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English

have been

Tamil

இருந்திருக்கும்

Last Update: 2016-05-23
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

we have been

Tamil

தண்டனை

Last Update: 2014-08-17
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

what you have been...

Tamil

என்ன நீங்கள் நீங்கள் இருந்தது என்ன ... என்ன நீங்கள் இருக்கும் நீங்கள் இப்போது என்ன ...

Last Update: 2015-03-02
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

How you have been?

Tamil

நீங்கள் எப்படி இருந்திருக்கும்?

Last Update: 2016-03-25
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

i have been doing

Tamil

நான் செய்து கொண்டிருக்கிறேன்

Last Update: 2016-11-04
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

I have been in Dubai

Tamil

மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சரியான இலக்கணம்

Last Update: 2014-09-24
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

No access keys have been defined for this page.

Tamil

இந்த பக்கத்துக்கு அணுகல் விசைகள் எதுவும் வரையறுக்கப்படவில்லை.

Last Update: 2014-06-21
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Hyderabad: The last date of remittance of first installment of Rs. 81,000 toward Hajj expenses is 13th April. There is no possibility of extension in it. Prof. S.A. Shukoor, Special Officer of Hajj Committee told that the last of 5th April was extended to 13th April. All the selected Hajj pilgrims must deposit the said amount and submit PAN Card copy. If they don’t remit the first installment, their seats would be cancelled. The amount could be deposited in State Bank of India or Union Bank of India. After depositing the amount, a copy of the challan should be submitted to State Hajj Committee. Prof. Shukoor also informed that 330 Hajj pilgrims who have been selected under general category should deposit their passports, photographs and medical fitness certificates.

Tamil

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2017-04-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Sample Written Program For INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 1 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY PROGRAM The following safety policy is provided only as a guide to assist employers and employees in complying with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 and 1926, as well as to provide other helpful information. It is not intended to supersede the requirements of the standards. An employer should review the standards for particular requirements which are applicable to their individual situation and make adjustments to this program that are specific to their company. An employer will need to add information relevant to their particular facility in order to develop an effective, comprehensive program. 2 Industrial Safety Program For (Company Name) TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC Safety & Health Policy Statement Safety & Health Goals New Employee Orientation Safety & Training Employee Responsibilities Accident Investigation/Reporting Personal Protective Equipment Safety Rules Safety Committee Emergency Action Plan Safety Discipline Employee Confirmation 3 SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY STATEMENT XYZ Manufacturing Company believes that NO JOB OR TASK IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY. If a job represents a potential safety or health threat, every effort will be made to plan a safe way to complete the task in a safe manner. Every procedure must be a safe procedure. Shortcuts in safe procedures by management and all other associates will not be tolerated. If a worker observes any unsafe or unprotected exposure, which may pose a potential threat to their safety & health, he or she must inform management immediately. If a job can not be done safely…………..It will not be done. Every employee is entitled to a safe and healthful place in which to work. _______________________ President 4 SAFETY & HEALTH GOALS The following goals have been established for XYZ Manufacturing Company: (1) Provide workers with a safe work environment. (2) Conduct routine/regular workplace inspections. (3) Provide Personal Protective Equipment. (4) Develop and implement safe work procedures and rules. (5) Provide on-going safety training (6) Enforce safety rules and appropriate discipline. (7) Provide on-going property conservation practices. 5 NEW EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION All new employees must attend our Safety Orientation Session prior to starting work within their assigned area. This session will be conducted under the direction of the Safety Director and in coordination with Human Resources. Upon completion of the Safety Orientation Session, each new employee will be required to acknowledge that they have received, understand, and will abide by the XYZ Company Safety Program. All participants must sign a statement verifying that they have completed the session. This report will be filed in the employee’s personnel file. The following topics will be covered in the Safety Orientation Session:  Company History  Safety Program/Policy & Work rules  Responsibilities  Safety Education/Training  Safety Audit/Inspections  Accident Reporting/Investigation Requirements  First Aid & Bloodborne Pathogens  Personal Protective Equipment  Tool & Equipment Use  Material Handling  Lockout-Tagout  Machine Guarding  MVR Requirements  Hazard Communication  Emergency Action  Return-to-work & Light Duty Assignments All new hires will be provided an opportunity to ask any question that pertains to their job duties and employment at XYZ Manufacturing Company. 6 SAFETY & TRAINING All in-house Safety & Training sessions will be coordinated by (Name of Safety Director). Foremen and Assistant Foremen are required to be trained in Accident Investigation Procedures by the Safety Director. Operators of forklift trucks are to be trained in-house in accordance with federal/state requirements. Operators must attend classroom instruction as well as “behind the wheel training”. All employees who work with, or are exposed to, hazardous chemicals are to be trained in Hazard Communication, in accordance with federal and state regulations. All employees who don respirators are to be trained in accordance with federal and state regulations. Those individuals who don respirators are required to have annual physicals. Machine operators and maintenance personnel are to be trained in Lockout/Tagout procedures. Individual locks/keys will be assigned to those individuals participating in the LOTO program. All employees who don Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) will be trained in the proper use of such equipment. First-aid training and Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) training will be conducted by (Name of Hospital) and the local chapter of the American Red Cross. Machine/Equipment operators are to be trained in-house. Emphasis is to be placed on point of operation guarding. No employee is allowed to operate a machine unless it is properly guarded. Employees who operate company vehicles are required to participate in an in-house Defensive Driving Program. 7 All production, shipping, and warehouse employees are required to attend a 4 hour in-house safety training session on an annual basis. This partial day session is held each January in the conference room. The Safety Director will decide the topic material; however each annual session is to place emphasis on material handling and machine guarding. All employees, at time of hire, are to be trained in Emergency Action and proper evacuation of building in case of an emergency. Each employee is to be given instruction/training on where to exit and where to locate in the event of an emergency. Foremen and Assistant Foremen are to meet with the Safety Director on a quarterly basis to discuss training needs and goals. 8 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES Each employee is responsible to follow established polices and procedures. Regular attendance is required of all. Following directions is critical. Responsibility does not end with just taking care of you. Unsafe working conditions and acts must be reported to management. It is the responsibility of each employee to work in a professional and safe manner. 9 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION/REPORTING All injuries/illnesses must be reported to management as soon as possible. It is the policy of XYZ Manufacturing Company to have all injuries/illnesses investigated by Foremen or Assistant Foremen within 24 hours of incident. A formal Accident Investigation Form (available from the Safety Director) must be forwarded to the Safety Director as soon as possible. It is important that all incidents be reported, no matter how slight. Any property/liability loss claim must also be reported to management as soon as possible. The Safety Director will conduct a loss investigation of all property/liability claims. 10 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes all clothing and accessories designed to protect against workplace hazards. In some situations the only available protection for employees will be the use of PPE and often in emergencies, PPE will be required for the safety of the workers. As required by federal and state regulations, personal protective equipment is essential for the protection of eyes, ears, face and other body parts when working around hazardous machinery and equipment. All PPE must meet established standards (ANSI, NIOSH, OSHA, etc). All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided by XYZ Manufacturing Company. Employees are not allowed to provide their own PPE unless authorized by the Safety Director. As a general rule, only company provided PPE is allowed. Hazard Assessments have been completed throughout the production and warehouse areas of XYZ Manufacturing Company. PPE is required in the following areas: Warehouse All employees and visitors are required to wear approved hard hats and eye protection. Steel-toed shoes/boots required of warehouse workers. Welding Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Approved hard hats required of all welders. Approved hearing protection required of all welders. Welders are also required to don approved PPE in the form of goggles, helmet, leather coat, apron, steel-toed work boot, gloves, no cuff pants and other 11 equipment as deemed necessary by the Safety Director. Mechanical ventilation is required at all welding stations. Paint Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Spray painters are required to wear company provided work clothing (disposable shirt/pants). Approved respirators are required during those times when spray painting, mixing, or clean-up is taking place. Steel-toed boots/shoes required of paint sprayers. All spray painting is to be conducted within the paint spray booth. Mechanical ventilation system is to be in operation when spray painting takes place. General Production Areas Approved eye protection required of all who enter shop. Visitor glasses (eye protection) are available in main office as well as next to loading dock door and warehouse entrance. XYZ Manufacturing Company will reimburse employee (maximum - $100) each 24 months for the purchase of approved steel-toed boot/shoe. XYZ Manufacturing Company will provide prescription eye wear (approved safety eye protection) for those individuals requesting same. See Safety Director for additional information. 12 SAFETY RULES All safety rules must be obeyed. Failure to do so will result in strict disciplinary action.  All injuries must be reported as soon as possible.  No horseplay, alcohol, or drugs allowed on premises.  No alcohol usage allowed during lunch break.  PPE must be worn as prescribed by management.  All tools/equipment must be maintained in good condition.  Only appropriate tools shall be used for specific jobs.  All guards must be kept in place.  No spliced electrical cords/wiring allowed.  Only authorized personnel can operate forklift vehicles.  Smoking allowed only in lunchroom.  Seat belt use required of all drivers/passengers.  All OSHA Safety Standards will be followed for job processes requiring respiratory protection. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Lockout/Tagout of energized equipment will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Hazard Communications will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM. 13  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Forklift Safety will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN FORKLIFT SAFETY PROGRAM. *These sample written safety programs can be found on the Frankenmuth Safety Services Website. They can be downloaded as a PDF or Microsoft Word file. 14 SAFETY COMMITTEE The primary purpose of the Safety Committee is to promote safety awareness and reduce the potential for injury/loss throughout XYZ Manufacturing Company. The Safety Committee is to be chaired by the Safety Director and include representatives from each department (total number of committee members not to exceed five individuals). Members can be volunteers or appointed. Membership is limited to two terms (1 year each) during any four year period. Meetings are to be scheduled, when possible, for the same day each month (2nd Tuesday of each month – 2:00 p.m.). All meetings are to take place in the conference room. Each meeting should have a set agenda and minutes of each meeting recorded. A copy of the minutes shall be forwarded to the Executive Vice-President within 48 hours of meeting. Each Safety Committee Meeting shall include a review of the prior month’s minutes as well as a review of the prior month’s injury/illness log and investigations of losses/claims. Past injuries/claims/losses need to be reviewed for any patterns or trends. General functions of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Identifying workplace hazards (2) Enforcement of Safety Rules (3) Measuring safety performance (4) Reducing frequency/severity of injuries (5) Creating safety policies (6) Developing and monitoring safety programs Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Conducting self-inspections of the workplace 15 (2) Review employee reports of hazards (3) Assist in safety training (4) Creating safety incentive programs (5) Publish/distribute safety newsletter (6) Inspect PPE (7) Post safety posters/slogans on bulletin board (8) Identify Light Duty Jobs The Safety Committee of XYZ Manufacturing Company was formed to promote safety throughout our organization. The benefits of a Safety Committee are numerous and XYZ Manufacturing believes that this is a forum for problem solving. The Safety Committee has an open door policy and welcomes suggestions. 16 EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN The Emergency Action Plan (EAP) is in place to ensure employee safety from fire and other emergency. At the time of an emergency, all employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some emergencies total and immediate evacuation will be necessary. In other emergencies only partial evacuation may be necessary. When a fire is detected it is necessary that the fire alarm pull station be activated as soon as possible. The fire alarm will notify the emergency response team who will perform assigned duties. The activation of the alarm will also notify the local fire department. In the event of bomb threat, toxic chemical release, hazardous weather, or other emergencies – notification will be made over the public address system. In the event of fire, bomb threat, or toxic chemical release; employees are to proceed to the nearest available and safe exit and leave the building as soon as possible. Floor plans (maps) and exits have been posted in each department. It is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Shop and Warehouse employees are to meet in the __________ Parking Lot on _______ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of _________ and ________ Street. Office employees are to meet in the __________ Parking lot on __________ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of __________ and __________ Street. 17 In the event of Weather emergencies all employees (and visitors) are to evacuate their assigned area and report to the lower level bomb shelter. Again, it is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Supervisors within each area shall take a head count at the designated meeting areas. It is the responsibility of each supervisor to advise fire and police departments of any missing persons. There will be evacuation training each April and October (full evacuation to designated areas). 18 SAFETY DISCIPLINE Management personnel at all levels are responsible for taking action when a violation is observed. If a violation is observed, they must take action immediately to correct the violation and enforce this disciplinary policy. Employees who fail to follow safety rules and regulations established to protect them and their fellow employees endanger themselves and others. Visitors and contractors on site are also required to abide by the safety rules and regulations. The following procedures will be followed when a violation is observed: FIRST VIOLATION* Verbal warning with written confirmation in personnel file. SECOND VIOLATION* Written warning and ½ day suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). THIRD VIOLATION* Written warning and one week suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). FOURTH VIOLATION* Termination (written confirmation in personnel file). 19 *As warranted by type of violation (use of drugs/alcohol, criminal activity, etc.) termination of employment may take place after any such violation. EMPLOYEE CONFIRMATION OF SAFETY PROGRAM This is to certify that I, ___________________________________, have read and will observe the safety practices as outlined in this booklet and other rules presented to me during my employment with XYZ Manufacturing Company. I understand that the safety practices listed are not the only procedures and/or rules that I will be called upon to follow. I also understand that it is a requirement of my employment that any injury/illness be reported to my supervisor immediately. SIGNED _________________________________________ WITNESS ________________________________________ DATE _______________________ This form to be filed in personnel file The information and suggestions contained in this material have been developed from sources believed to be reliable. However, Frankenmuth accepts no legal responsibility for the correctness or completeness of this material, or its application to specific factual situations.

Tamil

தமிழ் தொழில்துறை பாதுகாப்பு பற்றிய கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2017-03-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 31
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English

1.The controversial of former Uttar Pradesh Minister Amarmani Tripathi’s remand has been extended till October 6th . The CBI arrested Tripathy on alleged murder charges on Sunday following his DNA sample matching with the unborn child of Madhumitha Shukla , who was murdered under mysterious circumstances . The investigation is still in progress . The special magistrate has posted the case for hearing on Monday. 2.Monsoon arrived with a bang in Mumbai ten days in advance , causing flooding in low-lying areas in the suburbs and traffic snarls. In other parts of Maharashtra , heavy rain lashed the coastal Lankan region , claiming six lives. 3.The market has to be shut down twice to cool it. In 2004, the brokers demonstrated at the BSE over the loss, and now on Monday brokers burnt the effigy of Finance Minister P.Chidambaram in Ahmedabad protesting against the fall, which they see as the handiwork of some vested interests 4.Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate the Indian Science Congress 2015 today at Mumbai University. This year's theme of the Congress is Science and Technology for Human Development. Our correspondent reports that the five day event will witness deliberations and presentation of papers by the scientific fraternity from across the globe. 5. The CBI has constituted four special teams to fast-track probe in the alleged 45 thousand crore rupee ponzi scam related to Pearls group. CBI sources said in New Delhi yesterday that the agency is taking the probe in the case very seriously and the teams have been directed to go into the various facets of the case. 6. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has said that cashless transaction is one of the solutions to the menace of black money. Addressing ICICI foundation Day function in Mumbai yesterday evening, Mr Modi advised banks to go for cashless transactions which can help the government in rooting out the black money. He asked banks to take up social cause, finance 'Swachhata or clealiness entrepreneurs. 7.The Goverment has introduced a scheme for rating of ITIs in order to promote excellence in vocational training. The Ministry of Labour and Employment, in a press release said, the scheme will provide a benchmark for comparison amongst various institutes and trades offered by them. It is also expected to bring a differentiating factor for institutions leading to increased market competition and quality improvement. 8.Japan boasts of one of the world’s most sophisticated mobile phone market’s with millions of people using handsets to exchange e-mail , do NET restaurant searches, watch digital TV and play Video games. 9.High vigil at US visa counters ,In the wake of the visa fraud by a few South Indian film artists, the United States Consulate in Chennai and other US visa offices in India have stepped up vigilance. The US consul general David Hopper addressed a group of press people at the consulate in Chennai on Thursday. 10. Moderate intensity earthquake strikes Japan with a preliminary magnitude of 6.3 struck a remote island southeast of Tokyo, the Meteorological Agency said on Saturday. There were no immediate reports of damage.

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆ

Last Update: 2016-11-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:
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English

thalai kavasam uyir kavasam essay in english The requirement to wear helmets when driving motorbikes in Vietnam has been in effect for nearly 4 years. Although most citizens believe this provision has a positive influence on drivers’ health, others feel it is unreasonable and do not like this law. In this essay, I will discuss both sides of this issue in Ho Chi Minh City and state in my opinion. Critics argue that wearing helmets while driving motorbikes is inefficient and has a large negative effect on the economy. Firstly, helmets can lead an increase in the number of accidents because they limit drivers’ vision when observing the street and other vehicles. In addition, most traffic accidents do not affect seriously on drivers’ head, since the street in Ho Chi Minh City is narrow and always crowded, while vehicles move quite slowly. Another negative effect is that wearing helmets may cause in social disorder. As a result of this law, many companies were set up quickly in order to manufacture and supply helmets at different prices and because the quality cannot always be assured, citizens cannot tell the difference between high and low quality helmets. This often results in the embarrassment of the government in managing of the standard and value of helmets. On the other hand, there are also many advantages of wearing helmets. The main benefit is that helmets play an important role in preventing damage to the head, which may cause serious brain damage or deaths due to traffic accidents. Moreover, wearing helmets can defend indirectly the happiness of family because a loss of one family member more or less poses a serious misery and peril to family’s life. Secondly, helmets can contribute to the development of the economy. The law has created a source of opportunity for investors in helmet supply. Therefore, many helmet companies have been established and are now famous, such as Amoro and Protect. Furthermore, these businesses are major sources of employment for local people. To summarize, in my opinion, I think the government should maintain this law. When both the supply and manufacture of helmets are managed carefully, it is clear that people’s health, families’ happiness and the economic benefits outweigh the cost. Local communities need to work together to ensure that citizens can obtain helmets with the best quality and best price.

Tamil

ஆங்கிலத்தில் தலை கவசம் உயிர் கவசம் கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2016-09-09
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

What do we mean by glut of paper product, is it having any effect on the environment. by it we mean excessive abundant supply of paper in the market. Large volumes of paper fibre have been recycled in worldwide. Recovery of paper for recycling has increased in recent years due to widespread expansion of paper collection and sorting (e.g., community-based curb side collection, sorting, and office wastepaper collection). The increase in collection and sorting has a directly or indirectly a response to availability of landfills; long-term environmental, economic, and human health problems associated with land- fills and waste increments; and increasing costs of waste disposal. By collecting and sorting material for recycling, disposal costs have been avoided. However, expansion of collection and sorting programs has led to cheaper and more abundant supplies of recovered paper, providing the market incentive for industrial expansion of paper recycling. Prices for recovered paper vary over time and by category of recovered paper: old newspapers and mixed papers have the lowest prices, pulp substitutes and high grades of recovered paper have the highest prices, and old corrugated containers intermediate prices. As a result of increased collection and recovery it is called as “glut” in recovered paper markets. The paper industry has responded to the market signal of sustained low prices for recovered paper by increasing the use of recycled fibre relative to virgin fibre. Since the late 1980s, there has been a significant increase in paper recycling rates in response to market conditions. At a time when record numbers of people are recycling, those who want to recycle used newspapers will now have to pay a hefty fee as a result of a newspaper glut. Since the rate of recycling the paper products is increasing which earlier used to be for free? The newspaper glut also stems from the lack of businesses and retailers stocking recycled paper products. More than half of the waste paper generated in the city is thrown out as opposed to being recycled. That's out of about 1 million tons annually. This glut is increasing due to no use of recycled paper by the newspaper agency and the various universities. This would lead to lower down in the prices of the recycle newspaper and in turn newspaper collector are also stopping in doing their business since no profit is turning in. Well, serious regulations have to be made by the government regarding the issue.

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-08-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

They walked through the new capital, alone and from a far country ,yes , although their own lands were only a few hundred miles perhaps from this very street upon which they now walked .but to them it was very far .their eyes were the eyes of those who have been taken suddenly and by some unaccontable force from the world they have always known and always thought safe until this time .they,who had been accustomed only to country roads and fields ,walked now along the proud street of the new capital ,their feet treading upon the new concreat side_walk ,and although the street was full of things they had never seen before ,so that there were even automobiles unsuch things of which they had never even heard ,still they looked at nothing ,but passed as in a dream ,seeing nothing.

Tamil

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2016-06-29
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 5
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2.1 Tagore – Sadhana I – III Chapters Introduction Rabindranath Tagore born in Calcutta on 7th May 1861 was the youngest but one child of Debandranath Tagore. In the words of Tagore himself his father was one whom “I saw very seldom; he was away a great deal, but his presence pervaded the whole house and was one of the deepest influence on my life…’. He was called Maharishi or the great saint who believed in the worship of Invisible God. Tagore’s attitude to God and world was inherited from his father. The Tagores were Vaishnavas in their religious outlook and were inclined to vegetarianism in diet. They were a set of highly educated and enlightened people who assisted Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his movement of social reform. Rabindranath Tagore lived in a significant age when India was stirred deeply by three movements – religious, literary and social to which the contribution of the Tagore family was very great. The first movement was religious and its founder was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who believed that God is one. One of the leaders of this movement was Debandranath Tagore, Rabindranath’s father. The second movement was in the field of Literature and Bakin Chandra tried to rescue Bengali language from the degradation of dead forms to which it had fallen and bring a new critical attitude and make Bengali language an instrument of the expression of rich imagination that would not tolerate any restrictions imposed upon it from outside. The third movement was national its was national; it was partly political and partly cultural. It raised a voice of protest against the humiliation which the Indians were subjected to at the hands of the westermers. It was not opposed to the introduction of western thought, but it certainly was not in favour of indiscriminate rejection of traditional Indian culture and values. Tagore’s father laid stress on the study of the Upanishads and left no stone unturned to check the wave of conversion to Christianity in Bengal. Tagore passed his boyhood in the Jarasnako house with the atmosphere that reverberated with the echoes of culture, refinement and art. He was from 63 64 very early years of his life fond of nature and longed for the outer world of nature. He was made to study science, literature, music and painting without taking into consideration whether he was interested in them or not. Learning all his subjects in English, he learnt Bengali well. Educated in India and London showed a great promise as a writer. He was influenced by the Vaishnava lyrical poetry, which gave to the poet an impetus to be bold and strike a new path for himself in the field of art and poetry. The Awakening of the waterfall, his work showed a great unity of meaning. What was memorable in this experienced was its human message and the sudden expansion of his consciousness in the supernatural world of man. There are three distinctive things which seem to come before us from this new vision of the poet about life. i. The human soul from which the creation and which its creative effort draws it away from itself and harmonizes it with the inner life of nature which is full of human significance. ii. The union between man’s growing consciousness and the spirit of nature is a source of joy and it is in this feeling of delight emerging from a realization of inner harmony of objects that the poet seeks for his definition of beauty. iii. This seeking and this joy is similar to freedom, for it is only by transcending the outer certain of common-placeness and triviality that its real significance is discovered. Published a number of collection of songs and poems in which the glorified the ideals of ancient times against the background of the evils of western nationalism which the condemned as the climax of greed. He waged a ceaseless war against the two evils of caste which dehumanizes man and nationality in the west which makes a brute of a man. After the publication of Gitanjali which marked the transition in his life, Tagore’s national aspirations got merged in the Universal. When the visited England and Europe he was greated there as seer with a universal message. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The publication of Gitanjali in English took the English – reading public by storm and they got examoured as much by 65 the nobility of its though as by the beauty of the language. During the course of his visit to America in 1913 to deliver some addressed there, he made the acquaintance of Rudolf Eucken, the famous German Philosopher, who was also charmed on reading Gitanjali. The lectures he delivered in America were published as Sadhana by Macmillan, along with The Gardener, The crescent Moon and Chitra. Tagore was a poet and a dreamer. He felt that the western civilization was heading towards a crash or destruction. He started thinking of the crash or destruction. He started thinking of the problems of life in a calm and detached manner and the expression was marked by a sense of bold optimism attempting to depict tot eh world the message of eternal peace. Peace and tranquility proved to be the theme. 2.2 The relation of the individual to the universe The civilization of ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. These walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They setup a principle of ‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built an everything has to fight hard for its entrance its our recognition. In India when the first Aryan invaders appeared, the vast forests provided them some special advantage of natural protection, food and water in plenty. Thus our civilization had its birth and it took a distinct character from this origin and environment. Surrounded by vast life of nature, was fed and clothed by her, having the closest and most constant intercourse with her varying objects. This atmosphere instead of dulling human intelligence and dwarfing the incentives to progress, gave it to a particular direction. Having constant contact with the living growth of nature, his mind was fee from the desire to extend his mind was free from the desire to extend his dominion by erecting boundary walls around his acquisitions. His aim was not to acquire but to realize, to enlarge his consciousness by growing with and growing into his surroundings. He felt that truth is all comprehensive that there is no such 66 thing as absolute isolation in existence and the only way of attaining truth is through the interpretation of our being into all objects. This harmony between man’s spirit and the spirit of the world was the endeavour of the forest dwelling sages of ancient India. In future even when Mighty Kingdoms were established – even in the heyday of its material prosperity – the heart of India ever looked back with adoration upon the early ideal of strenuous self-realization and the dignity of the simple life of the forest hermitage. Westerners took pride in subduing nature, as if we are living in a hostile world creating and artificial dissociation between himself and the universal nature within whose bosom he lies. But Indians believed that there is a rational connection between him and nature. We are in harmony with nature and the thoughts are in harmony with things – the power is in harmony with the power which is universal. According to it, everything that is low in the scale of being is merely nature, and whatever has stamp of perfection on it, intellectual or moral, in human-nature. The earth, water and light, fruits and flowers to India were not merely physical phenomena to be turned to and then left aside. The man who has his spiritual eyes open knows the ultimate truth about earth and water lies in our apprehension of the eternal world. There is not mere knowledge, as science is, but it is a perception of the soul by soul. This gives us not power but joy. When a man does not realize his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison – house whose walls are alien to him. When the meets the eternal spirit in all objects, them he is emancipated, for them he discovers the fullest significance of the world into which he is born. Thus the text of our everyday mediation is the Gayathri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul of man. We understand the Eternal spirit, whose power creates The Earth, the Sky and the stars. It is not in the power of possession but in the power of union. India knew that when by physical and mental barriers we violently detach ourselves from the inexhaustible life of nature, when we become man, man in the universe, we crate bewildering problems. Man must realize the wholeness of his existence, his place in the infinite. The Rishis were they, who having reached the supreme God from all sides had found abiding peace, had 67 become united with all, had entered into the life of the Universe. Thus the state of realizing our relationship with all, of entering into everything through union with God, was considered in India to be the ultimate and fulfillment of humanity. His freedom and fulfillment is in love, which is another name for perfect comprehension. This is why the Upanishads describe those who have attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at one with God’, meaning that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in undisturbed union with God. We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he says, ‘It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven – which implies that whatever we treasure for ourselves separates us from others; our possession are our limitations. It is the one living truth that makes all realities true. This truth is not only of knowledge but of devotion. Buddha, who developed the practical side of the teaching of the Upanishads, preached the same. The Upanishad says that the being who is in his essence of light and life of all, who is world – conscious, is Brahma. Upanishad also says ‘thou shalt gain by giving away. Thou Shalt not covet’. In the Gita we are advised to work disinterestingly, abandoning all lust for the result. Everything his sprung from immoral life and is vibrating with life, for life is immense. 2.3 Soul consciousness The aspiration of ancient India was to live and move and have is joy is Brahma- the all conscious and all pervading spirit, by extending its field of consciousness all over the world. By beginning to try to realize all, one has to end by realizing nothing. But, in reality, it is not so absurd as it sounds. Facts are many, but the truth is one. The animal intelligence knows facts, the human mind has power to apprehend truth. This discovery of truth is pure joy to man – it is a liberation of his mind. Truth opens up a whole horizon, it leads us to the infinite. Upanishad says ‘know thine own soul’ – realize the one great principle of unity that there is in every man. All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, obscure our true vision of the soul. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that 68 transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All. Like children learning the alphabets, words and then sentences, our soul when detached and imprisoned within the narrow limits of a self loses its significance. In love he use of difference is obliterated and the human soul fulfils its purpose in perfection, transcending the limits of itself and reaching across the threshold of the infinite. Therefore love is the highest bliss that man can attain. Our great ‘Revealers’ are they who man manifest the true meaning of the soul by giving up self for the love of mankind. We call then ‘Mahatmas’ – the men of the great soul? ‘Paramathma’ is the supreme soul in me and my joy is in the realization of this truth. The joys and sorrows of our loved ones are joys and sorrows of our loved ones, because in them we have grown larger, in them we have touched that great truth which comprehends the whole universe. Our highest joy is in the losing of our egoistic self and in the uniting with others. According to the Upanishads, the key to cosmic consciousness, to God- consciousness, is in the consciousness of the soul. The chick knows when it breaks through the selfcentered isolation of its egg that the hard shell which covered it so long was not really a part of its life. In Sanskrit, the bird has been called the twice-born : so too the man is named, who has gone through the ceremony of the discipline of self-restraint and high thinking – who has come out simple in wants, pure in heart and ready to take up all the responsibilities of life in a disinterested largeness of spirit. He is considered to have had his rebirth from the blind envelopment of self to the freedom of soul life. When Jesus said, ‘Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth’ he meant this. The doctrine of deliverance that Buddha preached was the freedom from the thralldom of Avidya (ignorance), when he attains ‘Bodhi’, i.e., the awakenment from the sleep of self to the perfection of consciousness, he becomes But Man’s poverty is abysmal, his wants are endless till he becomes truly conscious of his soul. The vision of the supreme one in our own soul is a direct and immediate intuition. Sin is the blurring of truth which clouds the purity of our consciousness. It is the supreme one which makes man feel the pang of his separation from God and gives rise to the earnest prayer, ‘O God, O Father, completely sweap away all our sins’. Give into us that which is good? Man’s cry reach his fullest expression. It is this desire for self69 expression that leads him to attain perfection. Man becomes perfect man, he attains his fullest expression, when his soul realizes itself in the infinite being who is Avih whose very essence is expression. When a man’s life rescued from distractions finds its unity in the soul, then the consciousness of the infinite becomes at once direct and natural to it as the light is to the flame. All the conflicts and contradictions of life are reconciled; knowledge, love and action harmonized; the formless appears to us in the form of the flower, of the fruit as the supreme one. 2.4 The problem of Evil The question why there is evil in existence is the same as why there is imperfection on or why there is creation at all. Imperfection is not a negation of perfectness; finitude is not contradictory to infinity; they are but completeness manifested in parts, infinity revealed within bounds. Pain, which is the feeling of our finiteness, is not a fixture in our life. It is not an end in itself, as joy is. We feel that good is the positive element in man’s nature, and in every age and every clime what man values west is his ideal of goodness. Will is the supreme wish of larger life, the life whose greater partition is out of our present reach, whose objects are not for the most part before our sight. Then we begin to distinguish between what we immediately desire and what is good. Good is that which is desirable for our greater self. Thus sense of goodness comes out of truer view of life. In this he becomes great, for the realizes truth. Life is not made up of fragments, purposeless and discontinuous. It is a truth that man is not a detached being, that he has a universal aspect; and when he recognizes this he becomes great; very often it is our moral strength which gives us most effectively the power to do evil, to exploit other individuals for our own benefit, to rob other people of their just rights. The life of an animal is unmoral, for it is aware only of an immediate present; the life of a man can be immoral, but that only means that it must have a moral basis. Not to see is to be blind, but to see wrongly is to see only in an imperfect manner. To live the life of goodness is to live the life of all. Pleasure is for one’s own self, but goodness is concerned with the happiness of all humanity and for all time. From the point of view of the good, pleasure pain 70 appear in a different meaning. Martyrs prove is in history and we prove it every day in our little martyrdoms. To live in perfect goodness is to realize one’s life in the infinite. Our body can only die if it tries to eat its own substance, and our eye loses the meaning of its function if it can only see itself. We see then that man’s individuality is not his highest truth, there is that in him which is universal. Our organ of sight, our organ of locomotion, our physical strength becomes worldwide; steam and electricity become our nerve and muscle. It is the same with our spiritual life. Yet we complain that we are not happy, as if there were something inherent in the nature of things to make us miserable. The universal spirit is waiting to crown us with happiness, but our individual spirit would not accept it. The most important lesson that man can learn from his life is not that there is pain in this world, but it depends upon him to turn it is not good account, that it is possible for him to transmute it into joy. NON – DETTTTAILED – 2 . 5 .AN AREA OF DARKNESS -V.S.NAIPAUL V.S.Naipul’s position as a third generation Caribbean settled in England makes the idea of the return (to an unsullied past ,and threby a complete, rooted identity )doubly problematic . In one of his essays ,Naipaul wrote , “ although the English language was mine , [ …] its tradition was not ” . There is no virtually Caribbean ‘ tradition’ that he can fall back upon , and this perhaps is the basis for his anguished sense . The aboriginal peoples of the Caribbean have long been extinct .Naipaul has also in his many interviews and essays ,made his own myth into that of the writer as a displaced person ,one who does not “ have a side , doesn’t have a country ;doesn’t have a community ; one who is entirely an individual ” , a figure who has achieved a ‘Brahminical ideal of non –attachment ’,a man without a home . His protagonist Mr . Boswas depicts this linked to the ownership of ‘a house ’ – ‘a home ’.The slow and stately rhythm of his prose ,the measured tone ,reflects a grim solidity , and grants to it something of the status of fact . Naipaul visited India for many months on different occasions in order to gather ‘materials’ for his ‘An Area of Darkness ’ (1964),India :A Wounded Civilisation (1977),andIndia:A Mmillion Mutinies Now (1990). They are serious undertakings that entail much thought and analysis ; thus ,the eye-witness account gives ‘authority’ to his writings . It is a first hand account of what happened and who was involved . No one can doubt the 71 extraordinary qualities of Naipaul’s observations ,they are keen ,detailed and exact . In ‘An Area of Darkness’ , the ‘quest’ for ‘self ’ is notable : there is an intence preoccupation withself, and this colours all of Naipaul’s observations and comments . The narrative is replete ,with confessional statements ,with philosophical commentaries ,his own fears and anxieties about India . The philosophical perspective is imbedded everywhere in both of Naipaul’s fiction and traver narratives ;it is this substantive –idea that permeates his writings ,and is at times connected with the ‘autobiographical ’sense. In many passages philosophical ideas are brought out through autobiographical instances there is a dynamic interrelationship between both travel and fictional writings . The sharp literary image gives his travel narratives the necessary ‘literariness’ , and at the same time ,his travel narrative

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-05-25
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Dear Beneficiary: The Foreign Exchange Transfer Department (RBI) hereby brings to your attention the payment of your deposited fund here in the RBI. You were listed as a beneficiary in the recent schedule for payment of the past edition email award incurred by the BRITISH GOVERNMENT, which is yet unclaimed due to some circumstance according to your file record. Your payment is categorized as: Contract type: Lottery/inheritance/ Undelivered Lottery fund/ Recently on the 20th of January 2016 The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor, Dr Raghuram G. Rajan and Ban Kin-moon Secretary-General of the United Nations met with the Senate Tax Committee on Finance RBI Mumbai/Delhi branch regarding unclaimed funds which have been due for a long run. At the end of the meeting (RBI) Governor, Dr Raghuram G.Rajan mandated all unclaimed funds to be released back to the beneficiaries stating that it is an unfair practice to withhold funds in government coffers for one reason or the other. e.g., tax accumulations. Therefore, we are writing this email to inform you that (4Crore 76lakhs Rupees) will be released to you in your name, as it was. Committed by (RBI) Governor that the Beneficiary is to claim this funds immediately (3working days) on receiving this mail. Also reconfirm your details for crediting. Fill the form below and send it immediately .

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-03-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Dear Subscriber. you have been subscribed to Video Talkies 50. Please recharge your account to continue enjoying this service.

Tamil

அன்பே சந்தாதாரர். நீங்கள் வீடியோ டாக்கீஸ் 50. குழுசேர்ந்துள்ளார் இந்த சேவையை அனுபவித்து தொடர, உங்கள் கணக்கிற்கு ரீசார்ஜ் செய்து.

Last Update: 2016-02-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

ABSTRACT Application of recycled materials in the building industry is essential for permanently sustainable development of each country. The use of primary sources and materials is becoming unbearable both economically and ecologically, and therefore it is necessary to seek the possibility of reuse of those materials once their durability expired This project deals with the Comparative study of flexural behavior of fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates with quarry dust replacement. For reducing cost of concrete and also to meet the demand, locally available waste materials such as quarry dust and recycled materials have been utilized in concrete. The aim of this project is to study enhancement of flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity due to the addition of POLYPROPYLENE fibres and recycled aggregates in concrete and the replacement of crusher dust in concrete. The compressive strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust. The split tensile strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust The flexural strength of concrete beams attains max value of 54kN ultimate load at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers. The load deflection behavior shows a ductile behavior at 0.5% of fiber replacement level. The stiffness and energy absorption capacity at ultimate load are more in the 0.5% of fibre proportion. Hence it is concluded that recycled building waste can be effectively used as a fully replacement for natural aggregate.

Tamil

வடக்கு கிழக்கு தென் மேற்கு

Last Update: 2015-12-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT I. Contract Parties Now comes (builder’s name) of (address) and (buyer’s name) of (address) to hereby agree to build a house on property located at (common address) and legally described as (Insert legal description here.) . II. Contract Documents The terms of this contract include all the documents specifically listed below, and constitute the entire terms of the agreement between the parties. The terms of this contract shall prevail over any conflicting provision in the documents incorporated by reference. 1. Architectural Plans and Drawings dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 2. Specifications dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 3. Schedule of Allowance Items dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 4. Title of document – add any documents not included in the previous samples, delete any of the previous samples no longer needed dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. III. Building Plans FIRST OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUYERS The builder agrees to construct the home in accordance with the plans, including specifications and drawings, supplied by the buyer and incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents. The builder assumes no responsibility or liability for defects in the design or engineering in these plans. The buyer represents to the builder that the buyer is the sole owner of the plans or has the legal right to use the plans. The buyer agrees to indemnify and hold the builder harmless for any copyright action which may be asserted as a result of the use of the plans. The buyer warrants that the plans are adequate and that the builder can rely on them. The buyer will be liable for any damages caused by defects in the plans, including, but not limited to, additional material costs, additional labor costs, pro rata overhead and profit. SECOND OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUILDER The builder has provided the plans, specifications and drawings which are incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents, and which are to be used for the construction of the house. The builder makes no representation about the quality of these plans beyond those specifically provided in the warranties clause of this contract. IV. Completion Time Assuming all conditions are satisfied and weather permits, the work to be performed under the contract shall be substantially completed no later than days after the work commences. The work shall commence within days after the permits necessary to start work have been issued, the buyer has supplied the builder with a written notice of financing as described in paragraph V. Financing, and the buyer shall have supplied the builder with a correct statement of the recorded legal title of the property and the buyer’s interest in the property. Any time lost by reason of changes to the contract or changes in plans by the buyer, other acts of the buyer, strikes, weather conditions not reasonably anticipated, or any other condition not within the builder’s control shall be added to the specified time for completion. For any delays which are not the builder’s responsibility, the contract price shall increase by any increase in the builder’s costs caused by the delay. A claim for an increase in time for the performance of the contract, or an increase in the contract cost shall be made within days after the builder first recognizes the condition giving rise to the claim. V. Financing This contract is contingent upon the buyer obtaining a construction loan in the amount of $ dollars. All fees and expenses of obtaining a loan shall be borne by the buyer. The builder is not required to begin construction until the buyer provides the builder with written notice from the lender confirming the loan. VI. Contract Price FIRST OPTION: FIXED PRICE CONTRACT The buyer agrees to pay a total price of $ dollars to the builder for construction of the house, and the builder agrees to provide all the labor, materials, equipment, tools, and other services necessary to construct the house. Upon the signing of this contract, the buyer agrees to pay $ dollars to the builder as a deposit. The buyer will make the following interim payments: (List the amounts and number of the progress payments and what triggers them: for example, specific dates such as the first Monday of every month; or the start or the completion of specific construction events.) The buyer agrees to make a final payment in the amount of $ within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. SECOND OPTION: COST PLUS FEE The builder agrees to construct the house according to the plans. As consideration for the builder constructing the house, the buyer agrees to pay the builder’s full costs and expenses, plus a fixed fee of $ dollars. Upon signing the documents, the buyer will pay $ dollars as a deposit. Each (at the end of the week or month) the builder shall prepare for the buyer itemized statements of the costs and expenses incurred to date. The buyer will make a regular payment to the builder on (a regular recurring date such as the first Monday of each week) of the builder’s unpaid costs and expenses as stated in the most recent itemized statement. The builder’s costs and expenses include the following: All gross wages, employment benefits, costs of workers’ compensation, and unemployment insurance incurred by the builder as the cost of labor during the performance of this contract, plus all salaries for builder’s employees, but only to the extent that their time is spent on work required by this contract; The cost of all materials, supplies, and equipment consumed in this project, including the cost of delivery and transportation of materials; Rental charges consistent with those prevailing in the area for the use of machinery and equipment used at the construction site, whether owned by the builder or by others; All land costs associated with building this house, which are paid by the builder; All payments made by the builder for work performed according to subcontracts under this agreement; All costs incurred for safety and security at the job site; All costs incurred for building and code compliance; All landscaping and backfilling costs necessary under the contract documents; All builder’s risk and other insurance costs necessary under the contract documents; All soil fees and civil engineering fees necessary for this building project; All costs associated with differing site conditions. A differing site condition is a physical characteristic of the property that materially changes the construction techniques from those reasonably expected at the time of the contract. The buyer shall also pay to the builder a salary or hourly rate of $ for the builder’s actual hours spent on supervision of the construction of this house. The buyer will make a final payment of all amounts still owing within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. VII. Allowance Items Upon signing this contract, the buyer shall be given the selection guide that is incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents to help the buyer select allowance items, materials, and colors that will be required during the construction process. Exterior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. Interior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. VIII. Late Payments Payments not made in a timely fashion shall incur daily interest at the rate of % from the day the payment is due. If the buyer fails to pay the builder within seven days of the date the payment is due, through no fault of the builder, the builder may stop work and may keep the job idle until such time as payments that are due to the builder are paid. If the builder chooses not to stop work after a payment delay, this is not to be construed as a waiver of his rights to stop work if future payments are delayed. All attorney fees incurred by the builder to collect sums owed by the buyer shall be paid by the buyer, together with interest at the rate of %. IX. Permits and Surveys The buyer shall obtain and furnish all necessary surveys describing the physical characteristics of the property, the location of all utilities, and the location of all easements to the building that are necessary to allow the builder to complete his performance. If additional easements are necessary to complete the work, the buyer shall obtain those easements promptly. If no soil report is available, the buyer shall provide one at his own expense. The builder shall obtain building permits, licenses, building inspections and approvals required by local law. If a covenant or architectural review committee requires the approval of plans and specifications, the buyer shall be responsible for obtaining these approvals and paying for any fees connected with them. X. Change Orders The buyer may order changes in the work within the terms of this contract, but only by a prior written order and agreement with the builder that states the changes to the contract, the amount of any additional cost, and the additional number of days to be added to the contract completion date. Any of the buyers may sign the change order and that signature will be binding upon all of the buyers. The buyers hereby agree to make all requests for change orders to the builder, and not to issue instructions to, or otherwise negotiate for additional or changed work specifications with, the builder’s employees or subcontractors. XI. Insurance and Risk Management The builder shall obtain all workers’ compensation, commercial general liability insurance and comprehensive liability insurance necessary to protect builder from claims for damages due to bodily injury, including death, and for damages to property that may arise out of and during operations under this contract. The buyer shall purchase his own liability insurance including fire and casualty insurance to the full insurable value of the house and shall name the builder as an additional insured. Each party shall issue a certificate of insurance to the other prior to the commencement of construction. XII. Access to the Property Site The buyer shall have access to the property and the right to inspect the work in the presence of the builder. If the buyer enters the property during the course of construction without the permission of the builder, he does so at his own risk, and the buyer hereby releases the builder and does hereby hold the builder harmless from any and all claims for injury or damage to his person or property, and to the person or property of any person accompanying the buyer. XIII. Inspection, Acceptance, Final Payment and Possession At the final inspection, the buyer will give the builder a signed and dated list that identifies any alleged deficiencies in the quality of the work or materials. The builder shall correct any items on the buyer’s list that are, in the good faith judgment of the builder, deficient in the quality of the work and/or materials according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built. The builder shall correct those defects within a reasonable period of time. After the defects have been corrected according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built, the buyer shall sign a certificate of acceptance acknowledging that the defects on the buyer's list have been corrected according to the standards of this contract. The builder shall provide the buyer with an affidavit stating that all materials and services for which a lien could be filed have been paid, or an affidavit identifying what services and materials for which a lien could be filed have not been paid, and swearing that such amounts will be paid from the proceeds of the final payment. (Some states give the property owners the right to withhold amounts for unpaid potential lienholders, and make those payments directly to those potential lienholders.) Occupancy will be granted to the buyer when the buyer makes a final inspection of the home, signs a certificate of acceptance, and makes the final payment. XIV. Warranties All warranties are limited to the implied warranties of habitability and workmanlike construction and are limited to a period of one year from the date of the issuance of a certificate of occupancy by the local building code enforcement authority. This limited warranty is the only express warranty provided by the builder. XV. Disputes Should any dispute arise relative to the performance of this contract that the parties cannot resolve, the dispute shall be referred to a single arbitrator acceptable to the builder and the buyer. If the builder and the buyer cannot agree upon an arbitrator, the dispute shall be referred to the American Arbitration Association for resolution. All attorney fees that shall be incurred in the resolution of disputes shall be the responsibility of the party not prevailing in the dispute. XVI. The Governing Law and Assignment This contract will be construed, interpreted, and applied according to the law of the state where the property is located. This contract shall not be assigned without the written consent of all parties. XVII. Effective Date and Signature This contract shall become effective on the date it is signed by both parties. We, the undersigned, have read, understood, and agree to each of the provisions of this contract and hereby acknowledge receipt of a copy of this contract. By: (Builder’s name) on behalf of (Builder’s company name) Title: Date: By: (Buyer) Date: By: (Buyer) Date: Attached Contract Documents: Final Contract 1. Plans and Specifications 2. Allowance Schedule (Describe and include any other documents that have been incorporated by reference into the contract.)

Tamil

கட்டிடம் ஒப்பந்த உடன்பாடு

Last Update: 2015-11-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT I. Contract Parties Now comes (builder’s name) of (address) and (buyer’s name) of (address) to hereby agree to build a house on property located at (common address) and legally described as (Insert legal description here.) . II. Contract Documents The terms of this contract include all the documents specifically listed below, and constitute the entire terms of the agreement between the parties. The terms of this contract shall prevail over any conflicting provision in the documents incorporated by reference. 1. Architectural Plans and Drawings dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 2. Specifications dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 3. Schedule of Allowance Items dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 4. Title of document – add any documents not included in the previous samples, delete any of the previous samples no longer needed dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. III. Building Plans FIRST OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUYERS The builder agrees to construct the home in accordance with the plans, including specifications and drawings, supplied by the buyer and incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents. The builder assumes no responsibility or liability for defects in the design or engineering in these plans. The buyer represents to the builder that the buyer is the sole owner of the plans or has the legal right to use the plans. The buyer agrees to indemnify and hold the builder harmless for any copyright action which may be asserted as a result of the use of the plans. The buyer warrants that the plans are adequate and that the builder can rely on them. The buyer will be liable for any damages caused by defects in the plans, including, but not limited to, additional material costs, additional labor costs, pro rata overhead and profit. SECOND OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUILDER The builder has provided the plans, specifications and drawings which are incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents, and which are to be used for the construction of the house. The builder makes no representation about the quality of these plans beyond those specifically provided in the warranties clause of this contract. IV. Completion Time Assuming all conditions are satisfied and weather permits, the work to be performed under the contract shall be substantially completed no later than days after the work commences. The work shall commence within days after the permits necessary to start work have been issued, the buyer has supplied the builder with a written notice of financing as described in paragraph V. Financing, and the buyer shall have supplied the builder with a correct statement of the recorded legal title of the property and the buyer’s interest in the property. Any time lost by reason of changes to the contract or changes in plans by the buyer, other acts of the buyer, strikes, weather conditions not reasonably anticipated, or any other condition not within the builder’s control shall be added to the specified time for completion. For any delays which are not the builder’s responsibility, the contract price shall increase by any increase in the builder’s costs caused by the delay. A claim for an increase in time for the performance of the contract, or an increase in the contract cost shall be made within days after the builder first recognizes the condition giving rise to the claim. V. Financing This contract is contingent upon the buyer obtaining a construction loan in the amount of $ dollars. All fees and expenses of obtaining a loan shall be borne by the buyer. The builder is not required to begin construction until the buyer provides the builder with written notice from the lender confirming the loan. VI. Contract Price FIRST OPTION: FIXED PRICE CONTRACT The buyer agrees to pay a total price of $ dollars to the builder for construction of the house, and the builder agrees to provide all the labor, materials, equipment, tools, and other services necessary to construct the house. Upon the signing of this contract, the buyer agrees to pay $ dollars to the builder as a deposit. The buyer will make the following interim payments: (List the amounts and number of the progress payments and what triggers them: for example, specific dates such as the first Monday of every month; or the start or the completion of specific construction events.) The buyer agrees to make a final payment in the amount of $ within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. SECOND OPTION: COST PLUS FEE The builder agrees to construct the house according to the plans. As consideration for the builder constructing the house, the buyer agrees to pay the builder’s full costs and expenses, plus a fixed fee of $ dollars. Upon signing the documents, the buyer will pay $ dollars as a deposit. Each (at the end of the week or month) the builder shall prepare for the buyer itemized statements of the costs and expenses incurred to date. The buyer will make a regular payment to the builder on (a regular recurring date such as the first Monday of each week) of the builder’s unpaid costs and expenses as stated in the most recent itemized statement. The builder’s costs and expenses include the following: All gross wages, employment benefits, costs of workers’ compensation, and unemployment insurance incurred by the builder as the cost of labor during the performance of this contract, plus all salaries for builder’s employees, but only to the extent that their time is spent on work required by this contract; The cost of all materials, supplies, and equipment consumed in this project, including the cost of delivery and transportation of materials; Rental charges consistent with those prevailing in the area for the use of machinery and equipment used at the construction site, whether owned by the builder or by others; All land costs associated with building this house, which are paid by the builder; All payments made by the builder for work performed according to subcontracts under this agreement; All costs incurred for safety and security at the job site; All costs incurred for building and code compliance; All landscaping and backfilling costs necessary under the contract documents; All builder’s risk and other insurance costs necessary under the contract documents; All soil fees and civil engineering fees necessary for this building project; All costs associated with differing site conditions. A differing site condition is a physical characteristic of the property that materially changes the construction techniques from those reasonably expected at the time of the contract. The buyer shall also pay to the builder a salary or hourly rate of $ for the builder’s actual hours spent on supervision of the construction of this house. The buyer will make a final payment of all amounts still owing within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. VII. Allowance Items Upon signing this contract, the buyer shall be given the selection guide that is incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents to help the buyer select allowance items, materials, and colors that will be required during the construction process. Exterior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. Interior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. VIII. Late Payments Payments not made in a timely fashion shall incur daily interest at the rate of % from the day the payment is due. If the buyer fails to pay the builder within seven days of the date the payment is due, through no fault of the builder, the builder may stop work and may keep the job idle until such time as payments that are due to the builder are paid. If the builder chooses not to stop work after a payment delay, this is not to be construed as a waiver of his rights to stop work if future payments are delayed. All attorney fees incurred by the builder to collect sums owed by the buyer shall be paid by the buyer, together with interest at the rate of %. IX. Permits and Surveys The buyer shall obtain and furnish all necessary surveys describing the physical characteristics of the property, the location of all utilities, and the location of all easements to the building that are necessary to allow the builder to complete his performance. If additional easements are necessary to complete the work, the buyer shall obtain those easements promptly. If no soil report is available, the buyer shall provide one at his own expense. The builder shall obtain building permits, licenses, building inspections and approvals required by local law. If a covenant or architectural review committee requires the approval of plans and specifications, the buyer shall be responsible for obtaining these approvals and paying for any fees connected with them. X. Change Orders The buyer may order changes in the work within the terms of this contract, but only by a prior written order and agreement with the builder that states the changes to the contract, the amount of any additional cost, and the additional number of days to be added to the contract completion date. Any of the buyers may sign the change order and that signature will be binding upon all of the buyers. The buyers hereby agree to make all requests for change orders to the builder, and not to issue instructions to, or otherwise negotiate for additional or changed work specifications with, the builder’s employees or subcontractors. XI. Insurance and Risk Management The builder shall obtain all workers’ compensation, commercial general liability insurance and comprehensive liability insurance necessary to protect builder from claims for damages due to bodily injury, including death, and for damages to property that may arise out of and during operations under this contract. The buyer shall purchase his own liability insurance including fire and casualty insurance to the full insurable value of the house and shall name the builder as an additional insured. Each party shall issue a certificate of insurance to the other prior to the commencement of construction. XII. Access to the Property Site The buyer shall have access to the property and the right to inspect the work in the presence of the builder. If the buyer enters the property during the course of construction without the permission of the builder, he does so at his own risk, and the buyer hereby releases the builder and does hereby hold the builder harmless from any and all claims for injury or damage to his person or property, and to the person or property of any person accompanying the buyer. XIII. Inspection, Acceptance, Final Payment and Possession At the final inspection, the buyer will give the builder a signed and dated list that identifies any alleged deficiencies in the quality of the work or materials. The builder shall correct any items on the buyer’s list that are, in the good faith judgment of the builder, deficient in the quality of the work and/or materials according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built. The builder shall correct those defects within a reasonable period of time. After the defects have been corrected according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built, the buyer shall sign a certificate of acceptance acknowledging that the defects on the buyer's list have been corrected according to the standards of this contract. The builder shall provide the buyer with an affidavit stating that all materials and services for which a lien could be filed have been paid, or an affidavit identifying what services and materials for which a lien could be filed have not been paid, and swearing that such amounts will be paid from the proceeds of the final payment. (Some states give the property owners the right to withhold amounts for unpaid potential lienholders, and make those payments directly to those potential lienholders.) Occupancy will be granted to the buyer when the buyer makes a final inspection of the home, signs a certificate of acceptance, and makes the final payment. XIV. Warranties All warranties are limited to the implied warranties of habitability and workmanlike construction and are limited to a period of one year from the date of the issuance of a certificate of occupancy by the local building code enforcement authority. This limited warranty is the only express warranty provided by the builder. XV. Disputes Should any dispute arise relative to the performance of this contract that the parties cannot resolve, the dispute shall be referred to a single arbitrator acceptable to the builder and the buyer. If the builder and the buyer cannot agree upon an arbitrator, the dispute shall be referred to the American Arbitration Association for resolution. All attorney fees that shall be incurred in the resolution of disputes shall be the responsibility of the party not prevailing in the dispute. XVI. The Governing Law and Assignment This contract will be construed, interpreted, and applied according to the law of the state where the property is located. This contract shall not be assigned without the written consent of all parties. XVII. Effective Date and Signature This contract shall become effective on the date it is signed by both parties. We, the undersigned, have read, understood, and agree to each of the provisions of this contract and hereby acknowledge receipt of a copy of this contract. By: (Builder’s name) on behalf of (Builder’s company name) Title: Date: By: (Buyer) Date: By: (Buyer) Date: Attached Contract Documents: Final Contract 1. Plans and Specifications 2. Allowance Schedule (Describe and include any other documents that have been incorporated by reference into the contract.)

Tamil

கட்டிட ஒப்பந்த உடன்பாடு

Last Update: 2015-11-08
Subject: Civil Engineering
Usage Frequency: 8
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English

mango tree historyMangos orginated in Southeast Asia and India, where references to the fruit are documented in Hindu writings dating back to 4000 B.C. Buddhist monks cultivated the fruit and in fact, the mango is considered to be a sacred fruit in the region because is is said that Buddha himself meditated under a mango tree. The mango belongs to the same family as the cashew and pistachio nut. Mango seeds traveled with humans from Asia to the Middle East, East Africa and South America beginning around 300 or 400 A.D. Mangos sold in the U.S. are grown near the equator in countries like. Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Guatemala and Haiti. Mangos have been grown in the U.S. for a little more than a century, but commercial, large-scale production here is limited. Because mangos need a tropical climate to flourish only Florida, California, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico grow mangos. The United States Territory of Puerto Rico has been producing mangos commercially for the last 30 years. Currently about 4,000 acres of mangos are being cultivated for export, but the majority of this crop goes to Europe rather than the mainland United States. In the Coachella Valley of California, around 200 acres of mangos are being produced, with about half of these being certified organic. Slow, gradual growth in mango acreage is expected in California, where the competition for suitable land is fierce. Mangos are susceptible to frost, and farmers who own appropriate land are hesitant to switch from tried and true crops such as grapes and citrus. In Hawaii, the estimated space devoted to mangos is around 300 acres and nearly all of this fruit will be sold locally. Many mango varieties have been cultivated in South Florida, as part of a seedling program initiated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and spearheaded by David Fairchild, founder of USDA’s Section of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction. The program focused on introducing mango varieties to the region, with the goal of producing mangos that could be exported. Over time, new varieties were developed, and some of these were introduced to growers in other parts of the world. Today, many of the popular varieties of mango grown around the world were derived from this program in Florida, including the Tommy Atkins, Haden, Keitt, and Kent. In fact, the Haden was a seedling of the Mulgoba, a seedling brought to Florida by the USDA from India during the late 1800s. While the mango industry in Florida thrived for some time after the mango’s introduction, its commercial acreage peeked at 7,000 acres in the early 1900s. The mango industry in Florida has since been diminished by freezes, urbanization, hurricanes and competition from other countries. Today, it’s estimated that less than 1000 acres of mangos are still in production, and most of these mangos are destined for local farmers’ and specialty markets. Meanwhile, backyard trees in Florida continue to thrive and bring joy to residents across the southern part of the state. In addition to these backyard mangos, Fairchild Tropical Gardens, named after David Fairchild, continues to cultivate mango varieties and work with mango growers all over the world. Fairchild is known for its annual International Mango Festival, which draws thousands of mango lovers each year to its Miami-area location in a celebration of all things mango. For more information on David Fairchild, and the Fairchild Tropical Gardens, visit - See more at: http://www.themangofactory.com/history/mango-history-2/#sthash.fSEQPQC3.dpuf

Tamil

மாமரத்தின் வரலாறு

Last Update: 2015-10-21
Subject: History
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

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