From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.
One of the biggest issues facing employers today is the safety of their employees. Workplace accidents are increasingly common. In 2003, for instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported a total of 4.4 million nonfatal workplace injuries in private industries. Organizations have a moral responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of their members. Organizational practices that promote safety can also help a company establish competitive advantage by reducing costs and complying with safety laws.
Workplace safety can be quite expensive. Unintentional injuries alone cost more than $146.6 billion per year for medical and insurance costs, workers' compensation, survivor benefits, lost wages, damaged equipment and materials, production delays, other workers' time losses, selection and training costs for replacement workers, and accident reporting.
State and federal governments strictly regulate organizational safety practices. The government views safety violations very seriously, and the penalties for violating safety laws can be quite severe. In addition to being issued large fines, employers who violate safety regulations can be held liable for criminal charges. The following examples illustrate the types of penalties associated with such violations:
In November of 2004, OSHA fined General Motors (GM) Powertrain plant in Massena, NY for six serious safety violations, including an obstructed exit route, inadequate guarding of moving machine parts, and the failure to assess the need for personal protective equipment for workers. There were additional fines for recordkeeping violations, specifically underreporting injuries and illnesses. The penalty was $160,000.
In September of 2004, a Weyerhaeuser plant in West Virginia was cited for improper reporting of injuries and illnesses to OSHA. The fine was $77,000 and the company had nine months to undergo an independent audit of their recordkeeping practices.
In July of 2004, OSHA issued a proposed fine against Fru-Con Construction Corp in the amount of $280,000 for the company's negligence which resulted in the deaths of four employees. An improperly secured 2 million pound, 315 foot long launching truss collapsed, killing the four employees.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF SAFETY
PRACTICES AT THE WORKPLACE
Federal laws regulate the safety practices of most organizations. We limit our discussion to laws that affect a majority of organizations, but note that several additional laws exist which cover particular segments of the workforce. For instance, numerous laws pertain to government contractors, to specific states, and to specific industries (e.g., transportation, nuclear power, food, and drug).
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is probably the most comprehensive and wide-ranging legislation in this area. It applies to nearly all U.S. workplaces. The act aims to ensure safe working conditions for every American worker by:
Setting and enforcing workplace safety standards;
Promoting employer-sponsored educational programs that foster safety and health; and
Requiring employers to keep records regarding job-related safety and health matters.
Three separate agencies were created by the act:
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) develop and enforce health and safety standards.
The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission hear appeals from employers who wish to contest OSHA rulings.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducts health and safety research to suggest new standards and update previous ones.
The following discussion focuses on the safety standards imposed by OSHA and how they are enforced. OSHA has issued literally thousands of safety and health standards. Areas of basic concern include fire safety, personal protection equipment, electrical safety, basic housekeeping, and machine guards. Each standard specifies such things as permissible exposure limit, monitoring requirements, methods of compliance, personal protective equipment, hygiene facilities, training, and record-keeping.
To comply with these standards, most mid- to large-sized organizations employ safety professionals to keep up with them and ensure that each is being met. These professionals face too many specific issues to mention here, but some of the most important issues they must address appear in Figure 1.
Figure 1 OSHAEmployee Responsibilities
Companies with more than ten employees are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Companies with fewer than ten employees are exempt from such inspections, but can be investigated if a safety-related problem is brought to the attention of OSHA. High-hazard industries, such as manufacturing firms, chemical companies, and construction companies, are subject to inspections regardless of the number of employees.
OSHA conducts inspections based on the following priority classifications, which are listed in order of importance:
Imminent danger. OSHA gives top priority to workplace situations that present an "imminent danger" of death or serious injury to employees. The company must take immediate corrective action.
Fatality or catastrophe investigations. The second highest priority is given to sites that have experienced an accident that has caused at least one employee to die or three or more to be hospitalized. Employers must report these events within 8 hours. The inspection aims to determine the cause of the accident and whether any violation of OSHA standards contributed to it.
Employee complaint investigations. OSHA responds third to employee complaints about hazards or violations. The speed with which OSHA responds depends on the seriousness of the complaint. Employees may request to remain anonymous.
Referrals from other sources. Consideration is given to referrals of hazard information from federal, state and local agencies, individuals, organizations, and the media.
Follow-ups. OSHA sometimes will return to verify that violations have been corrected.
General programmed inspections. OSHA will also inspect an organization if it is a high-hazard industry or has a lost workday injury rate that is above the national norm for that industry.
When an OSHA inspection reveals that an employer has violated one of its standards, it issues a citation. The citation, posted near the site of the violation, lists the nature of the violation, the abatement period (i.e., the time frame within which the company must rectify the problem), and any penalty levied against the employer. Willful violations (i.e., those that an employer intentionally and knowingly commits) carry a penalty of up to $70,000 for each offense. If a death occurs because of a willful violation, the employer may be both fined and imprisoned.
Congress enacted the Hazard Communication Standard (more commonly referred to as the Employee Right-to-Know Law) in 1984. This law gives workers the right to know what hazardous substances they are dealing with on the job. A substance is considered hazardous if exposure to it can lead to acute or chronic health problems. Federal and state agencies have compiled lists of more than 1,000 substances deemed hazardous under this law. The law requires all organizations to (1) develop a system for inventorying hazardous substances, (2) label the containers of these substances, and (3) provide employees with needed information and training to handle and store these substances safely.
Employers typically violate the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard more frequently than any other OSHA standard. The majority of companies are cited for failing to have:
written hazard communication programs
an up-to-date hazardous chemical inventory list
properly labeled chemical containers
material safety data at the work site, in the form of material safety data sheets (MSDS)
training programs for teaching employees about the chemicals they work with
Government fines for right-to-know violations may be as high as $1000 per chemical for first violations and $10,000 per chemical for second violations. Additional penalties for environmental crimes include fines up to $75,000 per day and imprisonment.
Another law affecting organizational safety and health practices is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). An individual is protected by the ADA if he or she is disabled, that is, if the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the individual's major life activities. According to the ADA regulations, temporary, non-chronic impairments that are short in duration and have little or no long-term impact are usually not considered disabilities under the act. For example, broken limbs, sprains, concussions, appendicitis, or influenza are not disabilities. However, if a broken leg did not heal properly and resulted in permanent impairment that significantly restricted walking or other major life activities, it could then be considered a disability.
In 2004, there were 15,376 total charges filed as ADA violations with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). From July 1992 (when the law first took effect) through the end of September 2004, employees filed 204,997 complaints with the EEOC. Employees who became disabled as the result of workplace conditions or injuries filed about half of these charges. Individuals with back impairments have lodged the greatest number of charges. People also frequently claimed emotional, neurological, and extremity impairments.
Penalties for ADA violations may be as high as $50,000 for initial violations and up to $100,000 for each subsequent violation. In addition, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 allows claimants to collect up to $300,000 in punitive damages for "willful" violations.
ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT
Despite laws designed to ensure safety at the workplace, U.S. companies' accident rates are alarmingly high. According to one estimate, employees lost eighty million workdays in 2002 from workplace injuries, and more than 3.7 million people suffered disabling injuries on the job that year.
What causes all of these industrial injuries? These causes can be divided into three categories: employee error, equipment insufficiency, and procedure insufficiency. Examples of causes falling within each category are listed here:
Employee error—misjudged situations; distractions by others; neuromuscular malfunctions; inappropriate working positions; and knowingly using defective equipment;
Equipment insufficiency—use of inappropriate equipment; safety devices being removed or inoperative; and the lack of such things as engineering controls, respiratory protection, and protective clothing;
Procedure insufficiency—failure of procedure for eliciting warning of hazard; inappropriate procedure for handling materials; failure to lock out or tag out; and a lack of written work procedures.
Workplace accidents pose serious problems for employees and for a firm's competitive advantage, but employers can prevent most of them. Many preventive strategies work.
Some people just seem to be accident prone. If some people do have inherent tendencies toward accidents, then organizations should be able to lower their accident rates by screening out accident-prone applicants. Research studies have discovered that individuals with certain personality characteristics are more likely than others to be involved in industrial accidents. For instance, one study found that people with higher accident rates tend to be impulsive and rebellious, and they tend to blame outside forces, rather than themselves, for their mishaps. Another study identified the following four "high-risk" personality characteristics:
Risk taking: high risk-takers actually seek out danger rather than trying to minimize or avoid it.
Impulsiveness: impulsive individuals fail to think through the consequences of their actions.
Rebelliousness: rebellious individuals tend to break established rules, including safety rules.
Hostility: hostile individuals tend to lose their tempers easily and thus engage in aggressive acts, such as kicking a jammed machine.
Many organizations now use personality tests to screen out individuals with accident-prone tendencies. For example, some companies use a test (called the Personnel Selection Inventory-Form 3S) to assess applicants' safety consciousness. One part of the test measures the degree to which individuals perceive a connection between their own behavior and its consequences. As noted earlier, individuals unable to see this connection are at greater risk for accidents.
Employers who provide all new employees with training on safe and proper job procedures experience fewer accidents. Employees should learn how to perform each of their tasks as safely as possible. Training should be very specific, as illustrated in the example that follows. This example covers the procedures to be followed by employees working at a large food manufacturing plant:
When picking up pans from the conveyor belt, pick up no more than two pans before you place them on the pan rack.
Stack roll pans no higher than the rear rail of the pan rack.
When you lift or lower the dough, keep both hands on the dump chain.
When you pull the dough trough away from the dough mixer, hold both hands on the front rail and not on the rail sides.
While safety training is essential, employees do not always apply what they have learned. Just as many automobile drivers know it is wrong to exceed legal speed limits, but do it anyway, workers may choose to ignore instructions and carry out procedures in their own, unsafe way. One way to mitigate this problem is to implement a safety incentive program. Such programs aim to motivate safe behavior by providing workers with incentives for avoiding accidents. The organization formulates safety goals (usually on a department-wide basis) and rewards employees if these goals are met. For example, a particular department may establish the goal of reducing lost-time accidents by 50 percent over the next three months. If this goal were to be met, all employees within that department would receive an incentive reward, usually in the form of a cash bonus or merchandise.
Safety incentive programs often work quite well. For example, Willamette Industries implemented a program because it was experiencing an average of thirty accidents per year that caused people to miss work. As a result of the program, the company went 450 days without a lost-time accident.
Two problems often arise with safety incentive programs, however. In some cases, workers get so caught up in trying to win incentive rewards that they conceal their injuries and do not report them. When injuries go unreported, injured workers relinquish their rights to workers' compensation and firms remain unaware of safety problems. Second, workers may continue to perform in an unsafe manner (e.g., take risky shortcuts) because they remain unconvinced that such behavior is likely to result in accidents. Unfortunately, these employees are grievously mistaken; unsafe behaviors are a leading cause of accidents. According to one estimate, for every 100,000 unsafe behaviors there are 10,000 near-miss accidents, 1,000 recordable accidents, 100 lost-time accidents, and 1 fatality.
Because employees who "know better" often continue to engage in accident-causing behavior, many employers have redirected their focus from accident prevention to the prevention of unsafe acts that could lead to an accident. To do so, firms conduct safety audits. A safety committee or supervisors who observe employees on the job and correct unsafe behaviors generally conduct such audits.
Each employee should be monitored according to a planned schedule, generally on a weekly basis, as follows:
STEP 1: OBSERVATION.
Stop in the work area for a few moments and observe worker's activities, looking for both safe and unsafe practices. Use the following guide:
Be alert to unsafe practices that the employee corrects immediately upon seeing you enter the area (putting on protective equipment, such as gloves or goggles).
Note whether appropriate protective clothing is being worn.
Observe how employees use tools.
Scrutinize the safety of the work area. For instance, is the floor slippery?
Determine whether rules, procedures, and operating instructions are being followed.
STEP 2: EMPLOYEE DISCUSSION.
These discussions should help employees recognize and correct their unsafe acts. When engaging in them, adhere to the following advice:
If you spot an unsafe act, be non-confrontational. Point out the violation and ask the worker to state what he or she was doing and what safety-related consequences may arise if such behavior continues. Your goal is to help, not blame. Audits should not result in disciplinary actions unless an individual consistently violates safety rules.
As you observe your employees, encourage them to discuss any safety concerns they may have and ask them to offer any ideas for safety improvement.
Commend any good performance that you observe.
STEP 3: RECORDING AND FOLLOW-UP.
Findings should be recorded in writing. Pursue any item discussed during the audit that requires follow-up.
Accident investigations determine accident causes so that changes can be made to prevent the future occurrence of similar accidents. "Near misses" should also be investigated so that problems can be corrected before serious accidents occur. Supervisors always play a key role in accident investigations. For minor accidents, investigation may be limited to the supervisor meeting with the injured worker and filing a report. In large-scale investigations, the supervisor is usually part of a team of experts, which may also include an engineer, maintenance supervisor, upper-level manager, and/or safety professional.
Accident investigations should be performed in the following manner. When an accident occurs, the investigator's first responsibility is to ensure the safety of all employees by:
making sure the injured are cared for and receive medical attention, if necessary;
guarding against a more dangerous secondary event by removing danger sources and evacuating other personnel from the area if necessary; and
restricting access to the area so no one else will be harmed, and so the scene will not be disturbed.
You should then begin an investigation to identify both the immediate and underlying causes of the accident. The immediate cause is the event that directly led to the accident, such as a slippery floor, failure to wear safety gear, or failure to follow proper procedures.
Immediate causes, while easily found, are not always very helpful in suggesting how future incidents of this nature can be avoided. To accomplish this aim, the investigator must discover the underlying cause of the accident. For example, suppose a worker slips and falls on spilled oil. The oil on the floor is the immediate cause of the accident, but you need to know why it was not cleaned up and why a machine was leaking oil in the first place. Poor training, lack of rule enforcement, low safety awareness, poor maintenance, or crowded work areas commonly underlie accidents.
The investigator should ensure the accident scene is kept intact until the investigation is finished, as this will be the only chance to view the scene exactly as it was at the time of the accident. If a camera is available, photographs of the scene should be taken. Nothing related to the incident should be destroyed or discarded. The investigator should inspect the location (e.g., check for chemicals, broken pieces of machinery) and interview injured or affected workers, eyewitnesses, and anyone else who may be familiar with the accident area. Interviews should be conducted immediately, while the incident is still fresh in everyone's mind. Individuals should give their own account of the incident; by letting them tell their stories wi
The Christian’s Highest Occupation
Alfred P. Gibbs
Copyright © 1950
THE MEANING OF WORSHIP: THE Holy PERFUME
As we further think of the definition of worship, let us now consider:
6. The Holy Perfume (Exodus 30:34-38)
This very beautiful picture of worship is given to us as part of God’s revelation to Moses in
regard to the Tabernacle, concerning which He had said: “Make me a sanctuary, that I may
dwell among them” (Exodus 25:18). Minute instructions were given regarding the details of its
furnishings, and we find God repeatedly saying to Moses: “And look that thou make them
after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount” (Exodus 25:9; 40:26, 30; 27:8, cp.
“And the Lord said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and
galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight:
And thou shalt make it a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered
together, pure and holy: And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the
testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with thee: it shall be unto
you most holy. And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to
yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto thee holy for the Lord.
Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people”
Three things impress themselves on the mind as one reads this passage regarding the holy
(1) The Exclusive Use of It (verses 37-38)
It was reserved solely for use in the worship of God in the sanctuary. God expressly forbade its
manufacture for any other purpose. The obvious inference from this is that worship belongs to
God alone, and that He will share this honor with none. David, “the sweet Psalmist of Israel,” by
the Spirit’s inspiration wrote: “He is thy Lord, worship thou him . . . Exalt ye the Lord our
God, and worship at his footstool, for he is holy . . . O come, let us worship and bow down:
Let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker” (Psalm 45:11; 99:5; 95:6).
It will be recalled that the first demand of the law was: “Thou shalt have no other gods before
me . . . for I, the Lord thy God, am a jealous God” (Exodus 20:3-5).
There is no substitute for spiritual worship. It is the unique right, the sole property, and the
exclusive privilege of God Himself and He will not tolerate any rival. Idolatry, in its essence, is
simply that by which man seeks to displace God, or which attempts to relegate Him to a position
of secondary importance. An idol is anything that a man worships in his heart, to the exclusion of
God. It was because of the idolatrous apostasy of Israel that God:
- Set Israel aside nationally,
- Allowed them to go into captivity,
- Scattered them to the four corners of the earth. (See II Kings 17:7-18; II Chronicles 36:14-17).
We do well to pay good heed to the Divine dictum: “I am the Lord, that is my name, and my
glory will I not give to another” (Isaiah 42:8). He alone claims the title of, “Holy and
Reverend” (Psalm 111:9).
There is always the subtle danger of becoming more occupied with:
- The visible, than the invisible;
- With the temporal, than the eternal;
- With an outward and formal ceremony, than an inward and spiritual reality.
There can therefore be no substitute for spiritual worship:
- However ornate may be the ritual,
- Or gorgeous the vestments,
- Or beautiful the building,
- Or well phrased the prayers,
- Or smoothly conducted the service.
Undoubtedly all this has an appeal to the esthetic senses, and is well pleasing to the flesh, for
man is naturally religious; but it is not spiritual, and consequently cannot please God.
(2) The Ingredients that Formed it (verses 34-36)
Four ingredients, compounded in equal proportions, composed this perfume, and each part was
necessary to the whole. These ingredients were stacte, onycha, galbanum and frankincense. Each
of these four things has a typical significance which we shall not dwell on now.
Let us think of them as four elements which, when compounded together in the heart of the
believer, as he sits in the presence of God, causes the perfume of his worship to ascend to the
Father and the Son.
The first ingredient is remembrance.
It is good for the believer to use his memory to recall what he used to be by nature, and
what he now is, by God’s matchless grace.
The words of Paul to the saints at Ephesus are pertinent to this:
“Wherefore remember that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh . . . but now, in Christ
Jesus . . . are made nigh” (Ephesians 2:11, 13).
Let each Christian call to mind his black past, when he was without God, without Christ, without
life and without hope. Then let him contrast this with his present acceptance in the Beloved,
together with all the spiritual blessings that are now his present and eternal possession. Surely the
result of such remembrance will cause him to life his heart in adoration to the One who made this
so blessedly actual to his experience.
His memory should also be focused on the Person and work of the Lord Jesus Himself. The
purpose of the Lord ’s Supper, as indicated by the Lord Himself is: “This do in remembrance
In view of this, worship will become an essential feature of such a meeting, for worship is
kindled upon the fires of remembrance. As David puts it: “While I was musing, the fire
burned; then spake I with my tongue” (Psalm 39:3).
It is memory that enables us to recall the record of His matchless life, as given in the holy
The Christian should therefore concentrate upon:
- Christ’s wondrous words,
- His mighty deeds,
- His perfect and holy character,
- His absolute obedience to the father’s will,
- His infinite grace in going to the cross,
- His completed work of redemption accomplished by the sacrifice of Himself,
- His victorious resurrection,
- His glorious ascension,
- His present ministry as the great HIGH PRIEST of His people.
As he does so, the believer’s heart will warm within him, and his worship shall rise to God as a
The second ingredient is gratitude.
As memory recalls all that God is and has done, the heart responds, even as the strings of a harp
break forth into song beneath the skilful hands of a master musician. We have before noted that
the gratitude of the believer delights the heart of the Father.
Socrates, the great Grecian philosopher, declared that gratitude was the greatest of all the virtues,
and ingratitude the basest of all the vices.
A study of the great worship hymns indicate how great a part gratitude plays in their
composition. Hannah Burlington beautifully expresses it thus:
“The knowing this, that us He loves,
Hath made our cup run o’er;
Jesus, Thy name our spirit moves,
Today and evermore.”
The “Ter Stegen” hymns are amongst the finest we have. One of them, by Ernst C. Homburg,
written nearly 300 years ago, is redolent with gratitude:
“O Lord, from my heart I do thank Thee
For all Thou hast borne in my room,
Thine agony, dying unsolaced,
Alone in the darkness of doom,
That I, in the glory of Heaven,
For ever and ever might be --
A thousand, a thousand thanksgivings
I bring, blessed Saviour, to Thee!”
The third ingredient is reverence.
This is produced as the soul apprehends, in some measure at least:
- The greatness of God,
- The majesty of His Divine character,
- The glory of His unique attributes,
As displayed in His
We are living in an age characterized largely by cynicism, flippancy and lightness regarding
The modern trend is to humanize Deity and deify humanity, and that has not aided in man’s
concept of God. One has only to read the Scriptures to discover that whenever a person was
brought consciously into the presence of God, it filled him with a holy awe, humbled him in the
dust and produced a deep reverence for God.
Moses, the great leader of Israel, was taught this lesson many times. At God’s first revelation to
him at the burning bush, the voice of Jehovah said: “Draw not nigh hither; put thy shoes from
off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5).
At God’s revelation to him on the mount, in response to his request to see God’s glory, God gave
him a vision of Himself. At this august spectacle we read: “Moses made haste, and bowed his
head towards the earth, and worshipped” (Exodus 34:8).
Isaiah, whose magnificent concept of Deity has thrilled the hearts of the people of God for
twenty-five centuries, had to lay to heart this essential requirement. In chapter six of his
prophecy, he describes the vision he had of the glory of God which completely revolutionized his
life. This sight not only filled him with a sense of his own littleness, uncleanness and
insufficiency, but indelibly impressed upon him God’s greatness, holiness and power.
Daniel, “the man of desires,” tells us that when he saw the majestic vision of God: “There
remained no strength in me, for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption and I
retained no strength” (Daniel 10:5-11).
We could add others to this list, but these will suffice to indicate how necessary it is that godly
reverence accompany all our dealings with Divine things.
This reverence must always be present if our worship is to be acceptable to the One who is
described as “The high and lofty One, who inhabiteth eternity,” and who hath declared: “Let
all the earth fear the Lord: Let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him” (Psalm
Familiarity with God can never produce contempt, for those who know Him best, love and fear
Him most. The more God impresses the soul with His Person, the greater that individual is filled
with holy awe as he stands in the presence of Him, before Whose eyes “all things are open and
naked” (Hebrews 4:13).
It should be obvious that humility of mind, sobriety of manner, and sincerity of spirit are
essential to and fitting in the presence of the One who said: “Ye shall . . . reverence my
sanctuary. I am the LORD” (Leviticus 19:30).
The fourth ingredient is amazement.
We have before indicated that worship has, as one of its basic requirements, the element of
wonder. He who ceases to wonder, ceases to worship.
The hymn writer has put it thus:
“I stand amazed in the presence
Of Jesus the Nazarene,
And wonder how He could love me,
A sinner, condemned, unclean!
O how wonderful! O how marvelous!
And my song shall ever be,
O how wonderful! O how marvelous!
Is my Saviour’s love to me!”
One of the many titles of Deity is “Wonderful.”
Everything about the Almighty takes upon itself this character. As the believer thinks of the
wonder of His Person, His creation, His word, His Son, His love, His salvation and of each
Christian’s blessedness, he is led to exclaim with another:
“That Thou should love a wretch like me,
And be the God Thou art,
Is darkness to my intellect,
But sunshine to my heart!”
(3) The Purpose of It.
It was for God’s pleasure and for His glory. These ingredients, equally compounded together,
combined to produce a perfume which ascended to God in a fragrant stream and brought great
pleasure to Him. Likewise, when a believer sits in the presence of God, with an equal measure of
remembrance, gratitude, reverence and amazement well compounded in his heart, there will
undoubtedly rise, from the censer of his soul, a silver stream of humble, reverent, sincere and
adoring worship to his God and Father, and to the Lord Jesus Christ.
This, in turn, will delight God’s heart, for it fulfils His desire for the worship of His people. This
was expressed by His Son in these words: “The hour cometh, and now is, when the true
worshippers shall worship the Father in Spirit and in truth; for the Father seeketh such to worship
him” (John 4:23)
Our last consideration, under the heading of the meaning of worship, is:
7. The Root Meaning of the Word in the Old Testament
Those that understand such things have affirmed that the root meaning of the Hebrew word
carries the thought of “a dog to its master.”
As one approaches the town of Hartsdale from the city of New York, he will observe, to his left,
an animal cemetery. It is perhaps the most ornate in the world. Beneath marble monuments,
some costing hundreds of dollars, like the remains of pet animals and even birds.
Many of these tombstone’s bear sentimental epitaphs, such as: “Momsie’s only baby.”
Others are grotesque, as one over a dog which reads: “He cannot come to us, be we can go to
However, there is one epitaph that stands out from them all.
It is of a dog whose master caused to be inscribed: “To the memory of Bruce, the devoted
servant, faithful friend, warm admirer, and ardent worshipper of his master.” Then follows the
name of its owner. Does this not aptly describe what a dog is? Dogs have been described, and not
without some cause, as “man’s best friend.”
A cynic once remarked: “The more I know of human beings, the better I appreciate dogs!”
Let us use an illustration to clarify this point.
We will suppose that a man, warmly clad, ventures forth on a blustery and bitterly cold night.
The temperature is below zero, and the streets are practically deserted. Presently he sees a poor,
neglected, shivering and half starved cur, sheltering behind a telephone pole from the biting
wind. Some cruel boys have tied a can to its tail, and it has been kicked from pillar to post, until
now it is almost at the end of its tether. It will never survive a night like this on the streets.
The man pauses and looks the dog over. What a pitiable sight it is: thin, miserable, frightened,
homeless, hungry and on its last legs!
His compassion is stirred and, yielding to the impulse of the moment, he stoops down, reaches
out his hand and calls to the dog. Suspicious as first, for the dog has good reasons for distrusting
mankind, it gradually approaches, until at length it comes under his hand. The man pats it on the
head, strokes it, all the while speaking kindly words. Then, after removing the string and the can
from its tail, he lifts it up, opens his overcoat, pops it in, and carries it back to his home.
When he enters his home he says to his wife:
“I’ve found a poor starving dog on the street, that will surely die tonight, unless it finds a home.
Please put a sack in the corner of the kitchen and we’ll take care of it for at least tonight.”
Accordingly, the dog is gently placed on the sack, and a delicious bowl of hot bread and milk is
given it, followed by some scraps from the evening meal. For the first time in many days the dog
wags its tail in gratitude for this unusual kindness. The next morning it greets its benefactors
with another friendly wag of its tail, and they decide to give it a permanent home.
A month passes by, and what a wonderful change it produces in that dog! As a result of good
food and proper care, one would scarcely recognize the fine looking animal as that miserable
starving cur of four weeks ago.
One evening, as the man is sitting in an easy chair, with one hand hanging over the arm of the
chair, he suddenly feels something warm and wet on his hand. Glancing down he sees the dog
looking up at him with adoring eyes as, again and again, it licks the hand of the one to whom it
owes everything. The dog had not come into the room to beg for a bone, or even to be petted.
It wanted nothing from its owner but the privilege of sitting in his presence, so that it might look
at him with rapt, adoring eyes and, every now and then, to enjoy the privilege of licking the hand
of the one whom it loved above all others.
This is worship.
Now apply this to the believer, who once was a lost, guilty and helpless sinner, deserving
only the judgment of a holy God.
- Through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ,
- By faith in His substitutionary sacrifice and glorious resurrection,
- By acceptance of Him as Saviour and Lord,
He has been:
- Brought into a place of acceptance, provision and security.
Surely it is not too much for the Lord to expect that His people, saved as such an infinite cost,
will want, like that dog, to come into His presence in order to be occupied only with the One
whom, “having not seen, they love” with all their hearts. May it be yours and mine to know
something, by experience, of the real meaning and nature of worship, and thus fulfil His purpose
in our salvation.
The words of Miss C.A. Wellesley will form a fitting conclusion to this section of our study:
“Occupied with Thee, Lord Jesus, in Thy grace;
All Thy ways and thoughts about me
Deeper stories of the glories
Of Thy grace.
Taken up with Thee Lord Jesus I would be;
Finding joy and satisfaction
All in Thee;
Thou the nearest and the dearest
~ end of chapter 5 ~
Creative, verbally expressive, happy, imaginative, sociable, friendly, joyful, charming.
Faddish, gloomy, pessimistic, hostile, gossipy, snobbish.
Life Path Number Meaning
Enthusiastic, creative, energetic, optimistic, friendly, happy disposition, gift of gab
Your Name Indicates
You are sociable, friendly, outgoing, kind, positive, and optimistic. You enjoy life and have a good sense of humor.
More about you
As a 3 life Path, you possess great talent in creativity and self-expression. Many writers, poets, actors and musicians are born under the 3 life Path. You are witty, possess a gift for gab and savor the limelight. Your talent for the expressive arts is so abundant that you may have felt drawn to becoming an artist at a very young age. However, your artistic abilities can only mature through discipline and commitment to the true development of your talent. Thanks to your gift of self-expression; you can be the life of a party and the center of attention. However, you could easily squander your talent by becoming a social butterfly. Your creativity is a gift that can give you the comfort and luxury you desire, but not without continual focus and discipline. You are optimistic, and you posses the resilience to overcome many setbacks. You are socially active, popular and inspire people with your happy-go-lucky attitude. You can be generous to a fault. Many people born under the 3 life paths have difficulty handling money, because they can be disorganized, and not particularly serious about their responsibilities. You are emotional and vulnerable. When hurt, you withdraw into a clause of silence, eventually emerging from you reticence with jokes and laughter that cover up your true feelings. You can become moody and cynical when depressed. You can succumb to sarcastic remarks, which can be painful to those around you. When used positively, your talent for self-expression can be a great inspirational force in the world, uplifting others, and bringing much success and happiness to you.
This project presents a new resonant dual active bridge (DAB) topology, which uses a tuned inductor–capacitor–inductor (LCL) network. In comparison to conventional DAB topologies, the proposed topology significantly reduces the bridge currents, lowering both conduction and switching losses and the VA rating associated with the bridges. The performance of the DAB is investigated using a mathematical model under various operating conditions. Results clearly indicate that the proposed DAB topology offers higher efficiency over a wide range of both input voltage and load in comparison to conventional DAB topologies.
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