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English

specialized

Tagalog

Daffs

Last Update: 2014-09-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

horseradish roots

Tagalog

malunggay Roots

Last Update: 2016-01-20
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

unified roots

Tagalog

pinag ugatan

Last Update: 2016-07-22
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

permitting specialized activity

Tagalog

na nagpapahintulot sa pinasadyang mga aktibidad

Last Update: 2014-09-07
Subject: General
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English

She stepped down from the carretela of Ca Celin with a quick, delicate grace. She was lovely. SHe was tall. She looked up to my brother with a smile, and her forehead was on a level with his mouth. "You are Baldo," she said and placed her hand lightly on my shoulder. Her nails were long, but they were not painted. She was fragrant like a morning when papayas are in bloom. And a small dimple appeared momently high on her right cheek. "And this is Labang of whom I have heard so much." She held the wrist of one hand with the other and looked at Labang, and Labang never stopped chewing his cud. He swallowed and brought up to his mouth more cud and the sound of his insides was like a drum. I laid a hand on Labang's massive neck and said to her: "You may scratch his forehead now." She hesitated and I saw that her eyes were on the long, curving horns. But she came and touched Labang's forehead with her long fingers, and Labang never stopped chewing his cud except that his big eyes half closed. And by and by she was scratching his forehead very daintily. My brother Leon put down the two trunks on the grassy side of the road. He paid Ca Celin twice the usual fare from the station to the edge of Nagrebcan. Then he was standing beside us, and she turned to him eagerly. I watched Ca Celin, where he stood in front of his horse, and he ran his fingers through its forelock and could not keep his eyes away from her. "Maria---" my brother Leon said. He did not say Maring. He did not say Mayang. I knew then that he had always called her Maria and that to us all she would be Maria; and in my mind I said 'Maria' and it was a beautiful name. "Yes, Noel." Now where did she get that name? I pondered the matter quietly to myself, thinking Father might not like it. But it was only the name of my brother Leon said backward and it sounded much better that way. "There is Nagrebcan, Maria," my brother Leon said, gesturing widely toward the west. She moved close to him and slipped her arm through his. And after a while she said quietly. "You love Nagrebcan, don't you, Noel?" Ca Celin drove away hi-yi-ing to his horse loudly. At the bend of the camino real where the big duhat tree grew, he rattled the handle of his braided rattan whip against the spokes of the wheel. We stood alone on the roadside. The sun was in our eyes, for it was dipping into the bright sea. The sky was wide and deep and very blue above us: but along the saw-tooth rim of the Katayaghan hills to the southwest flamed huge masses of clouds. Before us the fields swam in a golden haze through which floated big purple and red and yellow bubbles when I looked at the sinking sun. Labang's white coat, which I had wshed and brushed that morning with coconut husk, glistened like beaten cotton under the lamplight and his horns appeared tipped with fire. He faced the sun and from his mouth came a call so loud and vibrant that the earth seemed to tremble underfoot. And far away in the middle of the field a cow lowed softly in answer. "Hitch him to the cart, Baldo," my brother Leon said, laughing, and she laughed with him a big uncertainly, and I saw that he had put his arm around her shoulders. "Why does he make that sound?" she asked. "I have never heard the like of it." "There is not another like it," my brother Leon said. "I have yet to hear another bull call like Labang. In all the world there is no other bull like him." She was smiling at him, and I stopped in the act of tying the sinta across Labang's neck to the opposite end of the yoke, because her teeth were very white, her eyes were so full of laughter, and there was the small dimple high up on her right cheek. "If you continue to talk about him like that, either I shall fall in love with him or become greatly jealous." My brother Leon laughed and she laughed and they looked at each other and it seemed to me there was a world of laughter between them and in them. I climbed into the cart over the wheel and Labang would have bolted, for he was always like that, but I kept a firm hold on his rope. He was restless and would not stand still, so that my brother Leon had to say "Labang" several times. When he was quiet again, my brother Leon lifted the trunks into the cart, placing the smaller on top. She looked down once at her high-heeled shoes, then she gave her left hand to my brother Leon, placed a foot on the hub of the wheel, and in one breath she had swung up into the cart. Oh, the fragrance of her. But Labang was fairly dancing with impatience and it was all I could do to keep him from running away. "Give me the rope, Baldo," my brother Leon said. "Maria, sit down on the hay and hold on to anything." Then he put a foot on the left shaft and that instand labang leaped forward. My brother Leon laughed as he drew himself up to the top of the side of the cart and made the slack of the rope hiss above the back of labang. The wind whistled against my cheeks and the rattling of the wheels on the pebbly road echoed in my ears. She sat up straight on the bottom of the cart, legs bent togther to one side, her skirts spread over them so that only the toes and heels of her shoes were visible. her eyes were on my brother Leon's back; I saw the wind on her hair. When Labang slowed down, my brother Leon handed to me the rope. I knelt on the straw inside the cart and pulled on the rope until Labang was merely shuffling along, then I made him turn around. "What is it you have forgotten now, Baldo?" my brother Leon said. I did not say anything but tickled with my fingers the rump of Labang; and away we went---back to where I had unhitched and waited for them. The sun had sunk and down from the wooded sides of the Katayaghan hills shadows were stealing into the fields. High up overhead the sky burned with many slow fires. When I sent Labang down the deep cut that would take us to the dry bed of the Waig which could be used as a path to our place during the dry season, my brother Leon laid a hand on my shoulder and said sternly: "Who told you to drive through the fields tonight?" His hand was heavy on my shoulder, but I did not look at him or utter a word until we were on the rocky bottom of the Waig. "Baldo, you fool, answer me before I lay the rope of Labang on you. Why do you follow the Wait instead of the camino real?" His fingers bit into my shoulder. "Father, he told me to follow the Waig tonight, Manong." Swiftly, his hand fell away from my shoulder and he reached for the rope of Labang. Then my brother Leon laughed, and he sat back, and laughing still, he said: "And I suppose Father also told you to hitch Labang to the cart and meet us with him instead of with Castano and the calesa." Without waiting for me to answer, he turned to her and said, "Maria, why do you think Father should do that, now?" He laughed and added, "Have you ever seen so many stars before?" I looked back and they were sitting side by side, leaning against the trunks, hands clasped across knees. Seemingly, but a man's height above the tops of the steep banks of the Wait, hung the stars. But in the deep gorge the shadows had fallen heavily, and even the white of Labang's coat was merely a dim, grayish blur. Crickets chirped from their homes in the cracks in the banks. The thick, unpleasant smell of dangla bushes and cooling sun-heated earth mingled with the clean, sharp scent of arrais roots exposed to the night air and of the hay inside the cart. "Look, Noel, yonder is our star!" Deep surprise and gladness were in her voice. Very low in the west, almost touching the ragged edge of the bank, was the star, the biggest and brightest in the sky. "I have been looking at it," my brother Leon said. "Do you remember how I would tell you that when you want to see stars you must come to Nagrebcan?" "Yes, Noel," she said. "Look at it," she murmured, half to herself. "It is so many times bigger and brighter than it was at Ermita beach." "The air here is clean, free of dust and smoke." "So it is, Noel," she said, drawing a long breath. "Making fun of me, Maria?" She laughed then and they laughed together and she took my brother Leon's hand and put it against her face. I stopped Labang, climbed down, and lighted the lantern that hung from the cart between the wheels. "Good boy, Baldo," my brother Leon said as I climbed back into the cart, and my heart sant. Now the shadows took fright and did not crowd so near. Clumps of andadasi and arrais flashed into view and quickly disappeared as we passed by. Ahead, the elongated shadow of Labang bobbled up and down and swayed drunkenly from side to side, for the lantern rocked jerkily with the cart. "Have we far to go yet, Noel?" she asked. "Ask Baldo," my brother Leon said, "we have been neglecting him." "I am asking you, Baldo," she said. Without looking back, I answered, picking my words slowly: "Soon we will get out of the Wait and pass into the fields. After the fields is home---Manong." "So near already." I did not say anything more because I did not know what to make of the tone of her voice as she said her last words. All the laughter seemed to have gone out of her. I waited for my brother Leon to say something, but he was not saying anything. Suddenly he broke out into song and the song was 'Sky Sown with Stars'---the same that he and Father sang when we cut hay in the fields at night before he went away to study. He must have taught her the song because she joined him, and her voice flowed into his like a gentle stream meeting a stronger one. And each time the wheels encountered a big rock, her voice would catch in her throat, but my brother Leon would sing on, until, laughing softly, she would join him again. Then we were climbing out into the fields, and through the spokes of the wheels the light of the lantern mocked the shadows. Labang quickened his steps. The jolting became more frequent and painful as we crossed the low dikes. "But it is so very wide here," she said. The light of the stars broke and scattered the darkness so that one could see far on every side, though indistinctly. "You miss the houses, and the cars, and the people and the noise, don't you?" My brother Leon stopped singing. "Yes, but in a different way. I am glad they are not here." With difficulty I turned Labang to the left, for he wanted to go straight on. He was breathing hard, but I knew he was more thirsty than tired. In a little while we drope up the grassy side onto the camino real. "---you see," my brother Leon was explaining, "the camino real curves around the foot of the Katayaghan hills and passes by our house. We drove through the fields because---but I'll be asking Father as soon as we get home." "Noel," she said. "Yes, Maria." "I am afraid. He may not like me." "Does that worry you still, Maria?" my brother Leon said. "From the way you talk, he might be an ogre, for all the world. Except when his leg that was wounded in the Revolution is troubling him, Father is the mildest-tempered, gentlest man I know." We came to the house of Lacay Julian and I spoke to Labang loudly, but Moning did not come to the window, so I surmised she must be eating with the rest of her family. And I thought of the food being made ready at home and my mouth watered. We met the twins, Urong and Celin, and I said "Hoy!" calling them by name. And they shouted back and asked if my brother Leon and his wife were with me. And my brother Leon shouted to them and then told me to make Labang run; their answers were lost in the noise of the wheels. I stopped labang on the road before our house and would have gotten down but my brother Leon took the rope and told me to stay in the cart. He turned Labang into the open gate and we dashed into our yard. I thought we would crash into the camachile tree, but my brother Leon reined in Labang in time. There was light downstairs in the kitchen, and Mother stood in the doorway, and I could see her smiling shyly. My brother Leon was helping Maria over the wheel. The first words that fell from his lips after he had kissed Mother's hand were: "Father... where is he?" "He is in his room upstairs," Mother said, her face becoming serious. "His leg is bothering him again." I did not hear anything more because I had to go back to the cart to unhitch Labang. But I hardly tied him under the barn when I heard Father calling me. I met my brother Leon going to bring up the trunks. As I passed through the kitchen, there were Mother and my sister Aurelia and Maria and it seemed to me they were crying, all of them. There was no light in Father's room. There was no movement. He sat in the big armchair by the western window, and a star shone directly through it. He was smoking, but he removed the roll of tobacco from his mouth when he saw me. He laid it carefully on the windowsill before speaking. "Did you meet anybody on the way?" he asked. "No, Father," I said. "Nobody passes through the Waig at night." He reached for his roll of tobacco and hithced himself up in the chair. "She is very beautiful, Father." "Was she afraid of Labang?" My father had not raised his voice, but the room seemed to resound with it. And again I saw her eyes on the long curving horns and the arm of my brother Leon around her shoulders. "No, Father, she was not afraid." "On the way---" "She looked at the stars, Father. And Manong Leon sang." "What did he sing?" "---Sky Sown with Stars... She sang with him." He was silent again. I could hear the low voices of Mother and my sister Aurelia downstairs. There was also the voice of my brother Leon, and I thought that Father's voice must have been like it when Father was young. He had laid the roll of tobacco on the windowsill once more. I watched the smoke waver faintly upward from the lighted end and vanish slowly into the night outside. The door opened and my brother Leon and Maria came in. "Have you watered Labang?" Father spoke to me. I told him that Labang was resting yet under the barn. "It is time you watered him, my son," my father said. I looked at Maria and she was lovely. She was tall. Beside my brother Leon, she was tall and very still. Then I went out, and in the darkened hall the fragrance of her was like a morning when papayas are in bloom.how my brother leon brought home a wife

Tagalog

kung paano ang aking kapatid na lalaki leon dinala sa bahay ng isang asawa

Last Update: 2017-01-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Brain lateralizatin the human brain is its characteristic ability to integrate dissimilar and seemingly unconnected activities that are happening in the specialized areas of your brain into a meaningful experience

Tagalog

Brain lateralizatin the human brain is its characteristic ability to integrate dissimilar and seemingly unconnected activities that are happening in specialized areas of your brain into a meaningful experience

Last Update: 2016-08-01
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Institutional investors are the biggest component of the so-called "smart money" group. There are generally six types of institutional investors: pension funds, endowment funds, insurance companies, commercial banks, mutual funds and hedge funds. Most institutional investors in the U.S. are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Institutional investors must file a Form 13F with the SEC to report their quarterly holdings; they must also file a Form 13G if they own more than 5% of a company's stock. Retail investors can use these public filings to peek into what institutions are buying or selling each quarter. Institutional investors have the resources to do extensive research on wide-ranging investment options, and due to their specialized knowledge, they generally have an edge over retail investors. Portfolio managers often meet personally with company executives, study entire industries, and evaluate companies in depth before making specific investment decisions.

Tagalog

institutional mamumuhunan

Last Update: 2016-03-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

ΦΛΕ Phi Lambda Epsilon 1965 Phi Lambda Epsilon was founded in March 8, 1965 by Ret. Col. Wilson Relox a native from Campalingo, San Fernando, Romblon. He became a regional director, WPD Director and NAPOLCOM Chief in his almost 35 years of military and police service. In 1966, we have joined forces with the CrimeBuster Fraternity and in the early 1980’s we have been strongly forged as one together with the rest of Magic-5 in the fortress of Intramuros, Manila. And in 2004, Phi Lambda Epsilon have been incorporated with Magic-5 Brotherhood Association, Inc (M-5BAI) with SEC No. 200406499 in the Securities and Exchange Commission of the Philippines In June 2010, the formation of National Phi Lambda Epsilon was initiated by P/Supt. Ricardo Fidelino and it was successfully registered to the Securities and Exchange Commission in February 2011 with SEC Registration Cert. No. 201102352. Throughout the years, our brotherhood has spread in many different colleges and universities around the Philippines archipelago. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MINDANAO CHAPTERS Phi Lambda Epsilon in Butuan City was bought by Brod. Rino Canonoy together with Brod. Remus Busa Jr. (aka Tamoy) on December 5, 1980. Their pioneering members were Brod. Nestor Bacon+ and Brod. Toto Gultiano. Brods Rino and Remus are members that survived from University of Cebu on October 5, 1979 thru their sponsor Brod. Ian Makiling (survived 1977) who is now presently residing in Panabo City. The Delta Phi Chapter of Mindanao State University, Marawi City was founded by Danilo Canonoy. They were previously members from Beta Mu Phi (which later became Phi Lambda Epsilon) when they found out that the Beta Mu Phi fraternity was a notorious gang and the organizer could not provide the documents to register the fraternity in the campus. Then, followed by Brod Nestor Villanueva who formed the Cotabato City and Midsayap chapters which includes the Notre Dame University. They invited Rino Canonoy from Butuan to recognize the Phi Lambda Epsilon of MSU Delta Phi Chapter, where Brod Nestor Villanueva of Cotabato also attended the said chapter recognition event and members meeting. Our fraternity ΦΛΕ Phi Lambda Epsilons’ birthplace, Quiapo, Manila was a haven for most of our members who came from the central and southern provinces. We believe that the University of Cebu Chapter where Brod Rino Canonoy et came, were brought by the members from Quiapo, Manila. With these facts, we are still considering the Mindanao Chapters as our very own and that the only missing link was the final acceptance of each other. University of Cebu - Cebu Masbate Colleges, Masbate Silliman University, Dumaguete City Negros Oriental State University, Negros Oriental University Of Mindanao, Davao City University of Southeastern Philippines, Davao City Mindanao State University, Marawi/Gen. Santos/Iligan Agusan Colleges & Butuan City Colleges, Butuan, ADS DANILO BACSAFRA+ Brod. Danilo Bacsafra+ (aka. Lord Buck Zafra) was born in May 20, 1959 in Lumban, Laguna. He was the ΦΛΕ President 1978-79 in our mother chapter Philippine College of Criminology in Quiapo, Manila. He became a very famous Lambda when he established the Avanceña Chapter in Quiapo, Manila. Where most of our members then were moslems and christians that have been the roots of many Junior (HS) Chapters in Metro Manila. Unfortunately, Bacsafra was killed in an ambush by a policeman from a rival fraternity around the vicinity of PCCr in Sept. 17, 1980. That period became one of our deepest moments in ΦΛΕ history, that we are almost at the struggle of extinction. However, we have surpassed the hardship and trials in our mother chapter thru the support of M-5 that vowed to protect and defend one another. He has widowed Sister Tess and left a daughter named Danica. His name became legendary for Phi Lambda Epsilon and Magic-5 that spread throughout the Philippine archipelago.

Tagalog

pagsasalin

Last Update: 2016-02-02
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

“Art and religion have gone hand-in-hand for thousands of years. Almost every religious sect makes use of it. It glorifies, protests, idealizes, and tells the stories of religion. During some periods of out history art existed for the sake of religion. Artists of our time are generally free to create and comment on whatever they choose. People, colors, nature, dreams or shopping carts might be just as interesting to an artist as the appearance of a crucifixion or an Indian fertility god. Religion dominated art--it commissioned it and used it as propaganda. Religion or its ideas were presented in paintings, drawings, sculpture, architecture-- you name it.”  “It seems that nearly all early art has its roots in religion. The Christians used it. The Taoists used it. The Buddhists, the Hindu, the Muslims, the Jewish-- all used decoration, painting, sculpture, or architecture to express their beliefs in a higher place or power... Art was a reminder of good, evil, life and death.” - Anne Airaudi (University of Texas (student)) My Response  This article was written by a student at the University of Texas who studied the Cave of Lascuax. I agree Ms. Airaudi, art and religion are combined in many aspects. Art was used as a form of propaganda, it allowed for religion promote idea and ideals to the community. Comparing this article to the Cave of Lascuax, it is evident that those individuals used art as a way to describe their world. The depictions of animals amongst the caves could mean that they used the animals as a source of food or they worshiped them.

Tagalog

relihiyon

Last Update: 2015-06-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

The Hotel and Restaurant Management concentration provides specialized occupational instruction in all phases of hotel and restaurant management to prepare students for careers as managers/supervisors in the hospitality and tourism industry. Completion of the two-year program leads to an Associate of Applied Science degree. Students who complete the Hotel and Restaurant Management Technology program are eligible to obtain ManageFirst™ Certification from the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation and certifications from the Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association in Specialized Food and Beverage Management and/or Hospitality Operations.

Tagalog

Corse hrm kahulugan sa tagalog

Last Update: 2015-03-01
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Lord of Peace, we come to You in our need Create in us an awareness of the massive forces of violence and terrorism that threaten our world today. Grant us a sense of urgency to activate the forces of goodness, of justice, of love and of peace in our communities. Where there is armed conflict, let us stretch out our arms to our brothers and sisters. Where there is abundance and luxury, let there be simple lifestyle and sharing. Where there is poverty and misery, let there be dignified living and constant striving for just structures. Where there is selfish ambition, let there be humble service. Where there is injustice, let there be humble atonement. Where there is despair, let there be hope in the Good News. Where there are wounds of division, let there be unity and wholeness. Where there are lies and deceit, let your Truth set us all of us free. Where there are thoughts of vengeance, let there be healing and forgiveness. Help us to be committed to the Gospel of peace. In spite of our differences in faith traditions and ethnic roots, Teach us Your spirit of mercy and compassion. For it is only in loving imitation of you, Lord of Peace, that we can discover the healing springs of life that will bring about new birth to our earth a new era of peace and a new harmony among all Forever and ever. Amen.

Tagalog

oratio imper

Last Update: 2015-02-28
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

flatwormsThe flatworms, or Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning worm)[2] are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously. In traditional zoology texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria, which are mostly nonparasitic animals such as planarians, and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic, this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments such as leaf litter. Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land vertebrates, and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of hermaphroditic, segment-like proglottids which detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host. Because they do not have internal body cavities, Platyhelminthes were regarded as a primitive stage in the evolution of bilaterians (animals with bilateral symmetry and hence with distinct front and rear ends). However, analyses since the mid-1980s have separated out one subgroup, the Acoelomorpha, as basal bilaterians - closer to the original bilaterians than to any other modern groups. The remaining Platyhelminthes form a monophyletic group - one that contains all and only descendants of a common ancestor that is itself a member of the group. The redefined Platyhelminthes is part of the Lophotrochozoa, one of the three main groups of more complex bilaterians. These analyses had concluded the redefined Platyhelminthes, excluding Acoelomorpha, consists of two monophyletic subgroups, Catenulida and Rhabditophora, with Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea forming a monophyletic subgroup within one branch of the Rhabditophora. Hence, the traditional platyhelminth subgroup "Turbellaria" is now regarded as paraphyletic, since it excludes the wholly parasitic groups, although these are descended from one group of "turbellarians". Over half of all known flatworm species are parasitic, and some do enormous harm to humans and their livestock. Schistosomiasis, caused by one genus of trematodes, is the second-most devastating of all human diseases caused by parasites, surpassed only by malaria. Neurocysticercosis, which arises when larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium penetrate the central nervous system, is the major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The threat of platyhelminth parasites to humans in developed countries is rising because of the popularity of raw or lightly cooked foods, and imports of food from high-risk areas. In less developed countries, people often cannot afford the fuel required to cook food thoroughly, and poorly designed water-supply and irrigation projects increase the dangers presented by poor sanitation and unhygienic farming. Two planarian species have been used successfully in the Philippines, Indonesia, Hawaii, New Guinea, and Guam to control populations of the imported giant African snail Achatina fulica, which was displacing native snails. However, there is now concern that these planarians may themselves become a serious threat to native snails. In northwest Europe, there are concerns about the spread of the New Zealand planarian Arthurdendyus triangulatus, which preys on earthworms.

Tagalog

flatworms

Last Update: 2015-01-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

A chant (from French chanter[1]) is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones. Chants may range from a simple melody involving a limited set of notes to highly complex musical structures, often including a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases, such as Great Responsories and Offertories of Gregorian chant. Chant may be considered speech, music, or a heightened or stylized form of speech. In the later Middle Ages some religious chant evolved into song (forming one of the roots of later Western music)

Tagalog

tagalog chants

Last Update: 2015-01-21
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011) s example

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Last Update: 2015-01-13
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