalaman sa imbakan ng tubig ay matukoy sa pamamagitan ng kung ano ang kinakailangan para sa haydroelektriko kapangyarihan produksyon patubig o domestic pagkonsumo.
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flatwormsThe flatworms, or Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning worm) are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously.
In traditional zoology texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria, which are mostly nonparasitic animals such as planarians, and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic, this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments such as leaf litter. Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land vertebrates, and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of hermaphroditic, segment-like proglottids which detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host.
Because they do not have internal body cavities, Platyhelminthes were regarded as a primitive stage in the evolution of bilaterians (animals with bilateral symmetry and hence with distinct front and rear ends). However, analyses since the mid-1980s have separated out one subgroup, the Acoelomorpha, as basal bilaterians - closer to the original bilaterians than to any other modern groups. The remaining Platyhelminthes form a monophyletic group - one that contains all and only descendants of a common ancestor that is itself a member of the group. The redefined Platyhelminthes is part of the Lophotrochozoa, one of the three main groups of more complex bilaterians. These analyses had concluded the redefined Platyhelminthes, excluding Acoelomorpha, consists of two monophyletic subgroups, Catenulida and Rhabditophora, with Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea forming a monophyletic subgroup within one branch of the Rhabditophora. Hence, the traditional platyhelminth subgroup "Turbellaria" is now regarded as paraphyletic, since it excludes the wholly parasitic groups, although these are descended from one group of "turbellarians".
Over half of all known flatworm species are parasitic, and some do enormous harm to humans and their livestock. Schistosomiasis, caused by one genus of trematodes, is the second-most devastating of all human diseases caused by parasites, surpassed only by malaria. Neurocysticercosis, which arises when larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium penetrate the central nervous system, is the major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The threat of platyhelminth parasites to humans in developed countries is rising because of the popularity of raw or lightly cooked foods, and imports of food from high-risk areas. In less developed countries, people often cannot afford the fuel required to cook food thoroughly, and poorly designed water-supply and irrigation projects increase the dangers presented by poor sanitation and unhygienic farming.
Two planarian species have been used successfully in the Philippines, Indonesia, Hawaii, New Guinea, and Guam to control populations of the imported giant African snail Achatina fulica, which was displacing native snails. However, there is now concern that these planarians may themselves become a serious threat to native snails. In northwest Europe, there are concerns about the spread of the New Zealand planarian Arthurdendyus triangulatus, which preys on earthworms.
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The culture of Thailand incorporates cultural beliefs and characteristics indigenous to the area known as modern-day Thailand coupled with much influence from ancient China, Cambodia, Laos, India along with the neighboring pre-historic cultures of Southeast Asia. It is influenced primarily by animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, as well as by later migrations from China, and northern India.
2.1 Traditional clothing
4 Birth traditions and beliefs
9 Traditional Games of Thailand
9.1 Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit)
9.2 Banana rib hobbyhorse riding
11 See also
12 Notes and references
13 External links
Buddhist novices receiving joss sticks.
Main article: Religion in Thailand
Thailand is nearly 94%-95% Theravada Buddhist (which includes the Thai Forest Tradition and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya and Santi Asoke sects), with minorities of Muslims (5-6%), Christians (1%), Mahayana Buddhists, and other religions. Thai Theravada Buddhism is supported and overseen by the government, with monks receiving a number of government benefits, such as free use of the public transportation infrastructure.
Buddhism in Thailand is strongly influenced by traditional beliefs regarding ancestral and natural spirits, which have been incorporated into Buddhist cosmology. Most Thai people own spirit houses, miniature wooden houses in which they believe household spirits live. They present offerings of food and drink to these spirits to keep them happy. If these spirits aren't happy, it is believed that they will inhabit the larger household of the Thai, and cause chaos. These spirit houses can be found in public places and in the streets of Thailand, where the public make offerings.
Prior to the rise of Theravada Buddhism, both Indian Brahmanic religion and Mahayana Buddhism were present in Thailand. Influences from both these traditions can still be seen in present day Thai folklore. Brahmanist shrines play an important role in Thai folk religion, and the Mahayana Buddhist influence is reflected in the presence of figures like Lokesvara, a form of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara sometimes incorporated into Thailand's iconography.
See also: Thai folklore
Thai greeting, the smile is an important symbol of refinement in Thai culture.
The traditional customs and the folklore of Thai people were gathered and described by Phya Anuman Rajadhon in the 20th century, at a time when modernity changed the face of Thailand and a great number of traditions disappeared or became adapted to modern life. Still, the striving towards refinement, rooted in ancient Siamese culture, consisting of promoting that which is refined and avoiding coarseness is a major focus of the daily life of Thai people and high on their scale of values.
One of the most distinctive Thai customs is the wai. Used in greetings, leave-taking, or as an acknowledgement, it comes in many forms, reflecting the relative status of those involved. Generally the salutation involves a prayer-like gesture with the hands, similar to the Añjali Mudrā of the Indian subcontinent, and it also may include a slight bow of the head. This salutation is often accompanied by a serene smile symbolizing a welcoming disposition and a pleasant attitude. Thailand is often referred to as the "land of smiles" in tourist brochures.
Public displays of affection is not overly common in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers. It is becoming more common, especially among the younger generation.
A notable social norm holds that touching someone on the head may be considered rude. It is also considered rude to place one's feet at a level above someone else's head, especially if that person is of higher social standing. This is because the Thai people consider the foot to be the dirtiest and lowliest part of the body, and the head the most respected and highest part of the body. This also influences how Thais sit when on the ground—their feet always pointing away from others, tucked to the side or behind them. Pointing at or touching something with the feet is also considered rude.
Display of respect of the younger towards the elder is a cornerstone value in Thailand. A family during the Buddhist ceremony for young men who are to be ordained as monks.
Since serene detachment is valued, conflict and sudden displays of anger are eschewed in Thai culture and, as is many Asian cultures, the notion of face is extremely important. For these reasons, visitors should take care not to create conflict, to display anger or to cause a Thai person to lose face. Disagreements or disputes should be handled with a smile and no attempt should be made to assign blame to another. In everyday life in Thailand, there is a strong emphasis on the concept of sanuk; the idea that life should be fun. Because of this, Thais can be quite playful at work and during day-to-day activities. Displaying positive emotions in social interactions is also important in Thai culture.
Often, Thais will deal with disagreements, minor mistakes, or misfortunes by using the phrase mai pen rai, translated as "it doesn't matter". The ubiquitous use of this phrase in Thailand reflects a disposition towards minimizing conflict, disagreements or complaints. A smile and the sentence "mai pen rai" indicates that the incident is not important and therefore there is no conflict or shame involved.
Respect for hierarchy is a very important value for Thai people. The custom of bun khun emphasizes the indebtedness towards parents, as well as towards guardians, teachers, and caretakers. It describes the feelings and practices involved in certain relationships organized around generalized reciprocity, the slow-acting accounting of an exchange calculated according to locally interpreted scales and measures. It is also considered rude to step on any type of Thai currency (Thai coin or banknote) as they include a likeness of the king.
The 1941-42 Thai cultural mandates, promulgated by Plaek Pibulsonggram, made sweeping changes in Thai culture. Modernization efforts discouraged the wearing of women's traditional costumes, in favour of more modern forms of dress
There are a number of Thai customs relating to the special status of monks in Thai society. Thai monks are forbidden physical contact with women. Women are therefore expected to make way for passing monks to ensure that accidental contact does not occur. A variety of methods are employed to ensure that no incidental contact (or the appearance of such contact) between women and monks occurs. Women making offerings to monks place their donation at the feet of the monk, or on a cloth laid on the ground or a table. Powders or unguents intended to carry a blessing are applied to Thai women by monks using the end of a candle or stick. Laypersons are expected to sit or stand with their heads at a lower level than that of a monk. Within a temple, monks may sit on a raised platform during ceremonies to make this easier to achieve.
When sitting in a temple, one is expected to point one's feet away from images of the Buddha. Shrines inside Thai residences are arranged so as to ensure that the feet are not pointed towards the religious icons, such as placing the shrine on the same wall as the head of a bed, if a house is too small to remove the shrine from the bedroom entirely.
It is also customary to remove one's footwear before entering a home or the sacred areas within a temple, and not to step on the threshold.
A woman wearing a chut Thai
Main article: Chut thai
Traditional Thai clothing is called chut thai (Thai: ชุดไทย Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj]) which literally means "Thai outfit". It can be worn by men, women, and children. Chut thai for women usually consists of a pha nung or a chong kraben, a blouse, and a sabai. Northern and northeastern women may wear a sinh instead of a pha nung and a chong kraben with either a blouse or a suea pat. Chut thai for men includes a chong kraben or pants, a Raj pattern shirt, with optional knee-length white socks and a sabai. Chut thai for northern Thai men is composed of a sado, a white Manchu styled jacket, and sometimes a khian hua. In formal occasions, people may choose to wear a chut thai phraratchaniyom.
A traditional wedding in Thailand.
Main article: Thai marriage
Thai Buddhist marriage ceremonies are generally divided into two parts: a Buddhist component, which includes the recitation of prayers and the offering of food and other gifts to monks and images of the Buddha, and a non-Buddhist component rooted in folk traditions, which centers on the couple's families.
In former times, it was unknown for Buddhist monks to be present at any stage of the marriage ceremony itself. As monks were required to attend to the dead during funerals, their presence at a marriage (which was associated with fertility, and intended to produce children) was considered a bad omen. A couple would seek a blessing from their local temple before or after being married, and might consult a monk for astrological advice in setting an auspicious date for the wedding. The non-Buddhist portions of the wedding would take place away from the temple, and would often take place on a separate day.
In modern times, these prohibitions have been significantly relaxed. It is not uncommon for a visit to a temple to be made on the same day as the non-Buddhist portions of a wedding, or even for the wedding to take place within the temple. While a division is still commonly observed between the "religious" and "secular" portions of a wedding service, it may be as simple as the monks present for the Buddhist ceremony departing to take lunch once their role is complete.
During the Buddhist component of the wedding service, the couple first bow before the image of the Buddha. They then recite certain basic Buddhist prayers or chants (typically including taking the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts), and light incense and candles before the image. The parents of the couple may then be called upon to "connect" them, by placing upon the heads of the bride and groom twin loops of string or thread that link the couple together. The couple may then make offerings of food, flowers, and medicine to the monks present. Cash gifts (usually placed in an envelope) may also be presented to the temple at this time.
The monks may then unwind a small length of thread that is held between the hands of the assembled monks. They begin a series of recitations of Pali scriptures intended to bring merit and blessings to the new couple. The string terminates with the lead monk, who may connect it to a container of water that will be "sanctified" for the ceremony. Merit is said to travel through the string and be conveyed to the water. A similar arrangement is used to transfer merit to the dead at a funeral, further evidence of the weakening of the taboo on mixing funerary imagery and trappings with marriage ceremonies. Blessed water may be mixed with wax drippings from a candle lit before the Buddha image and other unguents and herbs to create a paste that is then applied to the foreheads of the bride and groom to create a small dot, similar to the marking made with red ochre on Hindu devotees. The bride's mark is created with the butt end of the candle rather than the monk's thumb, in keeping with the Vinaya prohibition against touching women.
The highest-ranking monk present may elect to say a few words to the couple, offering advice or encouragement. The couple may then make offerings of food to the monks, at which point the Buddhist portion of the ceremony is concluded.
The Thai dowry system is known as the sin sodt Thai: สินสอด. Traditionally, the groom will be expected to pay a sum of money to the family, to compensate them and to demonstrate that the groom is financially capable of taking care of their daughter. Sometimes, this sum is purely symbolic, and will be returned to the bride and groom after the wedding has taken place.
The religious component of marriage ceremonies between Thai Muslims are markedly different from that described above. The Imam of the local mosque, the groom, the father of the bride, men in the immediate family, and important men in the community sit in a circle during the ceremony, conducted by the Imam. All the women, including the bride, sit in a separate room and do not have any direct participation in the ceremony. The secular component of the ceremony, however, is often nearly identical to the secular part of Thai Buddhist wedding ceremonies. The only notable difference here is the type of meat served to guests (goat and/or beef instead of pork). Thai Muslims frequently, though not always, also follow the conventions of the Thai dowry system.
Birth traditions and beliefs
Main article: Birth in Thailand
Traditional principles concerning pregnancy and childbirth are largely influenced by folk beliefs, especially in rural areas of central and north Thailand. Modern practices follow the Western medical model.
See also: Funeral (Buddhism)
Funeral pyre of Chan Kusalo, the patriarch-abbot of northern Thailand.
Traditionally, funerals last for at least one week. Crying is discouraged during the funeral, so as not to worry the spirit of the deceased. Many activities surrounding the funeral are intended to make merit for the deceased. Copies of Buddhist scriptures may be printed and distributed in the name of the deceased, and gifts are usually given to a local temple. Monks are invited to chant prayers that are intended to provide merit for the deceased, as well as to provide protection against the possibility of the dead relative returning as a malicious spirit. A picture of the deceased from his/her best days will often be displayed next to the coffin. Often, a thread is connected to the corpse or coffin which is held by the chanting monks during their recitation; this thread is intended to transfer the merit of the monks' recitation to the deceased. The corpse is cremated, and the urn with the ash is usually kept in a chedi in the local temple.
Thai Chinese and Thai Muslim minorities bury their deceased according to the rituals of their respective communities.
A depiction of a white elephant in 19th century Thai art.
Main articles: Thai art and Music of Thailand
Thai visual arts were traditionally Buddhist. Thai Buddha images from different periods have a number of distinctive styles. Thai temple art and architecture evolved from a number of sources, one of them being Khmer architecture. Contemporary Thai art often combines traditional Thai elements with modern techniques.
Literature in Thailand is heavily influenced by Indian Hindu culture. The most notable works of Thai literature are a version of the Ramayana, a Hindu religious epic, called the Ramakien, written in part by Kings Rama I and Rama II, and the poetry of Sunthorn Phu.
There is no tradition of spoken drama in Thailand, the role instead being filled by Thai dance. This is divided into three categories: khon, lakhon, and likay, khon being the most elaborate and likay the most popular. Nang drama, a form of shadow play, is found in the south.
The music of Thailand includes classical and folk music traditions, e.g., piphat and mor lam, respectively) as well as string or pop music.
Main article: Public holidays in Thailand
Important holidays in Thai culture include Thai New Year, or Songkran, which is officially observed from 13–15 April each year. Falling at the end of the dry season and during the hot season in Thailand, the celebrations notoriously feature boisterous water throwing. The water throwing stemmed from washing Buddha images and lightly sprinkling scented water on the hands of elderly people. Small amounts of scented talcum powder were also used in the annual cleansing rite. In recent decades, water fights have been increasingly industrialised with use of hoses, barrels, squirt guns, water-filled surgical tubing, and copious amounts of powder.
Loi Krathong is held on the 12th full moon of the Thai lunar calendar, usually early-November. While not a government-observed holiday, it is nonetheless an auspicious day in Thai culture, in which Thai people "loi", meaning "to float" a "krathong", a small raft traditionally made from elaborately folded banana leaves and including flowers, candles, incense sticks, and small offerings. The act of floating away the candle raft is symbolic of letting go of all one's grudges, anger, and defilements so that one can start life afresh on a better footing.
Thai boxing is the indigenous national sport in Thailand. Football is perhaps the most-watched sport. The English Premier League is surprisingly popular.
Traditional Games of Thailand
Kratai Kha Deow(One Legged Rabbit)
“Kratai Kha Deow” or “One Legged Rabbit” is one type of catch game. The catcher will call the rabbit, and the rabbit must stand on one leg and jump or tiptoe to catch the other players and switch to rabbit instead. This game will exercise your legs and practice balancing on one leg. The number of players are divided into two teams, or may not have a team at all. Normally, there are two or more players. At the first time, the player will select the rabbit or team by “Rock-Paper-Scissors”. The loser would have to be a rabbit.
In the case of solo player, the rabbit must stand on one leg, then jump to chase and touch any part of the body of other children who have run away. Everyone must stay within the designated area. A player who runs out of space loses the game and must be switched to rabbit, but if the rabbit is exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, it was that defeated and must be punished.
In team play, the rules are similar to the solo player, but the rabbit team will send a representative to catch the other team to all the people. Those arrested will have to wait outside until the rabbit team can catch all of the rival teams. Rabbit team can switch to teammates to catch on until they are exhausted, and if the all of the members in rabbit team are exhausted and cannot stand on one leg, the rabbit team lose the game and must be punished too.
Banana rib hobbyhorse riding
Banana rib hobbyhorse riding or "Khee Ma Khan Kluay" in Thai is a traditional game of Thailand that Thai kids frequently played in the past. They use a banana rib to make the parts of a horse such as head, ear, and horsetail. The kids can make a horse on their own by using banana rib from banana trees irrelevant. This game makes kids enjoy their imagination by assume themselves as a rider, and an exercise. That is a local traditional which is the kids can spent time together.
The materials for making a banana rib hobbyhorse are banana rib, knife, small bamboo pin, and string. First, find a rib of a banana around 1.5 is long (1 meter = 2 wa). Cut it in a form of the head, neck, and ears then use a small bamboo pin to connect the ear to the head of a horse. The remaining part of a banana rib, becomes a horsetail. Attach a string between the head and the tail of this banana rib horse and place on the shoulder of the rider.
How to play banana rib hobbyhorse riding. Kids will sit on the horse and behave like they are riding a real horse shouting ‘hee hee’ or ‘yee haaah’(making the usual sounds people shout when controlling their horses). They may race with other friends if they have player more than 2 players. Which team runs faster, will be the winner or continuously ride around a wide open space and have fun.
See also: Thai names
Thai people universally have one, or occasionally more, short nicknames (Thai: ชื่อเล่น name-play) that they use with friends a
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