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2.1 Tagore – Sadhana I – III Chapters
Rabindranath Tagore born in Calcutta on 7th May 1861 was the youngest
but one child of Debandranath Tagore. In the words of Tagore himself his father
was one whom “I saw very seldom; he was away a great deal, but his presence
pervaded the whole house and was one of the deepest influence on my life…’.
He was called Maharishi or the great saint who believed in the worship of
Invisible God. Tagore’s attitude to God and world was inherited from his father.
The Tagores were Vaishnavas in their religious outlook and were inclined to
vegetarianism in diet. They were a set of highly educated and enlightened
people who assisted Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his movement of social reform.
Rabindranath Tagore lived in a significant age when India was stirred
deeply by three movements – religious, literary and social to which the
contribution of the Tagore family was very great. The first movement was
religious and its founder was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who believed that God is
one. One of the leaders of this movement was Debandranath Tagore,
Rabindranath’s father. The second movement was in the field of Literature and
Bakin Chandra tried to rescue Bengali language from the degradation of dead
forms to which it had fallen and bring a new critical attitude and make Bengali
language an instrument of the expression of rich imagination that would not
tolerate any restrictions imposed upon it from outside. The third movement was
national its was national; it was partly political and partly cultural. It raised a
voice of protest against the humiliation which the Indians were subjected to at
the hands of the westermers. It was not opposed to the introduction of western
thought, but it certainly was not in favour of indiscriminate rejection of
traditional Indian culture and values. Tagore’s father laid stress on the study of
the Upanishads and left no stone unturned to check the wave of conversion to
Christianity in Bengal.
Tagore passed his boyhood in the Jarasnako house with the atmosphere
that reverberated with the echoes of culture, refinement and art. He was from
very early years of his life fond of nature and longed for the outer world of
nature. He was made to study science, literature, music and painting without
taking into consideration whether he was interested in them or not. Learning all
his subjects in English, he learnt Bengali well. Educated in India and London
showed a great promise as a writer. He was influenced by the Vaishnava lyrical
poetry, which gave to the poet an impetus to be bold and strike a new path for
himself in the field of art and poetry.
The Awakening of the waterfall, his work showed a great unity of
meaning. What was memorable in this experienced was its human message and
the sudden expansion of his consciousness in the supernatural world of man.
There are three distinctive things which seem to come before us from this new
vision of the poet about life.
i. The human soul from which the creation and which its creative effort
draws it away from itself and harmonizes it with the inner life of
nature which is full of human significance.
ii. The union between man’s growing consciousness and the spirit of
nature is a source of joy and it is in this feeling of delight emerging
from a realization of inner harmony of objects that the poet seeks for
his definition of beauty.
iii. This seeking and this joy is similar to freedom, for it is only by
transcending the outer certain of common-placeness and triviality
that its real significance is discovered.
Published a number of collection of songs and poems in which the glorified
the ideals of ancient times against the background of the evils of western
nationalism which the condemned as the climax of greed. He waged a ceaseless
war against the two evils of caste which dehumanizes man and nationality in
the west which makes a brute of a man.
After the publication of Gitanjali which marked the transition in his life,
Tagore’s national aspirations got merged in the Universal. When the visited
England and Europe he was greated there as seer with a universal message. He
was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The publication of Gitanjali in English
took the English – reading public by storm and they got examoured as much by
the nobility of its though as by the beauty of the language. During the course of
his visit to America in 1913 to deliver some addressed there, he made the
acquaintance of Rudolf Eucken, the famous German Philosopher, who was also
charmed on reading Gitanjali. The lectures he delivered in America were
published as Sadhana by Macmillan, along with The Gardener, The crescent
Moon and Chitra.
Tagore was a poet and a dreamer. He felt that the western civilization
was heading towards a crash or destruction. He started thinking of the crash or
destruction. He started thinking of the problems of life in a calm and detached
manner and the expression was marked by a sense of bold optimism attempting
to depict tot eh world the message of eternal peace. Peace and tranquility
proved to be the theme.
2.2 The relation of the individual to the universe
The civilization of ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. These
walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They setup a principle of
‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing
all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We
divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds
in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built an
everything has to fight hard for its entrance its our recognition.
In India when the first Aryan invaders appeared, the vast forests
provided them some special advantage of natural protection, food and water in
plenty. Thus our civilization had its birth and it took a distinct character from
this origin and environment. Surrounded by vast life of nature, was fed and
clothed by her, having the closest and most constant intercourse with her
varying objects. This atmosphere instead of dulling human intelligence and
dwarfing the incentives to progress, gave it to a particular direction. Having
constant contact with the living growth of nature, his mind was fee from the
desire to extend his mind was free from the desire to extend his dominion by
erecting boundary walls around his acquisitions. His aim was not to acquire
but to realize, to enlarge his consciousness by growing with and growing into
his surroundings. He felt that truth is all comprehensive that there is no such
thing as absolute isolation in existence and the only way of attaining truth is
through the interpretation of our being into all objects. This harmony between
man’s spirit and the spirit of the world was the endeavour of the forest dwelling
sages of ancient India. In future even when Mighty Kingdoms were established –
even in the heyday of its material prosperity – the heart of India ever looked
back with adoration upon the early ideal of strenuous self-realization and the
dignity of the simple life of the forest hermitage.
Westerners took pride in subduing nature, as if we are living in a hostile
world creating and artificial dissociation between himself and the universal
nature within whose bosom he lies. But Indians believed that there is a rational
connection between him and nature. We are in harmony with nature and the
thoughts are in harmony with things – the power is in harmony with the power
which is universal. According to it, everything that is low in the scale of being is
merely nature, and whatever has stamp of perfection on it, intellectual or moral,
in human-nature. The earth, water and light, fruits and flowers to India were
not merely physical phenomena to be turned to and then left aside. The man
who has his spiritual eyes open knows the ultimate truth about earth and water
lies in our apprehension of the eternal world. There is not mere knowledge, as
science is, but it is a perception of the soul by soul. This gives us not power but
joy. When a man does not realize his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison
– house whose walls are alien to him. When the meets the eternal spirit in all
objects, them he is emancipated, for them he discovers the fullest significance
of the world into which he is born. Thus the text of our everyday mediation is
the Gayathri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By
its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul
of man. We understand the Eternal spirit, whose power creates The Earth, the
Sky and the stars. It is not in the power of possession but in the power of
India knew that when by physical and mental barriers we violently
detach ourselves from the inexhaustible life of nature, when we become man,
man in the universe, we crate bewildering problems. Man must realize the
wholeness of his existence, his place in the infinite. The Rishis were they, who
having reached the supreme God from all sides had found abiding peace, had
become united with all, had entered into the life of the Universe. Thus the state
of realizing our relationship with all, of entering into everything through union
with God, was considered in India to be the ultimate and fulfillment of
humanity. His freedom and fulfillment is in love, which is another name for
perfect comprehension. This is why the Upanishads describe those who have
attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at one with God’, meaning
that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in
undisturbed union with God.
We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he
says, ‘It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich
man to enter the kingdom of heaven – which implies that whatever we treasure
for ourselves separates us from others; our possession are our limitations. It is
the one living truth that makes all realities true. This truth is not only of
knowledge but of devotion. Buddha, who developed the practical side of the
teaching of the Upanishads, preached the same. The Upanishad says that the
being who is in his essence of light and life of all, who is world – conscious, is
Brahma. Upanishad also says ‘thou shalt gain by giving away. Thou Shalt not
covet’. In the Gita we are advised to work
disinterestingly, abandoning all lust for the result. Everything his sprung from
immoral life and is vibrating with life, for life is immense.
2.3 Soul consciousness
The aspiration of ancient India was to live and move and have is joy is
Brahma- the all conscious and all pervading spirit, by extending its field of
consciousness all over the world. By beginning to try to realize all, one has to
end by realizing nothing. But, in reality, it is not so absurd as it sounds. Facts
are many, but the truth is one. The animal intelligence knows facts, the human
mind has power to apprehend truth. This discovery of truth is pure joy to man –
it is a liberation of his mind. Truth opens up a whole horizon, it leads us to the
infinite. Upanishad says ‘know thine own soul’ – realize the one great principle
of unity that there is in every man.
All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, obscure our true vision of
the soul. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that
transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All. Like children
learning the alphabets, words and then sentences, our soul when detached and
imprisoned within the narrow limits of a self loses its significance. In love he
use of difference is obliterated and the human soul fulfils its purpose in
perfection, transcending the limits of itself and reaching across the threshold of
the infinite. Therefore love is the highest bliss that man can attain. Our great
‘Revealers’ are they who man manifest the true meaning of the soul by giving up
self for the love of mankind. We call then ‘Mahatmas’ – the men of the great
soul? ‘Paramathma’ is the supreme soul in me and my joy is in the realization
of this truth. The joys and sorrows of our loved ones are joys and sorrows of our
loved ones, because in them we have grown larger, in them we have touched
that great truth which comprehends the whole universe. Our highest joy is in
the losing of our egoistic self and in the uniting with others. According to the
Upanishads, the key to cosmic consciousness, to God- consciousness, is in the
consciousness of the soul. The chick knows when it breaks through the selfcentered
isolation of its egg that the hard shell which covered it so long was not
really a part of its life. In Sanskrit, the bird has been called the twice-born : so
too the man is named, who has gone through the ceremony of the discipline of
self-restraint and high thinking – who has come out simple in wants, pure in
heart and ready to take up all the responsibilities of life in a disinterested
largeness of spirit. He is considered to have had his rebirth from the blind
envelopment of self to the freedom of soul life. When Jesus said, ‘Blessed are
the meek, for they shall inherit the earth’ he meant this. The doctrine of
deliverance that Buddha preached was the freedom from the thralldom of
Avidya (ignorance), when he attains ‘Bodhi’, i.e., the awakenment from the sleep
of self to the perfection of consciousness, he becomes But Man’s poverty is
abysmal, his wants are endless till he becomes truly conscious of his soul. The
vision of the supreme one in our own soul is a direct and immediate intuition.
Sin is the blurring of truth which clouds the purity of our consciousness. It is
the supreme one which makes man feel the pang of his separation from God
and gives rise to the earnest prayer,
‘O God, O Father, completely sweap away all our sins’. Give into us that
which is good? Man’s cry reach his fullest expression. It is this desire for self69
expression that leads him to attain perfection. Man becomes perfect man, he
attains his fullest expression, when his soul realizes itself in the infinite being
who is Avih whose very essence is expression. When a man’s life rescued from
distractions finds its unity in the soul, then the consciousness of the infinite
becomes at once direct and natural to it as the light is to the flame. All the
conflicts and contradictions of life are reconciled; knowledge, love and action
harmonized; the formless appears to us in the form of the flower, of the fruit as
the supreme one.
2.4 The problem of Evil
The question why there is evil in existence is the same as why there is
imperfection on or why there is creation at all. Imperfection is not a negation of
perfectness; finitude is not contradictory to infinity; they are but completeness
manifested in parts, infinity revealed within bounds. Pain, which is the feeling
of our finiteness, is not a fixture in our life. It is not an end in itself, as joy is.
We feel that good is the positive element in man’s nature, and in every age and
every clime what man values west is his ideal of goodness. Will is the supreme
wish of larger life, the life whose greater partition is out of our present reach,
whose objects are not for the most part before our sight. Then we begin to
distinguish between what we
immediately desire and what is good. Good is that which is desirable for our
greater self. Thus sense of goodness comes out of truer view of life. In this he
becomes great, for the realizes truth. Life is not made up of fragments,
purposeless and discontinuous. It is a truth that man is not a detached being,
that he has a universal aspect; and when he recognizes this he becomes great;
very often it is our moral strength which gives us most effectively the power to
do evil, to exploit other individuals for our own benefit, to rob other people of
their just rights. The life of an animal is unmoral, for it is aware only of an
immediate present; the life of a man can be immoral, but that only means that
it must have a moral basis. Not to see is to be blind, but to see wrongly is to see
only in an imperfect manner. To live the life of goodness is to live the life of all.
Pleasure is for one’s own self, but goodness is concerned with the happiness of
all humanity and for all time. From the point of view of the good, pleasure pain
appear in a different meaning. Martyrs prove is in history and we prove it every
day in our little martyrdoms. To live in perfect goodness is to realize one’s life in
the infinite. Our body can only die if it tries to eat its own substance, and our
eye loses the meaning of its function if it can only see itself. We see then that
man’s individuality is not his highest truth, there is that in him which is
universal. Our organ of sight, our organ of locomotion, our physical strength
becomes worldwide; steam and electricity become our nerve and muscle. It is
the same with our spiritual life. Yet we complain that we are not happy, as if
there were something inherent in the nature of things to make us miserable.
The universal spirit is waiting to crown us with happiness, but our individual
spirit would not accept it. The most important lesson that man can learn from
his life is not that there is pain in this world, but it depends upon him to turn it
is not good account, that it is possible for him to transmute it into joy.
NON – DETTTTAILED – 2 . 5 .AN AREA OF DARKNESS -V.S.NAIPAUL
V.S.Naipul’s position as a third generation Caribbean settled in England makes
the idea of the return (to an unsullied past ,and threby a complete, rooted
identity )doubly problematic . In one of his essays ,Naipaul wrote , “ although
the English language was mine , [ …] its tradition was not ” . There is no
virtually Caribbean ‘ tradition’ that he can fall back upon , and this perhaps is
the basis for his anguished sense . The aboriginal peoples of the Caribbean
have long been extinct .Naipaul has also in his many interviews and essays
,made his own myth into that of the writer as a displaced person ,one who does
not “ have a side , doesn’t have a country ;doesn’t have a community ; one who
is entirely an individual ” , a figure who has achieved a ‘Brahminical ideal of
non –attachment ’,a man without a home . His protagonist Mr . Boswas depicts
this linked to the ownership of ‘a house ’ – ‘a home ’.The slow and stately
rhythm of his prose ,the measured tone ,reflects a grim solidity , and grants to
it something of the status of fact . Naipaul visited India for many months on
different occasions in order to gather ‘materials’ for his ‘An Area of Darkness ’
(1964),India :A Wounded Civilisation (1977),andIndia:A Mmillion Mutinies Now
(1990). They are serious undertakings that entail much thought and analysis ;
thus ,the eye-witness account gives ‘authority’ to his writings . It is a first hand
account of what happened and who was involved . No one can doubt the
extraordinary qualities of Naipaul’s observations ,they are keen ,detailed and
In ‘An Area of Darkness’ , the ‘quest’ for ‘self ’ is notable : there is an intence
preoccupation withself, and this colours all of Naipaul’s observations and
comments . The narrative is replete ,with confessional statements ,with
philosophical commentaries ,his own fears and anxieties about India . The
philosophical perspective is imbedded everywhere in both of Naipaul’s fiction
and traver narratives ;it is this substantive –idea that permeates his writings
,and is at times connected with the ‘autobiographical ’sense. In many passages
philosophical ideas are brought out through autobiographical instances there is
a dynamic interrelationship between both travel and fictional writings . The
sharp literary image gives his travel narratives the necessary ‘literariness’ , and
at the same time ,his travel narrative
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Fireworks are traditional for independence day celebration. Funny how so many died for our freedom to have a government that would not control and boss people around and now that same government we are celebrating is trying to stomp out the celebrations.
Automobiles kill more people than fireworks.
Abortion clinics kill more people than fireworks
Cigarettes kill more people than fireworks.
The number one reason to not ban fireworks is freedom. Our government is supposed to be limited. It has become a big bossy gorilla.
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air pollution of fire crFireworks are traditional for independence day celebration. Funny how so many died for our freedom to have a government that would not control and boss people around and now that same government we are celebrating is trying to stomp out the celebrations.
Automobiles kill more people than fireworks.
Abortion clinics kill more people than fireworks
Cigarettes kill more people than fireworks.
The number one reason to not ban fireworks is freedom. Our government is supposed to be limited. It has become a big bossy gorilla.ackers in tamil
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It Can Be Educational
Out of all the channels out there, many of them have educational programming that can benefit you and your family. The Public Broadcasting Servie (PBS) is a great example of this type of educational programming. PBS offers a lot of children’s programming in the mornings and afternoons. Fun and informative shows for kids include “Clifford the Big Red Dog,” “Sesame Street,” “Arthur,” “Sid the Science Kid” and more. For adults, PBS offers educational and intriguing programs such as “NOVA ScienceNow,” “Charlie Rose,” “Frontier House,” “This Old House,” “Monthly Business Report” and more.
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My mother is the most important person in my life. I have been mentioning her in almost all of the essays I write. The problem is, I cannot really express how I feel about her in just words. My mother is not my whole life, but she is a really big part of it. My whole world does not only revolve around her, but she is the most influential person who inspires me. My mother is not just another woman. She is extraordinary.
I have known her for sixteen years, three months, one day and nineteen hours. I know her very well, and I had learned to love her since the day we first met. Relatives always tell me stories about my birth. They tell me how important I was to my mom. I was the foundation of her joy, strength, peace and love. She has never lied to me about my father. I do not remember asking about him. Ever since, I already knew he was in a better place. I do not remember my mom having a hard time explaining to me my situation â€“ having no father. She was always straightforward. She explained things very simply, like she knew everything. I thank her for being simple. I thank her for telling me the truth, so that I did not need to believe a lie that would have made things â€˜easierâ€™ for me. When in fact, not knowing the truth would have made things complicated.
She has taught me all I need to know to live life as a sixteen-year old teenage girl. She taught me how to feel. Well, she did not only do that. She showed me how to handle these feelings of anger, fear, guilt, joy, sadness, excitement, hate and anxiety. She also showed me how to give and take. I learned from her that giving is a lot harder than taking, but the former is much more satisfying when it is done. She told me that giving makes one happy. I am sure she is right because half of her life, she has been giving me what I need, and in spite of all that years of giving, she is happy. Though very slowly, I am learning how to give freely. Little by little
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time is gold essaTime what is it. Is it that thing that we are always try to beat where ever we go. There are times when you wish that time did not exsist. You wish that you could just go through life at your own pase and do what ever you want when you want. If there was no time life would be a whole lot easier, people would be nicer, and there would be a lot less accidants. So then the big question is why do we have time. Why are you always looking at your clock to make sure that you have the right time and to make sure that you are on time. The answer is being on time to places shows your charecter. If you are going to meet somebody specail and you are late that shows them that you don't really care about them. Or if you are trying to get a job and you are late to the interview chances are you won't get that job. So take my advice and always be on time every where, it shows good character.y
time is gTime what is it. Is it that thing that we are always try to beat where ever we go. There are times when you wish that time did not exsist. You wish that you could just go through life at your own pase and do what ever you want when you want. If there was no time life would be a whole lot easier, people would be nicer, and there would be a lot less accidants. So then the big question is why do we have time. Why are you always looking at your clock to make sure that you have the right time and to make sure that you are on time. The answer is being on time to places shows your charecter. If you are going to meet somebody specail and you are late that shows them that you don't really care about them. Or if you are trying to get a job and you are late to the interview chances are you won't get that job. So take my advice and always be on time every where, it shows good character.old essay
time isTime what is it. Is it that thing that we are always try to beat where ever we go. There are times when you wish that time did not exsist. You wish that you could just go through life at your own pase and do what ever you want when you want. If there was no time life would be a whole lot easier, people would be nicer, and there would be a lot less accidants. So then the big question is why do we have time. Why are you always looking at your clock to make sure that you have the right time and to make sure that you are on time. The answer is being on time to places shows your charecter. If you are going to meet somebody specail and you are late that shows them that you don't really care about them. Or if you are trying to get a job and you are late to the interview chances are you won't get that job. So take my advice and always be on time every where, it shows good character. gold essay
Similar to most big data applications, the big data tendency also poses heavy impacts on service recommender systems. With the growing number of alternative services, effectively recommending services that users preferred has became an important research issue. Service recommender systems have been exposed as valuable tools to help users deal with services overload and provide appropriate recommendations to them. In KASR, keywords are used to indicate users' preferences, and a user-based Collaborative filtering algorithm is adopted to generate appropriate recommendations. More specifically, a keyword-candidate list and domain thesaurus are provided to help obtain users' preferences. The active user gives his/her preferences by selecting the keywords from the keyword-candidate list, and the preferences of the previous users can be extracted from their reviews for services according to the keyword-candidate list and domain thesaurus. The proposed system proposes methods it aims at presenting a personalized service recommendation list and recommending the most appropriate service(s) to the users. To improve the scalability and efficiency of KASR in “Big Data” environment, the proposed system proposes techniques that have been implemented it on a Map Reduce framework in Hadoop platform. It improves the recommendation accuracy by considering the location of the user while recommend the service.
While performance, power and area remain to be two major design goals, power consumption has become a critical concern in today’s VLSI system design. Complex arithmetic operations are mainly used in DSP application. To develop a modified booth recoder for performing direct recoding of sum of two numbers in its Modified Booth (MB) form. It mainly focus on optimizing the design of the Fused Add Multiply(FAM) operator for increasing performance, decreases the critical path delay and reduces area and power consumption. In this project, the design of sum to modified booth recoding (SM-B) technique is implemented inorder to reduce the number of partial product. In this project explore three alternative schemes of the proposed S-MB approach using conventional and signed-bit Full Adders (FAs) and Half Adders (HAs) as building blocks. Low-cost finite impulse response (FIR) designs are presented using the concept of faithfully rounded truncated multipliers. Nonuniform coefficient quantization with proper filter order is proposed to minimize total area cost. Multiple constant multiplication/accumulation in a direct FIR structure is implemented using an improved version of truncated multipliers. Comparisons with previous FIR design approaches show that the proposed designs achieve the best area and power results.
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John Helliwell, the well-known University of British Columbia economist, is often accused of being an apologist for marriage. He denies it. He says he just analyzes the research. And most of the research (sorry, singles!) says that married people, over all, are happier than unmarried ones. “We have found in Canadian, British and American data, when you include demographic variables like ‘married,’ marriage typically turns out to have a significant positive effect,” he told me over the phone. Among other benefits, “marriage is good for people because it is a vehicle and a place where good friends are made and cherished.” But does marriage really make you happier in the long run? Or are happier people simply more likely to get married in the first place? Prof. Helliwell thinks he’s found the answer. In a new research paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, he and colleague Shawn Grover conclude not only that marriage does make people happier, but that being married to your best friend makes you extra happy. The same goes for people who live together. “Those who are best friends with their partners have the largest well-being benefits from marriage and cohabitation, even when controlling for premarital well-being levels,” they write. Prof. Helliwell is an old hand in the field of “happiness studies,” which attempt to measure the factors that influence people’s sense of well-being. He has found that, overwhelmingly, it’s the social context of life that determines whether people are happy. Both marriage and friendship are known to improve well-being. So when he came across a comprehensive survey that included the question “Who is your best friend?”, he knew he’d struck gold. “We were able to break down the marriage effect between people who had another best friend and the people whose best friend happened to be their spouse,” he told me. What they found was that the happiness effect of being married to your best friend is twice as big. In other words, a best friend who’s always by your side is the best kind of friend of all. People who are married to their best friends don’t need as many friends as other people to get the same benefit. About half the married and cohabiting people surveyed named their spouse as their best friend. The happiness effect was stronger for women than for men, especially in middle age, when happiness typically dips for everyone. It seems marital friendship is a great buffer against the ravages of midlife. I think I have a clue why. The world may not think you’re sexy any more – but he still does. The very subject of marriage is highly charged these days. Conservatives say we should promote it because married people (and their kids) are better off. Liberals say the decline of marriage is a consequence, not a cause, of growing inequality. Singles say Prof. Helliwell and his ilk unfairly demonize them. But he denies having an agenda. And he says this study, in particular, is free of policy implications. “Some people say this study means you should marry your best friend,” he says. “But we don’t say that. The lesson for those who are thinking of marriage is not to marry your best friend, but to make sure you treat your spouse as if he or she were.” As for those irate singles, he says, “The major benefits of marriage can be achieved outside marriage. Single people shouldn’t feel that marriage is either a threat or a requirement.” They just need to make sure they have a bunch of great friends. Interestingly, these findings on marital happiness are not global. In some regions (Latin America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia), singles are actually happier than marrieds. however, made him blissfully happy.
John Helliwell, the well-known University of British Columbia economist, is often accused of being an apologist for marriage. He denies it. He says he just analyzes the research. And most of the research (sorry, singles!) says that married people, over all, are happier than unmarried ones.
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ALL IS WELL
Classroom. 4 boys and a punjaabi teacher
Class is enjoying. They don’t want to attend the class so they prepare a plan to convince the teacher to cancel the class..
ST4: As we decided we will not let Mr. Singh attend the class today, agreed
All the students shouts ``agreed``
Teacher enters, class settles down. They stand up.
T: Piyaro, Good morning to all of you.
Students all at once:
- Good morning Mr. Singh.
T: Sit down , sit down.Its a balle balle day to come to school, don’t you agree? Open your books, pg 111
One child raises his hand
St1: I don’t agree with you Sir.
T: You don’t agree? What don’t you agree Gharpar.
(Children laughs, ST1 looks angrily around)
St1: Its Ghazanfar Sir, not Gharpar.
T: Ahu, Gharpar (more laughs)
T: That’s right Gharpar. You were telling me about your disagreement.
ST1 still annoyed takes a deep breath to calm himself and concentrate on the plan.
- I don’t agree with your assessment of the day Sir
- And why not
In a theatrical way –Because it’s raining and we can’t go out to play in recess. That’s the only time, we young minds, eager to learn, hopes of the future, can socialize properly which is very essential for our physical and emotional development.There fore, we cannot channel the extra energy youth produce in a constructive manners. Hence, with this extra energy still loaded in our shoulders, we start thinking about improper, even useless things which school strictly forbids us, of course for the betterment of ourselves. You see Sir now, that, this is not a day to come to school.
Teachers rubs his moustache thoughtfully,
-indeed, when you put it like this, it really doesn’t sound a balle balle day to come to school.
St 1 satisfied, sits down.
Teacher paces along the students one two rounds, rubs his big belly .
-Anyway, now that we are all here, we cannot do anything about it, can we?. So, open the books pg 111.
St2 raises his hand.
- Yes putter.You have anything else to say.
ST2: Actually our friend………… forgot one more thing to say.
T: Really? What is that?
ST2: Its raining so we are all gloomy and distracted. We all are remembering punjaab, the valleys, the flowers, the smell of the flowers ( his face takes a melancholic expression , as the teacher also gets gloomy)
Teacher here says- ooy oyy ki yaad kara dita ay?
Student continues like teacher never ever made a sound with same melancholy
ST2 :I can hear the sound of rain drops on the roofs of the houses( he put his hand on his ear like he actually hears it, teacher does the same), I can see mothers braiding their daughters hairs( he does the braiding impressions with his hands, same does the teacher), (his voice get louder) I can feel the heart of punjaab calling me,. PUTTERIIIII, PUTTERRIIIIII ( his hands are outstretched like he is about to answer the call, same does the teacher)
At this time, there are real tears in the teacher eyes, the student also acts like he is wiping his fake tears.
T: oooooyy Putter, putter, how true you speak..
He goes and hugs ST2 to consolidate.
-ALL IS WELL PUTTER, ALL IS WELL..
St 2 finally soothed ,leaves the embrace, he looks to his teacher like they undergo a great misery together.
ST2: ALL IS WELL SIR
They smile to each other. He sits down. Students for sure now, there will be no class.
Teacher wipes his tears.
-as long as we share the same heart we will live in punjaab regardless where we reside.
Childrens are not happy with their turtle speed progress, talks to each other.
T: come on now.Be quiet.Open your books, pg 111
ST1 elbow the ST3 to do something.ST3 raises his hand.
T: OOOy, this morning for a gloomy lot,you all seem a lot to say.Ahu putter.Speak up.
ST3 first look to his right then to his left as if asking what to do. When no one signals anything, he thinks and acts like he has a heart attack.
ST3 : I feel pain…he grumbles by holding his heart.
T: oooyy oyyss..ki ho ya?( uses endearments)What happened? Lay him down, lay him down quick…
ST1: I think he is having a heart attack
ST2; I think he stopped breathing
ST4: I think he is turning to blue
Teacher try to calm himself and the students.
- No panic, no panic. Your teacher is first-aid certified. I know CPR, move a side , move a side.(As children open space to him, he keeps on talking) how was it? Remember Singh, remember, first open air way.( opens air way)need give air fusion.
He comes close to boy to give air fusion, ST3 opens his eyes and shouts: I am awake. I am awake, no need any type of fusions
Teacher relieved but surprised:
-putter, are u ok, menu te tu mar deta sii…
ST3 looks his friends- There are some sacrificies I just cant do for a free hour.
T: What are you saying Putter.Are you ok?
St3; Sorry Sir.I am fine.I feel much better.Infact I feel so good that I can act like nothing has ever happened.
T:Ajjjib(Weird) putter, so fast recovery, never I have seen the likes of it.
He stands and goes back to his place.
Students are not happy with ST3
ST1: You couldn’t bear unconscious little longer complains angrily
ST3: I am sorry but it was my face he was bending over, my nose smelling his breath. No need for chloroform, get close to Mr. Singh for 5 Min.s and whaapoosh you are out.no sense for at least half and hour. Natural anaesthesia.
St2: Still we have 2 hours to go, we should find another excuse fast.
ST1: well, we tried logic, it didn’t work, we used emotions it didn’t work, we tried medical leave, and patient could not last more than 5 min.s I don’t know what else we can do
Students suddenly 4 of them looks expected.
ST3: Mr. Singh is punjabee
ST2:We forget the basic pujabee treat.
ST4: Of course..
ST4 brings a tape from the back.
ST4: Hey Mr. Singh, look what we bring for you
T: What is it putter
ST4 presses the music. Bhangrha start. All the student starts to dance..
Teacher also starts though he clearly tries to stops himself.its like e struggle.
T; Stop it, oooy, ooy I do love this singer a lot….but I cannot…I need to..dance..noo . noo ..i mean I need too do pg 111..oooy..its too good…I mean gloomy day…I should stop..ooyy..ooooy..i cant,i cant, I cant
Student all together
-ALL IS WELL SIR, ALL IS WELL
No more struggling, accepting the dance , mr. singh finally dances without hesitation
-ALL IS WELL PIYAROO, ALL IS WELL….
They all leave the stage by making bhangra…
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The Moon is lit up by the sun as it goes around (orbits) the Earth. This means sometimes people on Earth can see the whole Moon and other times only small parts of it. This is because the Moon does not emit light. People only see the parts that are reflecting light from the Sun. These different stages are called Phases of the Moon. It takes the Moon about 29.53 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes) to complete the cycle, from big and bright to small and dim and back to big and bright. As the Moon passes between the Earth and Sun, this phase is called the New Moon. The next phase of the moon is called the "waxing crescent", followed by the "first quarter", "waxing gibbous", then to a full moon. A full Moon occurs when the moon and sun are on opposite sides of the Earth. As the Moon continues its orbit it becomes a "waning gibbous", "third quarter", "waning crescent", and finally back to a new moon. People used the moon to measure time. A month is approximately equal in time to a lunar cycle.
The phases of the Moon
The moon always shows the same side to Earth. Astronomers call this phenomenon tidal locking. This means that half of it can never be seen from Earth. The side facing away from Earth is called the dark side of the Moon even though the sun does shine on it—we just never see it lit.
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Building Agreement Between The Owners And The Contractor On Fee Plus Cost Of Labour And Materials
THIS AGREEMENT made at ………………….. on this …………. day of ………………2000, between Shri…………………… S/o ………………….. resident of ………………………… (hereinafter called ‘the owner’ which expression shall unless repugnant to the context or meaning thereof, be deemed to include his heirs, legal representatives, executors and administrators) of the ONE PART and M/s ABC Builders & Contractors, a partnership firm registered under Partnership Act, 1932 and having its registered office at ……………… (hereinafter referred to as ‘the builders’ which expression shall unless repugnant to the context or meaning thereof, be deemed to include every partner for the time being of the said firm, the survivor or survivors or the legal representatives, executors or administrators of the last survivor of the OTHER PART.
WHEREAS the first party is the owner of the plot of land admeasuring ……………….. sq. meters bearing plot No. ……….. city survey No. …………………. Khasra No. ………………… situate, lying and being at …………………. Tahsil and District …………………. (hereinafter referred to as the “said plot of land”) and is desirous of getting a house constructed on the said plot of land.
AND WHEREAS the first party has appointed Shri …………….. as the architect and the said architect has prepared the plans, drawings and elevations of the said intended house and the specification of the works to be done and of the materials.
AND WHEREAS the second party is a big contractor and is having vast experience in construction of big buildings and has agreed to construct the house on the said plot of land.
NOW IT IS AGREED BY AND BETWEEN THE PARTIES AS FOLLOWS:
1. The builders will construct the building on the said plot of land in conformity with the plans, drawings, specifications and elevations as prepared by the architect which has been annexed hereto and marked as Annexure A, with the material of best quality and in the most substantial and workman like manner and to the satisfaction of the architect.
2. The builders hereby undertake to commence the construction within fifteen days of execution of these presents and complete the construction on or before the expiry of ………………. months from the date of execution of these presents in accordance with the plans duly approved and sanctioned by the Municipal Corporation of ……………………………. and specifications and conditions as are set out in Annexure A hereunder written.
3. If the builders fail to complete the said work within the period as stipulated in the foregoing provision, the builders shall, at the option of the owner but without prejudice to the other rights under law of the owner and other provisions herein, pay liquidated damages calculated at the rate of Rs………. per day (but subject to a maximum of 2% of the total contract amount payable by the owner under this agreement) for the period between the said stipulated time for completion of the works. The builders hereby specifically agree and authorise the owner to deduct such liquidated damages, if any, from any installment of payment becoming due and payable to the builders in terms of this agreement.
4. The owner will pay to the builders a sum of Rs…………. out of which the owner shall pay to the builders weekly such sum as may be sufficient to defray the expenses incurred by the builders in respect of materials used in the works, checked and certified by the architect, Rs ……… on the certificate by the architect that the work upto first floor has been completed, the further sum of Rs …………. on the certificate by the architect that the work upto second floor has been completed and the balance shall be paid on the certificate by the architect that the said works have been completed in all respects according to the agreement and the builders have at their own expenses removed and cleared all scaffolding, fencing, unused materials and rubbish from the premises and made and prepared the bungalow fit for use and habitation and immediate occupation.
However, a sum equivalent to 5 per cent of the total contract amount payable by the owner under this agreement shall be retained by the owner as retention money, which shall be paid after a period of 12 months from the date of handing over the said bungalow complete in all respects and fit for occupation. The builders hereby agree and undertake to rectify all such defects as may be found or detected during the period of 12 months. If the builders fail to rectify the defects pointed out or decline to cure such defects as pointed by the owner within fifteen days from the date of reporting to the builders, the owner shall be entitled to have such defects cured by such other agencies as it may deem fit at the entire cost and risk of the builders and utilise the retention money; Provided further that in the event of the said retention money being inadequate to meet such costs, charges and expenses incurred by the owner for curing the defects in the construction, the builders shall within 7 days of a demand in writing made by the owner make good the defect, failing which the builders shall be liable to pay the same together with the interest at 15% per annum.
5. The owner shall allow free ingress to and egress from the premises to the builder’s servants, employees, sub-contractors and all other persons, who are necessary in connection with the carrying out of the works under the agreement.
6. The builders shall indemnify the owner in respect of all claims, damages or expenses payable in consequence to any injury to any employee, workman, nominee, invitee while in or upon the said premises. The builders shall also be responsible for any damage to buildings, whether immediately adjacent or otherwise and any damage to roads, streets, foot-paths, bridges or ways as well as all damages caused to the buildings, and work forming the subject to this contract by frost, rain, wind or other inclemency of weather.
7. If the builders abandon the contract or fail to commence the work or suspend the progress of the work for 14 days without any lawful excuse under these conditions, or fail to proceed with the works with such due diligence and fail to make such due progress as would enable d the works to be completed within the time agreed upon or fail to remove materials from the site or to pull down and replace work for seven days after receiving from the architect written notice that the said materials or the works were defective and rejected by the said architect or neglect or fail persistently to observe and perform all or any of the acts, materials or things required by this contract to be observed and performed by the owner for seven days after written notice shall have given to the builders requiring them to observe or perform the same and the architect certifies in writing to the owner to the said effect, then and in any of the said cases the owner may, notwithstanding any previous waiver, after giving seven days notice through the said architect in writing to the builders terminate the licence in favour of the builders and in so far as it relates to the completion of the remaining construction work, but without thereby affecting the powers of the architect, or the obligations and liabilities of the builders, the whole of which shall continue in force as fully as if this Agreement had not been so determined. And the owner by his servants or agents may enter upon and take possession of the work, tools, scaffolding, sheds, machinery, power, utensils and materials lying upon the premises or in the adjoining lands or roads and use the same as its own property or may employ the same by means of its own servants and workmen in carrying on and completing the work or by employing any other contractor or other person to complete the works and the builders shall not in any way interrupt or do any act, matter or thing to prevent or hinder such other contractor or other person or persons employed for completing and finishing the works or using the material and plant for the works.
8. When the said works are terminated in the manner as stipulated in the foregoing provision, the architect shall give a notice in writing to the builders to remove their surplus materials and plant, and should the builders fail to as so within a period of seven days, after receipt thereof by them, the owner may sell the same by public auction and give credit to the builders for the net amount realised. The architect shall thereafter ascertain and certify in writing, what (if any thing) shall be due or payable to or by the owner, for the value of the said building and materials so taken possession of by the owner and the expense or loss which the owner shall have been put to in procuring the work to be completed and the amount, if any, owing to the builders and the amount which shall be so certified shall thereupon be paid by the owner to the builders or by the builders to the owner, as the case may be, and the certificate of the architect shall be final and conclusive between the parties.
9. The builders shall be bound to appoint an engineer competent to receive instructions from the architect from time to time, on behalf of the builders at all reasonable hours and all directions given to him by the architect shall be deemed to have been given to the builders.
10. The owner or his representatives shall be entitled to inspect the progress of the construction work and materials used for the construction and they shall be entitled to point out to the architect any defects in the construction work, quality of workmanship or materials d used when such defective work is in progress or being executed or such material is brought on site. If the architect will be satisfied about the objections raised, the said architect shall certify the same in writing and direct the builders to rectify at their own cost the defect in the said construction work or remove such defective materials and the same shall be rectified or removed by the builders as directed.
11. All disputes or differences relating to the specifications, designs, drawings and as to quality of workmanship or material used in the work or as to any other question arising out of or relating to the contract, design, drawings, specifications, orders or otherwise in connection with the agreement or the carrying out of the works, whether during the progress of the work or after the completion or abandonment thereof shall be referred to the sole arbitration of two arbitrators, one to be appointed by each party. The arbitrators shall appoint an umpire before entering upon the reference. The parties would cooperate and lead evidence, etc. with the arbitrators and if one of the parties does not cooperate or remains absent at the reference, the arbitrators or the umpire would be at liberty to proceed with the reference ex-parte. The arbitrators or the umpire shall keep record of the oral evidence adduced by the parties and submit the same to the court at the time of filing of the award, along with documentary evidence produced before them or him by the parties or their witnesses. The proceeding of the arbitrators or the umpire shall be recorded in English and a carbon copy whereof shall be furnished to each party. The arbitrators or umpire shall be entitled to appoint stenographer, for recording proceedings of the arbitration, consult an expert, after previous notice to the parties to the reference, the cost whereof shall be borne equally by the parties. The fees of the arbitrator appointed by a party shall be borne by the party, so appointing and the fees of the umpire and the other arbitration expenses shall be borne equally by the parties. The arbitrators shall make their award, with reasons for the decision, within six months from the date of entering upon the reference. If the arbitrators have allowed their time to expire without making an award or have delivered to any party or to the umpire a notice in writing stating that they cannot agree, the umpire shall forthwith enter on the reference. The umpire shall make his award within tour months of entering on the reference or within such extended time, as the parties may agree. The award of the arbitrators, or umpire, as the case may be, shall be final, conclusive and binding on the parties and shall not be challenged on any ground except collusion, fraud or an error apparent on the face of the award. This reference to arbitration shall be deemed to be a reference within the meaning of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 or any statutory modification thereof. No action can be taken under this agreement for the enforcement of any right without resorting to arbitration under this clause.
12. This agreement shall be executed in duplicate, the original shall be retained by the owner and the duplicate by the builders.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties have signed these presents and a duplicate thereof, the day and year first hereinabove written.
Signed and delivered by ……………….. the owner
Signed and delivered by M/s ABC Builders and Contractors,
the builders, by its partners
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Currently, the large amount of data produced by many organizations is outpacing their storage ability. The management of such huge amount of data is quite expensive due to the requirements of high storage capacity and qualified personnel. So the Big Data is used to describe these types of massive volume of both structured and unstructured data that is so large that it's difficult to process using traditional database and software techniques. Big Data has the potential to help companies improve operations and make faster, more intelligent decisions. In many E-Commerce sites, Recommender Systems (RS), which provide personalized recommendation from among a large number of items, are recently introduced. Collaborative clustering is one of the most successful algorithms which provide recommendations using ratings of users on items.
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