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English

Sea level

Tamil

கடல் மட்டம்

Last Update: 2014-09-19
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

Voice log level

Tamil

குரல் பதிவு அளவு

Last Update: 2014-09-01
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Low encryption level

Tamil

குறைந்த குறியாக்க நிலை

Last Update: 2013-10-16
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Multi-level marketing

Tamil

படி நிலை சந்தைப்படுத்துதல்

Last Update: 2015-06-10
Usage Frequency: 7
Quality:
Reference:

English

crp cholinesterase normal level

Tamil

CRP கோலினெஸ்டெரேஸ் சாதாரண நிலை

Last Update: 2017-03-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

essay for grades 9 level

Tamil

essay for grade 9 level

Last Update: 2015-07-23
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Sample Written Program For INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 1 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY PROGRAM The following safety policy is provided only as a guide to assist employers and employees in complying with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 and 1926, as well as to provide other helpful information. It is not intended to supersede the requirements of the standards. An employer should review the standards for particular requirements which are applicable to their individual situation and make adjustments to this program that are specific to their company. An employer will need to add information relevant to their particular facility in order to develop an effective, comprehensive program. 2 Industrial Safety Program For (Company Name) TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC Safety & Health Policy Statement Safety & Health Goals New Employee Orientation Safety & Training Employee Responsibilities Accident Investigation/Reporting Personal Protective Equipment Safety Rules Safety Committee Emergency Action Plan Safety Discipline Employee Confirmation 3 SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY STATEMENT XYZ Manufacturing Company believes that NO JOB OR TASK IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY. If a job represents a potential safety or health threat, every effort will be made to plan a safe way to complete the task in a safe manner. Every procedure must be a safe procedure. Shortcuts in safe procedures by management and all other associates will not be tolerated. If a worker observes any unsafe or unprotected exposure, which may pose a potential threat to their safety & health, he or she must inform management immediately. If a job can not be done safely…………..It will not be done. Every employee is entitled to a safe and healthful place in which to work. _______________________ President 4 SAFETY & HEALTH GOALS The following goals have been established for XYZ Manufacturing Company: (1) Provide workers with a safe work environment. (2) Conduct routine/regular workplace inspections. (3) Provide Personal Protective Equipment. (4) Develop and implement safe work procedures and rules. (5) Provide on-going safety training (6) Enforce safety rules and appropriate discipline. (7) Provide on-going property conservation practices. 5 NEW EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION All new employees must attend our Safety Orientation Session prior to starting work within their assigned area. This session will be conducted under the direction of the Safety Director and in coordination with Human Resources. Upon completion of the Safety Orientation Session, each new employee will be required to acknowledge that they have received, understand, and will abide by the XYZ Company Safety Program. All participants must sign a statement verifying that they have completed the session. This report will be filed in the employee’s personnel file. The following topics will be covered in the Safety Orientation Session:  Company History  Safety Program/Policy & Work rules  Responsibilities  Safety Education/Training  Safety Audit/Inspections  Accident Reporting/Investigation Requirements  First Aid & Bloodborne Pathogens  Personal Protective Equipment  Tool & Equipment Use  Material Handling  Lockout-Tagout  Machine Guarding  MVR Requirements  Hazard Communication  Emergency Action  Return-to-work & Light Duty Assignments All new hires will be provided an opportunity to ask any question that pertains to their job duties and employment at XYZ Manufacturing Company. 6 SAFETY & TRAINING All in-house Safety & Training sessions will be coordinated by (Name of Safety Director). Foremen and Assistant Foremen are required to be trained in Accident Investigation Procedures by the Safety Director. Operators of forklift trucks are to be trained in-house in accordance with federal/state requirements. Operators must attend classroom instruction as well as “behind the wheel training”. All employees who work with, or are exposed to, hazardous chemicals are to be trained in Hazard Communication, in accordance with federal and state regulations. All employees who don respirators are to be trained in accordance with federal and state regulations. Those individuals who don respirators are required to have annual physicals. Machine operators and maintenance personnel are to be trained in Lockout/Tagout procedures. Individual locks/keys will be assigned to those individuals participating in the LOTO program. All employees who don Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) will be trained in the proper use of such equipment. First-aid training and Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) training will be conducted by (Name of Hospital) and the local chapter of the American Red Cross. Machine/Equipment operators are to be trained in-house. Emphasis is to be placed on point of operation guarding. No employee is allowed to operate a machine unless it is properly guarded. Employees who operate company vehicles are required to participate in an in-house Defensive Driving Program. 7 All production, shipping, and warehouse employees are required to attend a 4 hour in-house safety training session on an annual basis. This partial day session is held each January in the conference room. The Safety Director will decide the topic material; however each annual session is to place emphasis on material handling and machine guarding. All employees, at time of hire, are to be trained in Emergency Action and proper evacuation of building in case of an emergency. Each employee is to be given instruction/training on where to exit and where to locate in the event of an emergency. Foremen and Assistant Foremen are to meet with the Safety Director on a quarterly basis to discuss training needs and goals. 8 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES Each employee is responsible to follow established polices and procedures. Regular attendance is required of all. Following directions is critical. Responsibility does not end with just taking care of you. Unsafe working conditions and acts must be reported to management. It is the responsibility of each employee to work in a professional and safe manner. 9 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION/REPORTING All injuries/illnesses must be reported to management as soon as possible. It is the policy of XYZ Manufacturing Company to have all injuries/illnesses investigated by Foremen or Assistant Foremen within 24 hours of incident. A formal Accident Investigation Form (available from the Safety Director) must be forwarded to the Safety Director as soon as possible. It is important that all incidents be reported, no matter how slight. Any property/liability loss claim must also be reported to management as soon as possible. The Safety Director will conduct a loss investigation of all property/liability claims. 10 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes all clothing and accessories designed to protect against workplace hazards. In some situations the only available protection for employees will be the use of PPE and often in emergencies, PPE will be required for the safety of the workers. As required by federal and state regulations, personal protective equipment is essential for the protection of eyes, ears, face and other body parts when working around hazardous machinery and equipment. All PPE must meet established standards (ANSI, NIOSH, OSHA, etc). All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided by XYZ Manufacturing Company. Employees are not allowed to provide their own PPE unless authorized by the Safety Director. As a general rule, only company provided PPE is allowed. Hazard Assessments have been completed throughout the production and warehouse areas of XYZ Manufacturing Company. PPE is required in the following areas: Warehouse All employees and visitors are required to wear approved hard hats and eye protection. Steel-toed shoes/boots required of warehouse workers. Welding Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Approved hard hats required of all welders. Approved hearing protection required of all welders. Welders are also required to don approved PPE in the form of goggles, helmet, leather coat, apron, steel-toed work boot, gloves, no cuff pants and other 11 equipment as deemed necessary by the Safety Director. Mechanical ventilation is required at all welding stations. Paint Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Spray painters are required to wear company provided work clothing (disposable shirt/pants). Approved respirators are required during those times when spray painting, mixing, or clean-up is taking place. Steel-toed boots/shoes required of paint sprayers. All spray painting is to be conducted within the paint spray booth. Mechanical ventilation system is to be in operation when spray painting takes place. General Production Areas Approved eye protection required of all who enter shop. Visitor glasses (eye protection) are available in main office as well as next to loading dock door and warehouse entrance. XYZ Manufacturing Company will reimburse employee (maximum - $100) each 24 months for the purchase of approved steel-toed boot/shoe. XYZ Manufacturing Company will provide prescription eye wear (approved safety eye protection) for those individuals requesting same. See Safety Director for additional information. 12 SAFETY RULES All safety rules must be obeyed. Failure to do so will result in strict disciplinary action.  All injuries must be reported as soon as possible.  No horseplay, alcohol, or drugs allowed on premises.  No alcohol usage allowed during lunch break.  PPE must be worn as prescribed by management.  All tools/equipment must be maintained in good condition.  Only appropriate tools shall be used for specific jobs.  All guards must be kept in place.  No spliced electrical cords/wiring allowed.  Only authorized personnel can operate forklift vehicles.  Smoking allowed only in lunchroom.  Seat belt use required of all drivers/passengers.  All OSHA Safety Standards will be followed for job processes requiring respiratory protection. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Lockout/Tagout of energized equipment will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Hazard Communications will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM. 13  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Forklift Safety will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN FORKLIFT SAFETY PROGRAM. *These sample written safety programs can be found on the Frankenmuth Safety Services Website. They can be downloaded as a PDF or Microsoft Word file. 14 SAFETY COMMITTEE The primary purpose of the Safety Committee is to promote safety awareness and reduce the potential for injury/loss throughout XYZ Manufacturing Company. The Safety Committee is to be chaired by the Safety Director and include representatives from each department (total number of committee members not to exceed five individuals). Members can be volunteers or appointed. Membership is limited to two terms (1 year each) during any four year period. Meetings are to be scheduled, when possible, for the same day each month (2nd Tuesday of each month – 2:00 p.m.). All meetings are to take place in the conference room. Each meeting should have a set agenda and minutes of each meeting recorded. A copy of the minutes shall be forwarded to the Executive Vice-President within 48 hours of meeting. Each Safety Committee Meeting shall include a review of the prior month’s minutes as well as a review of the prior month’s injury/illness log and investigations of losses/claims. Past injuries/claims/losses need to be reviewed for any patterns or trends. General functions of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Identifying workplace hazards (2) Enforcement of Safety Rules (3) Measuring safety performance (4) Reducing frequency/severity of injuries (5) Creating safety policies (6) Developing and monitoring safety programs Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Conducting self-inspections of the workplace 15 (2) Review employee reports of hazards (3) Assist in safety training (4) Creating safety incentive programs (5) Publish/distribute safety newsletter (6) Inspect PPE (7) Post safety posters/slogans on bulletin board (8) Identify Light Duty Jobs The Safety Committee of XYZ Manufacturing Company was formed to promote safety throughout our organization. The benefits of a Safety Committee are numerous and XYZ Manufacturing believes that this is a forum for problem solving. The Safety Committee has an open door policy and welcomes suggestions. 16 EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN The Emergency Action Plan (EAP) is in place to ensure employee safety from fire and other emergency. At the time of an emergency, all employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some emergencies total and immediate evacuation will be necessary. In other emergencies only partial evacuation may be necessary. When a fire is detected it is necessary that the fire alarm pull station be activated as soon as possible. The fire alarm will notify the emergency response team who will perform assigned duties. The activation of the alarm will also notify the local fire department. In the event of bomb threat, toxic chemical release, hazardous weather, or other emergencies – notification will be made over the public address system. In the event of fire, bomb threat, or toxic chemical release; employees are to proceed to the nearest available and safe exit and leave the building as soon as possible. Floor plans (maps) and exits have been posted in each department. It is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Shop and Warehouse employees are to meet in the __________ Parking Lot on _______ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of _________ and ________ Street. Office employees are to meet in the __________ Parking lot on __________ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of __________ and __________ Street. 17 In the event of Weather emergencies all employees (and visitors) are to evacuate their assigned area and report to the lower level bomb shelter. Again, it is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Supervisors within each area shall take a head count at the designated meeting areas. It is the responsibility of each supervisor to advise fire and police departments of any missing persons. There will be evacuation training each April and October (full evacuation to designated areas). 18 SAFETY DISCIPLINE Management personnel at all levels are responsible for taking action when a violation is observed. If a violation is observed, they must take action immediately to correct the violation and enforce this disciplinary policy. Employees who fail to follow safety rules and regulations established to protect them and their fellow employees endanger themselves and others. Visitors and contractors on site are also required to abide by the safety rules and regulations. The following procedures will be followed when a violation is observed: FIRST VIOLATION* Verbal warning with written confirmation in personnel file. SECOND VIOLATION* Written warning and ½ day suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). THIRD VIOLATION* Written warning and one week suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). FOURTH VIOLATION* Termination (written confirmation in personnel file). 19 *As warranted by type of violation (use of drugs/alcohol, criminal activity, etc.) termination of employment may take place after any such violation. EMPLOYEE CONFIRMATION OF SAFETY PROGRAM This is to certify that I, ___________________________________, have read and will observe the safety practices as outlined in this booklet and other rules presented to me during my employment with XYZ Manufacturing Company. I understand that the safety practices listed are not the only procedures and/or rules that I will be called upon to follow. I also understand that it is a requirement of my employment that any injury/illness be reported to my supervisor immediately. SIGNED _________________________________________ WITNESS ________________________________________ DATE _______________________ This form to be filed in personnel file The information and suggestions contained in this material have been developed from sources believed to be reliable. However, Frankenmuth accepts no legal responsibility for the correctness or completeness of this material, or its application to specific factual situations.

Tamil

தமிழ் தொழில்துறை பாதுகாப்பு பற்றிய கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2017-03-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 31
Quality:

Reference:
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English

Did you know that we are one of the most literate states in India? With over 80% of our population being literate, we have the highest student population in the country right from primary education to higher education. Did you know that our Gross Enrollment Ratio i.e. learners coming to join, in primary and higher education is 100%? These are no small achievements. We have worked hard to be here. When we took the reins of governance in 1969, Tamil Nadu’s literacy was pegged at 39%. Today, with a lot of progressive measures introduced into methods of education, you the students of Tamil Nadu, are ready to become global citizens. DMK has been at the forefront in launching and improvising on many path-breaking schemes that provide holistic support to students viz., Mid-day Meal Scheme Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Girls education Computer education Integrated Education for the Disabled (IED) Program of Education for Girls at Elementary Level Distribution of free text books Distribution of free uniforms Distribution of free bus pass Many states and the Government at the Centre have taken a leaf out of our initiatives and implementation methods, and have created their schemes. The DMK is respected across India, for its organizational abilities and its definitive determination to carry out welfare schemes to fruition. At a personal level, I always believe that: Education is the harbinger of hope to millions. It’s a basic right – Not something one has to fight for. At the headquarters, there are often brain storming sessions to come up with schemes and measures to ensure that this basic right expands and becomes holistic in implementation -Whether it’s our free uniform, free text books and free bus pass schemes or noon meal scheme with focus on nutrition or the Samacheer Kalvi initiative – we’ve always worked for equality and enablement, across sections of students. Have we achieved everything? Not really. Because with every new generation, there come new avenues of opportunities. That implies a new wave of learning that must be embedded into the system, so that everyone can tap these opportunities. Today, it is a reality that we cease to exist, if we don’t have a grasp of the virtual world – The world of technology and internet. As students some of you are already using technology in a big way, at home and at schools. For those who are using it, do remember that there are many of your brothers and sisters across the state who either do not have access, but if they do, do not have the skills to access. Is access restricted because of lack of physical infrastructure viz., computers, laptops, phones? No. To a large extent, DMK’s welfare measures have ensured that most students have access to technology, along with nutrition and healthcare. But what needs to be done is putting this to good use; bridging the digital divide among urban and rural children; providing access to learning systems that can change the way the future citizens of Tamil Nadu perceive their empowerment. When I think of today’s students, this is the most defining thought that dominates my mind. Even all those who use computers, may not understand the impact of technology and how it has changed the way we think, work and live. Now think about all those who do not have access to these. We are slowly heading to a situation that is creating a huge digital divide among us. If there is one challenge that we must combat at this state, then it must be the challenge of bridging this digital divide. Unlike leadership of the party in power, at the DMK, we understand that reaching laptops to students is not going to do them any good – But, enabling them with the right skills to put technology to use will empower them as learners.Even here, the software is more important than the hardware. But what I see is that most students do not know to use the laptop, because no training has been provided on the operating system and applications. Not having access to applications in Tamil is a huge deterrent. What does this mean? It is a clear denial of access to information and hence knowledge to rural and non-English literate students. This is creating another platform for inequality And this is a basic tenet that is against the very DMK ideology. But, we are working on combating this too. I request all of you – my dear cadre and students to do your bit to bridge the digital divide. Join us in our efforts to reach computing and technology access to a section of people who need it more for learning and information, than for entertainment. All those Smart Students who understand the power of learning through mobile phones and computers, do reach me with your idea. The DMK Youth Wing will support your idea of online or offline methodologies, if we can enable Tamil-based learning through technology. We welcome developers who work on Mobile Apps and Technology platforms to enable Tamil computing. Do you have something to share with us? Reach me, and we like to evaluate your App. Join us in our efforts to enrich the educational needs of students from Tamil Nadu.

Tamil

என் நினைவு மொழிபெயர்க்க

Last Update: 2016-11-09
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

In internet security it is important to ensure the authentication and digital certificates of network for providing most secure transmission on network. In order to achieve the privacy throughout the network we propose a public key infrastructure based environment which provides certificate authority, certificate revocation process. For these multi certificates PKI (MCPKI) which supports user self-services, such as certificates spontaneous substitution as well as self-reissue after self-revocation. We concentrate on both RSA and digital signature for verifying the nodes trustworthiness. Our simulation results shows that the proposed RSA cryptographic technique provides high level secure transmission than existing system. The use of PKC in sensor networks has been usually considered as nearly impossible. For achieving secure and efficient network, we propose our own energy efficient and scalable PKI for WSNs. This is accomplished by taking advantage of heterogeneous sensor networks and elliptic curve cryptography. The goal of PKI is to protect and distribute information that is needed in a widely distributed environment. It integrates the functions of digital certificate, PKC and Certificate authorities. Our proposed PKI is analyzed in terms of security, energy efficiency, and scalability.

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-09-28
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

1. Working together…work safely if everyone is moving forward together and taking responsibility for their safe work environment then our safety takes care of itself. 2. Visualize, Internalize and Realize that safety depends on you so focus on safety every day and you’ll find that you’re Safe actions will bring lasting satisfaction. 3. There are no guarantees when it comes to safety unless you are doing your part so turn your attention to accident prevention and stay alert to the possible hazards in your work environment so that you can take steps to correct or guard against them. 4. We all find ourselves in situations that at times seem hopeless. And, we all have the choice to do nothing or take action. Your actions could save lives, so don’t be a bystander when it comes to safety. 5. A Great Work Practice is To Concentrate on the task(s) at hand. Distractions, boredom or fatigue can lead to accidents and other safety hazards. Always remember a danger foreseen is half avoided 6. The lesson for the day is time runs out on luck; obeying safety rules will save us from having to learn this lesson the hard way. 7. No project, no matter how critical, is worth a lost finger, a blinded eye, or tragic loss of life. When safety becomes the primary guideline for progress, all parties reap the rewards of a job well done and done safely. 8. Lead your teams by example in following all established safety procedures for alone we can do so little, but together we can do so much. 9. Prevent the worst and Put safety first, because being Safe today will keep you Alive tomorrow. 10. How do you spell Safety? Safety Means Always Remember Teamwork 11. Safety a culture to live by; Communication Urge Leadership Teamwork Understanding RecognitionEmpowerment 12. OUR STRENGTH IS THE SUM OF THE INDIVIDUALS WHO WORK HERE PRACTICE SAFETY ALWAYS 13. Safety is about doing the right thing, even if no one is looking, because safety starts with me! 14. People, helping people all lending hands for our safety. 15. The difference between a safe act and an unsafe act depends on the level of importance one places on doing what is right. 16. The safety of our team members should always come before the production of our parts. 17. “Winning at safety is like winning in sports. It’s not the effort of one person, but the focus and determination of the entire team working towards a common goal. You have to get out and give it your best, every single day” 18. If you put good people in bad systems you get bad results so let us always remember to promote safety in all we do as to ensure our system works so our Team members will always be safe! 19. When it comes to safety lets us never leave a team member behind for it is the responsibility of all that everyone goes home safe to their families. 20. Although hope maybe a pleasant acquaintance, it is better to have Safety as your best friend. 21. THINK SAFETY! Watch your THOUGHTS; they become WORDS. 22. TALK ABOUT SAFETY! Watch your WORDS; they become ACTIONS. 23. TEACH SAFETY! Watch your ACTIONS; they become HABITS. 24. WORK SAFELY! Watch your HABBITS; they become CHARACTER. 25. LIVE SAFELY Watch your CHARACTER; it becomes your DESTINY. 26. Take the extra step when it comes to safety, because if you just tell me, I may forget, If show you me, I might remember, but if you involve me I’m committed. 27. Plan ahead, always put safety first. 28. Because when it comes to accidents, 29. Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, 30. But anyone can start today and make a new ending. 31. Each and every one of us shares the responsibility of making sure everyone goes home to their family’s safe daily. We can achieve this by following the safety procedures that are in place, our families count on us, let’s not let them down. 32. If You Know Your Eyes are Priceless then protecting them at work should always be your number onepriority so make the right choice and use Eye protection always after all Your Personal Safety Depends on You! 33. Living with your mistakes is harder than you think….Always remember that no matter what profession you are in, workplace safety is a concept, which should be taken seriously and followed meticulously Your Family Depends on It! 34. The nice thing about teamwork is that you always have others on your side. So remember Courtesy and common sense promotes safety. 35. We live in a world full of uncertainties most of which we have little or no control over. Our Safety does not have to be one of those uncertainties if we work together and follow the rules. 36. Take responsibility for your safe work environment. Have the strength to do the right thing every time even when it’s seems easier not to. 37. Stop to think before you act. Accidents are not always the result of bad luck. They occur when someone decides – consciously or not – to take a chance. Be smart and avoid taking unnecessary risks The 10 commandments of workplace safety 1. Always be responsible for the safety of yourself and others. 2. Always remember all accidents are preventable. 3. Always follow company rules, regulations and procedures. 4. Always assess the risks, Stop and think. 5. Always be proactive about safety. 6. Always deter from situations you’re not trained to handle. 7. Always manage the lift. 8. Always Be prepared. 9. Always practice good housekeeping. 10. Always take the safest path, never take shortcuts.

Tamil

கூட்டுமுயற்சி

Last Update: 2016-08-18
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

RESISTANCE TO BORER COMPLEX INFESTATION IN SUGARCANE CLONES V. Baskaran, M. Shanmuganathan, K. Annadurai, R. Chandrasekaran and R. Nageswari Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani 639 115 Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India E mail: varadharajbhaskaran@gmail.co.in INTRODUCTION Sugarcane is an important cash crop of India being grown in an area of 5.12 mha. With annual production of 341 m mt, with the productivity of 69.84 t/ha (Sugar India, 2015). In Tamil Nadu the area under sugarcane is about 3.36 mha. with a production of 5.12 million tonnes. The average yield of the promising cane in Tamil Nadu is 106 million t/ha. Sugarcane borers are the major pests and consequently reduce quality and quantity of cane and cane sugar. Most of the high sugar content sugarcane varieties are susceptible for borers viz., early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus (Snellen) and internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur) which cause 20 % crop loss in field and 15% in sugar recovery (Sardana and Amerika singh, 2002). Among various technologies involved for increasing the yield and qualitative attributes, the inherited characters play a vital role. A need for more number of early maturing sugarcane varieties with high sugar content having high yield potential with resistant or moderately resistant to major borer pests. At present, no sugarcane variety is completely resistant to any of the sugarcane borer pests. Adoption of high yielding varieties with better quality attributes is the cheapest technology (Mukunda Rao et al. 2003). The sugarcane varieites Co 86032, CoSi (Sc) 6, CoC 24, CoV 94101, CoV 92102, Co 94008 and Co 94012 are the popularly grown varieties, often succumbs to pest and diseases, of which the borers cause a major loss in cane yield and loss of sugar per cent (Thirumurugan et al. 2004). Koenar (1976) stated that selection of resistant varieties against borers was an effective and economical control measure. The present study was conducted to find out the resistance level in different sugarcane clones against borer infestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS An experiments were conducted in randomized block design with three replications at Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India during 2014-15. Fourty three sugarcane clones were planted in 5m x 5m row with 0.8 m spacing. All the recommended cultural practices were adopted uniformly except plant protection. Observations on early shoot borer and internode borer incidence were recorded at 15 days intervals. The infestation levels in clones of sugarcane were assessed and graded. Sugarcane clones were categorized based on the degree of resistance/susceptibility according to resistance scale given by Rao and Krishnamurthy (1973). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Sugarcane clones The first set of field experiments revealed that early shoot borer infestation and per cent of dead heart was minimum in Si 2011-355 (4.17 %) and maximum in Si 2011-349, Si 2011-415, Si 2011-598 and Si 2011-631 (8.70 %). The internode borer damage was recorded minimum in Si 2011-359 (8.0 %) and maximum (37.5%) in Si 2011-371. Table 1. Borer complex infestation on dead heart basis and internode damage basis in early maturing sugarcane clones Clones Dead heart (%) Reaction Internode borer damage (%) Reaction Si 2011-349 8.70 LS 26.09 MS Si 2011-355 4.17 LS 12.50 LS Si 2011-359 4.00 LS 8.00 LS Si 2011-371 8.33 LS 37.50 MS Si 2011-415 8.70 LS 13.04 LS Si 2011-417 8.00 LS 32.00 MS Si 2011-423 4.00 LS 28.00 MS Si 2011-426 4.35 LS 13.04 LS Si 2011-513 8.33 LS 20.83 MS Si 2011-589 7.41 LS 18.52 MS Si 2011-597 4.17 LS 25.00 MS Si 2011-598 8.70 LS 30.43 MS Si 2011-617 8.00 LS 32.00 MS Si 2011-621 4.55 LS 22.73 MS Si 2011-631 8.70 LS 17.39 MS Si 2011-633 4.35 LS 34.78 MS TNAU Si 7 8.00 LS 28.00 MS Co 86032 8.33 LS 29.17 MS Average 6.71 23.83 In the second set of experiment among the twenty six clones, Si 2012-329 (6.00 %) and Si 2012-38 (39.40 %) recorded the minimum and maximum dead heart damage due to early shoot borer respectively. The internode borer damage was 3.80 per cent in Si 2012-329 which was the minimum among the clones of sugarcane. Table 2. Borer complex infestation on dead heart basis and internode damage basis in early maturing sugarcane clones Clones Dead heart (%) Reaction Internode borer damage (%) Reaction Si 2012-03 24.37 MS 46.69 MS Si 2012-04 24.07 MS 40.00 MS Si 2012-07 23.17 MS 36.03 MS Si 2012-09 19.60 MS 24.18 MS Si 2012-16 19.03 MS 51.85 S Si 2012-20 18.67 MS 26.60 MS Si 2012-31 16.70 LS 24.70 MS Si 2012-32 16.63 MS 24.20 MS Si 2012-34 11.47 LS 22.00 MS Si 2012-38 39.40 MS 17.20 MS Si 2012-62 23.23 MS 16.10 MS Si 2012-39 11.20 LS 38.89 MS Si 2012-40 11.63 LS 34.07 MS Si 2012-47 12.07 LS 27.78 MS Si 2012-64 6.60 LS 37.14 MS Si 2012-70 14.80 LS 28.89 MS Si 2012-72 11.50 LS 42.13 MS Si 2012-76 13.07 LS 57.50 MS Si 2012-78 8.40 LS 7.60 LS Si 2012-83 24.67 MS 25.30 MS Si 2012-512 11.27 LS 11.40 LS Si 2012-523 7.70 LS 6.20 LS Si 2012-328 10.60 LS 10.00 LS Si 2012-329 6.00 LS 3.80 LS Si 2012-339 16.87 MS 14.80 LS Si 2012-346 12.77 LS 10.40 LS SED 1.90 6.14 CD (0.05 %) 4.07 10.80 CD (0.01 %) 5.65 16.63 The maximum sugar yield recorded 14.75 t/ha in Si 2011-355 and minimum 10.36 in Si 2011-415. The clone Si 2011-359 recorded higher cane yield of 131.40 t/ha and minimum 93.67 t/ha in Si 2011-631 (Table 3). Table 3. Effect of sugarcane clones on plant growth characters, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield and cane yield. S.l. No. Early and mid late maturing clones Cane yield t/ha CCS % Sugar yield (t/ha) 1. Si 2011-349 112.4 12.65 10.87 2. Si 2011-355 123.5 10.98 14.75 3. Si 2011-359 131.4 12.46 12.17 4. Si 2011-371 121.8 9.84 12.18 5. Si 2011-415 105.2 12.71 10.36 6. Si 2011-417 110.8 10.77 16.70 7. Si 2011-423 107.6 10.53 11.59 8. Si 2011-426 104.4 12.16 11.00 9. Si 2011-513 120.2 13.69 13.62 10. Si 2011-589 128.3 11.81 11.56 11. Si 2011-597 99.4 11.89 11.74 12. Si 2011-598 123.3 12.84 14.66 13. Si 2011-617 136.3 12.39 13.50 14. Si 2011-621 95.5 11.21 11.84 15. Si 2011-631 93.6 12.22 10.50 16. Si 2011-633 120.7 12.73 12.62 17. TNAU Si 7 115.7 11.58 14.73 18. Co 86032 127.4 13.25 14.76 CD (P=0.05) 23.1 0.14 0.41 Table 4. Effect of maturing sugarcane clones on plant growth characters, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield and cane yield. S.l. No. Early and mid late maturing clones Cane yield t/ha CCS % Sugar yield (t/ha) 1. Si 2012-03 147.0 12.35 18.15 2. Si 2012-04 127.0 12.25 15.59 3. Si 2012-07 153.6 12.43 19.09 4. Si 2012-09 149.3 12.41 18.52 5. Si 2012-16 115.6 12.12 14.01 6. Si 2012-20 135.0 12.26 16.55 7. Si 2012-31 131.3 12.21 16.03 8. Si 2012-32 139.6 12.29 17.15 9. Si 2012-34 142.0 12.32 17.49 10. Si 2012-38 125.0 12.13 15.16 11. Si 2012-62 121.4 12.12 17.52 12. Si 2012-39 142.2 16.70 12.20 13. Si 2012-40 120.6 11.59 12.63 14. Si 2012-47 120.6 11.00 12.26 15. Si 2012-64 145.5 14.62 12.32 16. Si 2012-70 140.8 17.56 12.21 17. Si 2012-72 160.5 11.74 12.29 18. Si 2012-76 120.4 14.66 12.74 19. Si 2012-78 131.4 17.50 9.67 20. Si 2012-83 120.6 11.84 12.65 21. Si 2012-512 142.5 10.50 10.98 22. Si 2012-523 120.2 14.75 12.46 23. Si 2012-328 128.3 14.73 9.84 24. Si 2012-329 99.4 14.76 12.71 25. Si 2012-339 123.3 15.94 10.77 26. Si 2012-346 136.3 13.79 10.53 CD (0.05 %) 25.16 37.74 4.93 The maximum sugar yield of 19.09 t/ha was recorded in Si 2012-07 and minimum sugar yield of 14.01 t/ha was recorded in Si 2012-16. The clone Si 2012-07 recorded higher cane yield of 153.60 t/ha and minimum 9.67 in Si 2012-78. The clone Si 2012-72 recorded higher cane yield of 160.50 t/ha and minimum 99.4 t/ha in Si 2012-329 (Table 4). References Mukunda Rao, Ch. K.R. Tagore, M. Vijay kumar, M. Jayaprakash and R. Raghavaiah (2003). Relative behaviour of sugarcane clones under soil moisture / drought during formative stages. Co-operative sugar 34(8): 643-646. Rao and Krishnamoorthy Rao, 1973. Studies on loss in yield of sugarcane due to shoot borer , Indian Sugar, 22: 867-868. Sardana and Amerika singh, 2002. Integrated Pest Management in Sugarcane, Co-operative sugar, 33 (5): 393-407. Sugar India, 2015. Statewise yield of sugarcane in India, P.84. Thirumurugan, A, S.Inayathullah Shah abd S.R. Venkatachalam (2004). Relative performance of selected genotypes for early season and their response to the borers. SISSTA Sugar Journal 26, P.43-47.

Tamil

ஐஸ்வர்யா

Last Update: 2016-07-08
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the basement will be in R.C.C 1:1 of plinth beam 750 mm above the ground level for all main walls and is filled wit a soil to a depth 630 and P.C.C.1:4:8, 100 mm thick for the flooring A.D.C.P in C.m. 1:3, 20 mm thick will be provided for all at basement level

Tamil

பத்தி

Last Update: 2016-03-16
Subject: Civil Engineering
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BASICS’16 – A State Level Symposium for first year students were conducted on 02.03.20016 by the Department of Science and Humanities of M.A.M School of Engineering, Siruganur. The function was inaugurated by Dr.P.Ranjith Kumar, Principal, M.A.M School of Engineering at 9.00 am by lighting the kuthu vizhakku. Dr. V. Kannan Convener of BASICS’16 felicitated the gathering. Nearly 250 student from 30 colleges participated in the Symposium. The following programs were conducted. Paper presentation, Science project model Expo, Mathematics Puzzles, Web world, Treasurer Hunt and Short film.

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-03-05
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you are going to have a fresh start. It is advised to be level headed in romance as there is a tendency to fall for unworthy individuals. Enjoy the festive season as a secret admirer finally surfacesfor you

Tamil

நீங்கள் ஒரு புதிய தொடக்கத்தை வேண்டும் போகிறீர்கள். அது உதவாத தனிநபர்கள் விழ ஒரு போக்கு உள்ளது இந்தக் காதல் தலைமையில் அளவில் இருக்க வேண்டும். ஒரு ரகசிய ரசிகன் இறுதியாக நீங்கள் surfacesfor போன்ற பண்டிகைக் காலத்தில் அனுபவிக்க

Last Update: 2015-12-30
Subject: General
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ABSTRACT Application of recycled materials in the building industry is essential for permanently sustainable development of each country. The use of primary sources and materials is becoming unbearable both economically and ecologically, and therefore it is necessary to seek the possibility of reuse of those materials once their durability expired This project deals with the Comparative study of flexural behavior of fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates with quarry dust replacement. For reducing cost of concrete and also to meet the demand, locally available waste materials such as quarry dust and recycled materials have been utilized in concrete. The aim of this project is to study enhancement of flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity due to the addition of POLYPROPYLENE fibres and recycled aggregates in concrete and the replacement of crusher dust in concrete. The compressive strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust. The split tensile strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust The flexural strength of concrete beams attains max value of 54kN ultimate load at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers. The load deflection behavior shows a ductile behavior at 0.5% of fiber replacement level. The stiffness and energy absorption capacity at ultimate load are more in the 0.5% of fibre proportion. Hence it is concluded that recycled building waste can be effectively used as a fully replacement for natural aggregate.

Tamil

வடக்கு கிழக்கு தென் மேற்கு

Last Update: 2015-12-10
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AbstractRocket science has progressed greatly from its early development in the 1200’s. Our research consists ofthe design, fabrication, launch, and recovery of a supersonic experimental sounding rocket with a target apogee of25,000 feet above ground level. The configuration of the rocket will consist of a booster stage with a second stage,designed to carry a ten pound payload. Research has been conducted to mitigate trajectory failures, preventstructural damage, and locate the system after impact using BeeLine GPS. An onboard data acquisition computerwill acquire data including; altitude, velocity, acceleration, and other important statistics. Data measured will beused to validate computational models that are designed to predict the rocket’s trajectory. These models are based onNewton’s Laws in two dimensions which include velocity, mass, and altitude as a function of time. A test rocket hasbeen used to begin the validation of the computational programs and to also verify design specifications of the finalrocket.

Tamil

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Last Update: 2015-12-07
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The regional round of ‘Tata Building India School Essay Competition’ themed at ‘Clean India’ will be conducted soon in the city by Tata Sons Limited. According to a press release, the competition will be held in Tamil and a few other languages in two categories: junior level for students of classes 6 to 8 and senior level for classes 9 to 12. Interested students are required to submit an essay in 500 to 600 words. The judging process involves the evaluation of the essay at three levels - school, city and national. The essays at school level are evaluated by judges within the school. Winning entries will qualify for city level where the entries are to be evaluated by panel of judges from various fields. The national level evaluation involves selection of essays from the best of each city by an elite panel of judges.

Tamil

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Last Update: 2015-10-17
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Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

Tamil

sutru suzhal pathukappu கட்டுரை என்னை சொல்ல

Last Update: 2015-04-27
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Wireless network is used to exchange information between the people and devices. For example, the home networks enable a new class of intelligent electronic devices that can interact with each other and with the internet in addition to providing connectivity between computers, phones and security/monitoring applications. Wireless networks are also used for video conferencing, smart class and remote training facilities. The wireless sensors have an enormous range of both commercial and military applications that include monitoring of fire hazards, stress and strain in buildings and bridges, carbon dioxide movement and the spread of chemicals and gases at a disaster site. These wireless sensors are self configured into a network to process and interpret sensor measurement and they convey this information to a centralized control location. Wireless sensors are used mainly in military applications that include identification and tracking of enemy targets, detection of chemical and biological attacks, and support of unmanned robotic vehicles. Finally, wireless networks enable distributed control systems with remote devices, sensors, and actuators are linked together via wireless communication channels. Such networks enable automated highways and mobile robot. These necessity overhead throughout extremely dynamic network like MANET (Mobile adhoc Network) and such networks are more dynamic owing to the high mobility of transmitting nodes in the network due to collision occurrence and the sleep/awake rounds are frequently employed to reduce energy wastages of such devices and present an anti-collision technique. A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network), perhaps brought in as an infrastructure less dynamic network, consists of independent number of mobile nodes that can communicate to one another through radio wave. A MANET is a self assembling infrastructure of a couple of networks of mobile devices that are linked up by wireless. These set of wireless mobile devices called wireless nodes which actively connect and transfer information. Each node in a MANET is capable of moving independently in any direction, and hence it varies its connection to other devices often; each must send on traffic unrelated to its own use, and consequently be a router. The MANET network alters servers and clients to communicate in an undetermined topology area and it is utilized in many applications and fast developing networks. With the raising usage of mobile nodes, these nodes will collide with one another rendering the computing power and connectivity to operate applications such as multiplayer games or collaborative work tools, MANETs are becoming more crucial since they satisfy the demand of today’s users to connect and interact in a quick manner using hybrid beacon scheduling approach especially to avoid the collision in mobile nodes. Localization for autonomous mobile robots is the process of finding out and tracking the position and direction of the robot in any given environment. Localization has become a subject matter over the past few decades. Localization is the principle practice that allows a robot to navigate, investigate, and carry out its allotted work effectively without human intrusion. Exteroceptive sensory systems, such as ultrasonic sensors, Light detection and Ranging devices (LRDs) and image sensors, act as alternative techniques in addressing the above mentioned restriction by offering information about the external environment around the robot. These external sensors help in determining the orientation of the robot with the measurements such as distance, and angle, etc. with the beacons in the external environment. When all these external measurements that are in correspondence with the same robot pose, self-localization method is applied. During continuous movement of the robot, external measurements are obtained at different times, and they do not coincide accurately with similar robot poses. Thus, self localization method results in larger errors due to collision while calculating the robot pose. Hence to overcome this issue, most of the systems work by combining odometry values with measured values of external environment to obtain optimal evaluation of the robot poses. The most extensively used tool for this fusion technique is the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF and its variants were used for localization in many conventional techniques. Also, the particle filter was used as an alternate means to combine odometry and external measurements, which was one of the probabilistic approaches. The localization system used in this method employs ultrasonic sensors. Many ultrasonic transmitters are attached to the ceiling at certain recognized locations in the global co-ordinate system for anti-collision. Three ultrasonic receivers are placed equilaterally over the top of the mobile robot. It is assumed that the robot navigates over an indoor plane as common in most of the indoor applications. Also the z-value of the robot and the receivers are assumed to be in the global coordinate system. A novel technology in wireless communication called Multiple Input- Multiple Output (MIMO) assures to eliminate the boundaries and defeats of wireless communication networks by rendering the efficiency of spectrum close to Shannon’s bound is proposed in this work. MIMO procreates range, dependability and information speed of previous wireless communication systems. Owing to its benefits, MIMO system is recruited into almost each and every wireless communication network like CDMA-2000 and WCDMA technologies. aph to tamil translation online

Tamil

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-04-09
Subject: General
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English

Dear Richard, First of all I want to take this opportunity to wish you all the best for this New Year 2015 that is just around the corner, bringing with it an atmosphere of joy and happiness, but not only! As in what concerns you, Richard, the year 2015 will also mark an important period of change and transformation, a fresh start that will push you towards a path of happiness and stability in different areas of your life, and more precisely in your love life, career, financial success, family relations and all the areas of your life that you are concerned about at the moment. Richard, in many aspects the year 2015 will be a lot busier then several last years, and especially in the areas where talent and creative abilities are important. A lot of changes of the prior importance are going to happen in your life during the next coming months, which is due to powerful planetary movement happening in your natal chart and which is going to have numerous important repercussions, making 2015 unforgettable for you. Richard, of course I am going to explain to you in details everything that is going to happen and I have also worked on an outline of the sequence of the astrological events that are going to lead to these changes, however I would like to start with the explanation on how exactly I have been able to find out all these details. I have started with the in depth analysis of your personal astral configuration using your details, such as your date of birth 3rd January 1994, your astrological sign Capricorn and your place of birth tuticorin. This has allowed me to draw a picture of your natal chart and then to see what exactly is going to happen in your life, like for example the Mercury Retrograde happening at the very beginning of 2015. You should also be aware of Uranus being in Opposition to the Lunar Node, as this is going to bring some particular sensitive aspects into your everyday life. But I do not want to be too technique, Richard, as what is the most important for you is to know what repercussions all these planetary movements and shifts are going to have on your everyday life, and we are going to come to this point shortly. Richard, as you know I am used to be precise in my work and I always double check each and every statement and prediction I give you about your future in order to be sure you get the best out of all the opportunities that are waiting for you, and of course while working on this reading and to give you a broader picture of this important year 2015, Richard, I have completed the analysis of your natal chart with a numerological reading based on your name Richard, and also based on different other personal details you have provided me with. According to my analysis this year 2015 will be marked by an important peak point, that is going to be a start of a new period in different areas of your life, and this peak date is going to be particularly important in what concerns your love life, as the way you act and also the timing are going to define not only the short-term atmosphere in your romantic sphere , but also this period is going to have important repercussions for the next years to come and in the long-term period. This event is going to happen at the same time when Mercury is going to be in retrograde motion which coincides with the peak period according to your numerological analysis. Richard, it means that at this time in 2015 (I will need to look into it in more details later on), you will need to be in the right time and in the right place and also act in a very precise manner in order to seize this unique opportunity in your love life. Let me be direct with you Richard, this is your time! And you will need to take an important decision in regards to your love life during this crucial peak date that will define all the future course of your romantic relationships; the importance of this decision cannot be underestimated and it is completely unthinkable that you take it without being properly guided and informed. Richard, you should be aware of all the pitfalls and misunderstandings to choose what is the best for you and the stars can show you the way to how make the best choices, as yes, Richard, the planets will open the doors to happy and flourishing love life for you but it is up to you to pass through. Richard, but this is just the beginning of all the important changes that are going to happen in your life during the year 2015! Another area of your life where the influence of planetary shifts is going to have a huge impact will be your career path and professional environment, and this both according to you natal chart and also from the numerological point of view. This year 2015 will be very busy for you, Richard, as Jupiter is going through your 6th house, which is a promise of an important encounter with the person who is going to play a very important role in your professional life in the future. The next point which is important to emphasize for you, Richard, is that due to the very strong interaction between Jupiter going through your natal chart and taking into account the position of Mercury there is a strong link between your professional and career sector with the friendship, mutual understanding. It seems like success in one of them will nourish success in the other one. During 2015 you will meet a person (I cannot tell for now if you already know this person or not, this point needs to be explored in a more detailed report) that will push you towards an important opportunity in your career sector, and thus giving you the chance to find more friends in your professional environment, who in their turn will open more and more chances for further professional development. The crucial thing here is not to miss out this encounter with the person who will actually start this so-called "chain reaction" and for this you will need to be in the right place at the right time and act in a very precise manner, so that you can benefit from this chance to get your professional success to the next level! As you already know Richard, this encounter is going to happen during the peak period (which I have discovered for you according to the numerological analysis of your personal details) and I was so astonished to see that this peak period coincides with Mars entering your sign Capricorn, so you should absolutely not let this chance go by and benefit from positive influence of the planets to boost your life in different spheres! Moreover, I have clearly sensed that you have some kind of project on your mind, which you have been thinking about for some time already, and this year (let me mention, Richard, that it is going to be the year of Wooden Goat according to the Chinese astrology) will also be beneficial in terms of the realization of this project, as additional success and financial independence gained through career development, which I have just talked about, will give you a possibility to put more time and money into this particular project, so important for you. The negative aspect between Saturn and Uranus present in your astral sky since 2012 and which was blocking you to the certain degree, is going to shift, opening you the way towards new achievements. However you should be aware, that 2015 will set the basis for the future, as during this time you will absolutely need to start moving forward in order to get the results you are hoping to see some time later. Generally, this year will be very beneficial and lucky for you in all the areas of your life you are concerned about at the moment, including financial success. Richard, I can see that at the moment you are particularly worried about your financial situation and this point stands out clearly in your natal chart, and also it makes your worried not only about yourself, but also about some people that are very close to you and who are important to you, Richard. Let me reassure you, that during the peak period you will be able to completely change this situation. On one hand it will be due to the career progress we have talked about before, but on the other hand during the year 2015 you will have an important financial opportunity that you need to seize. However I cannot tell you more about this point simply because a more detailed study of your natal chart is necessary in order to identify all the lucky dates during this year, so that you do not pass by this unique chance to achieve prosperity. Richard, as you can see all the areas of your life are going to be touched by the important and crucial positive changes waiting for you in 2015, starting from your love life, your professional success, financial situation, family relations, friends, home and a lot more. On the page below that I have set up for you Richard you can discover more about what the next year has ins tore for you: https://www.the-astrology.com/orderforecast/Richard To summarize the most important changes that are going to happen in your life will be: -IN TERMS OF YOUR LOVE LIFE: you will need to take an important decision in your love life in regards to the situation you find yourself in at the moment, and this decision absolutely needs to be the right one for you, Richard, as it will define not only your immediate future in this area of your life, but it will also have important repercussions for the years to come. This decision needs to be taken having all the information at hand in order to avoid all the hidden pitfalls and to be sure you will be completely satisfied with your love life in the future. -IN WHAT CONCERNS YOUR PROFESSIONAL AREA: During 2015 you will have an opportunity to meet a person, who is going to play an important role in your professional and financial success in the future, as this person will open you the doors to the new professional opportunity. Besides this person will allow you to meet more people, who will become your friends and who will contribute to your career in different however always positive ways. -AS FOR YOUR FINANCIAL SITUATION: Richard, your financial situation is also going to changes, and there will be two main factors leading to important step forward and helping you to resolve your current issues, which are you professional success but also an important financial opportunity that is going to be presented to you during the next year. -AND MUCH MORE...: You will also make numerous positive changes in other areas of your life, like for example: you will have a chance to put into life a project you have on your mind, also it will be a period for your personal development and self-realization. Richard, I can clearly sense that you are very excited about all these changes and I know that you really need and deserve them, but at the same time you also know that the astrological influences can only open the doors and you and only you will be responsible for going through them! Yes, Richard, you will need to be alert and active and act in a very precise moment in order to make your dreams come true. I want to warn (as I am here for you and everything I am writing now is only in your best interest, dear friend), that if you just count on stars to do everything at your place, you risk missing out your chances and all the opportunities. I want you to understand, Richard, that you are the master of your destiny and astrological events only give you opportunities to make changes, they give you a choice now during the coming year 2015 to change your life for the better on different levels, but at the end what counts is your free will and you will decide if you grab this chance or just let it go. Richard, you need to start getting ready for this incredible year right now, you need to be ready to act and also you should have all the information in your disposition in order to know how, when and in which way to act to have all the chances on your side. So I am offering you my help and I will put all my experience and professionalism at your service, Richard, and on the link below you can find out how exactly I can help you:

Tamil

ஜோதிட

Last Update: 2015-03-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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