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2.1 Tagore – Sadhana I – III Chapters
Rabindranath Tagore born in Calcutta on 7th May 1861 was the youngest
but one child of Debandranath Tagore. In the words of Tagore himself his father
was one whom “I saw very seldom; he was away a great deal, but his presence
pervaded the whole house and was one of the deepest influence on my life…’.
He was called Maharishi or the great saint who believed in the worship of
Invisible God. Tagore’s attitude to God and world was inherited from his father.
The Tagores were Vaishnavas in their religious outlook and were inclined to
vegetarianism in diet. They were a set of highly educated and enlightened
people who assisted Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his movement of social reform.
Rabindranath Tagore lived in a significant age when India was stirred
deeply by three movements – religious, literary and social to which the
contribution of the Tagore family was very great. The first movement was
religious and its founder was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who believed that God is
one. One of the leaders of this movement was Debandranath Tagore,
Rabindranath’s father. The second movement was in the field of Literature and
Bakin Chandra tried to rescue Bengali language from the degradation of dead
forms to which it had fallen and bring a new critical attitude and make Bengali
language an instrument of the expression of rich imagination that would not
tolerate any restrictions imposed upon it from outside. The third movement was
national its was national; it was partly political and partly cultural. It raised a
voice of protest against the humiliation which the Indians were subjected to at
the hands of the westermers. It was not opposed to the introduction of western
thought, but it certainly was not in favour of indiscriminate rejection of
traditional Indian culture and values. Tagore’s father laid stress on the study of
the Upanishads and left no stone unturned to check the wave of conversion to
Christianity in Bengal.
Tagore passed his boyhood in the Jarasnako house with the atmosphere
that reverberated with the echoes of culture, refinement and art. He was from
very early years of his life fond of nature and longed for the outer world of
nature. He was made to study science, literature, music and painting without
taking into consideration whether he was interested in them or not. Learning all
his subjects in English, he learnt Bengali well. Educated in India and London
showed a great promise as a writer. He was influenced by the Vaishnava lyrical
poetry, which gave to the poet an impetus to be bold and strike a new path for
himself in the field of art and poetry.
The Awakening of the waterfall, his work showed a great unity of
meaning. What was memorable in this experienced was its human message and
the sudden expansion of his consciousness in the supernatural world of man.
There are three distinctive things which seem to come before us from this new
vision of the poet about life.
i. The human soul from which the creation and which its creative effort
draws it away from itself and harmonizes it with the inner life of
nature which is full of human significance.
ii. The union between man’s growing consciousness and the spirit of
nature is a source of joy and it is in this feeling of delight emerging
from a realization of inner harmony of objects that the poet seeks for
his definition of beauty.
iii. This seeking and this joy is similar to freedom, for it is only by
transcending the outer certain of common-placeness and triviality
that its real significance is discovered.
Published a number of collection of songs and poems in which the glorified
the ideals of ancient times against the background of the evils of western
nationalism which the condemned as the climax of greed. He waged a ceaseless
war against the two evils of caste which dehumanizes man and nationality in
the west which makes a brute of a man.
After the publication of Gitanjali which marked the transition in his life,
Tagore’s national aspirations got merged in the Universal. When the visited
England and Europe he was greated there as seer with a universal message. He
was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The publication of Gitanjali in English
took the English – reading public by storm and they got examoured as much by
the nobility of its though as by the beauty of the language. During the course of
his visit to America in 1913 to deliver some addressed there, he made the
acquaintance of Rudolf Eucken, the famous German Philosopher, who was also
charmed on reading Gitanjali. The lectures he delivered in America were
published as Sadhana by Macmillan, along with The Gardener, The crescent
Moon and Chitra.
Tagore was a poet and a dreamer. He felt that the western civilization
was heading towards a crash or destruction. He started thinking of the crash or
destruction. He started thinking of the problems of life in a calm and detached
manner and the expression was marked by a sense of bold optimism attempting
to depict tot eh world the message of eternal peace. Peace and tranquility
proved to be the theme.
2.2 The relation of the individual to the universe
The civilization of ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. These
walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They setup a principle of
‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing
all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We
divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds
in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built an
everything has to fight hard for its entrance its our recognition.
In India when the first Aryan invaders appeared, the vast forests
provided them some special advantage of natural protection, food and water in
plenty. Thus our civilization had its birth and it took a distinct character from
this origin and environment. Surrounded by vast life of nature, was fed and
clothed by her, having the closest and most constant intercourse with her
varying objects. This atmosphere instead of dulling human intelligence and
dwarfing the incentives to progress, gave it to a particular direction. Having
constant contact with the living growth of nature, his mind was fee from the
desire to extend his mind was free from the desire to extend his dominion by
erecting boundary walls around his acquisitions. His aim was not to acquire
but to realize, to enlarge his consciousness by growing with and growing into
his surroundings. He felt that truth is all comprehensive that there is no such
thing as absolute isolation in existence and the only way of attaining truth is
through the interpretation of our being into all objects. This harmony between
man’s spirit and the spirit of the world was the endeavour of the forest dwelling
sages of ancient India. In future even when Mighty Kingdoms were established –
even in the heyday of its material prosperity – the heart of India ever looked
back with adoration upon the early ideal of strenuous self-realization and the
dignity of the simple life of the forest hermitage.
Westerners took pride in subduing nature, as if we are living in a hostile
world creating and artificial dissociation between himself and the universal
nature within whose bosom he lies. But Indians believed that there is a rational
connection between him and nature. We are in harmony with nature and the
thoughts are in harmony with things – the power is in harmony with the power
which is universal. According to it, everything that is low in the scale of being is
merely nature, and whatever has stamp of perfection on it, intellectual or moral,
in human-nature. The earth, water and light, fruits and flowers to India were
not merely physical phenomena to be turned to and then left aside. The man
who has his spiritual eyes open knows the ultimate truth about earth and water
lies in our apprehension of the eternal world. There is not mere knowledge, as
science is, but it is a perception of the soul by soul. This gives us not power but
joy. When a man does not realize his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison
– house whose walls are alien to him. When the meets the eternal spirit in all
objects, them he is emancipated, for them he discovers the fullest significance
of the world into which he is born. Thus the text of our everyday mediation is
the Gayathri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By
its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul
of man. We understand the Eternal spirit, whose power creates The Earth, the
Sky and the stars. It is not in the power of possession but in the power of
India knew that when by physical and mental barriers we violently
detach ourselves from the inexhaustible life of nature, when we become man,
man in the universe, we crate bewildering problems. Man must realize the
wholeness of his existence, his place in the infinite. The Rishis were they, who
having reached the supreme God from all sides had found abiding peace, had
become united with all, had entered into the life of the Universe. Thus the state
of realizing our relationship with all, of entering into everything through union
with God, was considered in India to be the ultimate and fulfillment of
humanity. His freedom and fulfillment is in love, which is another name for
perfect comprehension. This is why the Upanishads describe those who have
attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at one with God’, meaning
that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in
undisturbed union with God.
We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he
says, ‘It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich
man to enter the kingdom of heaven – which implies that whatever we treasure
for ourselves separates us from others; our possession are our limitations. It is
the one living truth that makes all realities true. This truth is not only of
knowledge but of devotion. Buddha, who developed the practical side of the
teaching of the Upanishads, preached the same. The Upanishad says that the
being who is in his essence of light and life of all, who is world – conscious, is
Brahma. Upanishad also says ‘thou shalt gain by giving away. Thou Shalt not
covet’. In the Gita we are advised to work
disinterestingly, abandoning all lust for the result. Everything his sprung from
immoral life and is vibrating with life, for life is immense.
2.3 Soul consciousness
The aspiration of ancient India was to live and move and have is joy is
Brahma- the all conscious and all pervading spirit, by extending its field of
consciousness all over the world. By beginning to try to realize all, one has to
end by realizing nothing. But, in reality, it is not so absurd as it sounds. Facts
are many, but the truth is one. The animal intelligence knows facts, the human
mind has power to apprehend truth. This discovery of truth is pure joy to man –
it is a liberation of his mind. Truth opens up a whole horizon, it leads us to the
infinite. Upanishad says ‘know thine own soul’ – realize the one great principle
of unity that there is in every man.
All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, obscure our true vision of
the soul. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that
transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All. Like children
learning the alphabets, words and then sentences, our soul when detached and
imprisoned within the narrow limits of a self loses its significance. In love he
use of difference is obliterated and the human soul fulfils its purpose in
perfection, transcending the limits of itself and reaching across the threshold of
the infinite. Therefore love is the highest bliss that man can attain. Our great
‘Revealers’ are they who man manifest the true meaning of the soul by giving up
self for the love of mankind. We call then ‘Mahatmas’ – the men of the great
soul? ‘Paramathma’ is the supreme soul in me and my joy is in the realization
of this truth. The joys and sorrows of our loved ones are joys and sorrows of our
loved ones, because in them we have grown larger, in them we have touched
that great truth which comprehends the whole universe. Our highest joy is in
the losing of our egoistic self and in the uniting with others. According to the
Upanishads, the key to cosmic consciousness, to God- consciousness, is in the
consciousness of the soul. The chick knows when it breaks through the selfcentered
isolation of its egg that the hard shell which covered it so long was not
really a part of its life. In Sanskrit, the bird has been called the twice-born : so
too the man is named, who has gone through the ceremony of the discipline of
self-restraint and high thinking – who has come out simple in wants, pure in
heart and ready to take up all the responsibilities of life in a disinterested
largeness of spirit. He is considered to have had his rebirth from the blind
envelopment of self to the freedom of soul life. When Jesus said, ‘Blessed are
the meek, for they shall inherit the earth’ he meant this. The doctrine of
deliverance that Buddha preached was the freedom from the thralldom of
Avidya (ignorance), when he attains ‘Bodhi’, i.e., the awakenment from the sleep
of self to the perfection of consciousness, he becomes But Man’s poverty is
abysmal, his wants are endless till he becomes truly conscious of his soul. The
vision of the supreme one in our own soul is a direct and immediate intuition.
Sin is the blurring of truth which clouds the purity of our consciousness. It is
the supreme one which makes man feel the pang of his separation from God
and gives rise to the earnest prayer,
‘O God, O Father, completely sweap away all our sins’. Give into us that
which is good? Man’s cry reach his fullest expression. It is this desire for self69
expression that leads him to attain perfection. Man becomes perfect man, he
attains his fullest expression, when his soul realizes itself in the infinite being
who is Avih whose very essence is expression. When a man’s life rescued from
distractions finds its unity in the soul, then the consciousness of the infinite
becomes at once direct and natural to it as the light is to the flame. All the
conflicts and contradictions of life are reconciled; knowledge, love and action
harmonized; the formless appears to us in the form of the flower, of the fruit as
the supreme one.
2.4 The problem of Evil
The question why there is evil in existence is the same as why there is
imperfection on or why there is creation at all. Imperfection is not a negation of
perfectness; finitude is not contradictory to infinity; they are but completeness
manifested in parts, infinity revealed within bounds. Pain, which is the feeling
of our finiteness, is not a fixture in our life. It is not an end in itself, as joy is.
We feel that good is the positive element in man’s nature, and in every age and
every clime what man values west is his ideal of goodness. Will is the supreme
wish of larger life, the life whose greater partition is out of our present reach,
whose objects are not for the most part before our sight. Then we begin to
distinguish between what we
immediately desire and what is good. Good is that which is desirable for our
greater self. Thus sense of goodness comes out of truer view of life. In this he
becomes great, for the realizes truth. Life is not made up of fragments,
purposeless and discontinuous. It is a truth that man is not a detached being,
that he has a universal aspect; and when he recognizes this he becomes great;
very often it is our moral strength which gives us most effectively the power to
do evil, to exploit other individuals for our own benefit, to rob other people of
their just rights. The life of an animal is unmoral, for it is aware only of an
immediate present; the life of a man can be immoral, but that only means that
it must have a moral basis. Not to see is to be blind, but to see wrongly is to see
only in an imperfect manner. To live the life of goodness is to live the life of all.
Pleasure is for one’s own self, but goodness is concerned with the happiness of
all humanity and for all time. From the point of view of the good, pleasure pain
appear in a different meaning. Martyrs prove is in history and we prove it every
day in our little martyrdoms. To live in perfect goodness is to realize one’s life in
the infinite. Our body can only die if it tries to eat its own substance, and our
eye loses the meaning of its function if it can only see itself. We see then that
man’s individuality is not his highest truth, there is that in him which is
universal. Our organ of sight, our organ of locomotion, our physical strength
becomes worldwide; steam and electricity become our nerve and muscle. It is
the same with our spiritual life. Yet we complain that we are not happy, as if
there were something inherent in the nature of things to make us miserable.
The universal spirit is waiting to crown us with happiness, but our individual
spirit would not accept it. The most important lesson that man can learn from
his life is not that there is pain in this world, but it depends upon him to turn it
is not good account, that it is possible for him to transmute it into joy.
NON – DETTTTAILED – 2 . 5 .AN AREA OF DARKNESS -V.S.NAIPAUL
V.S.Naipul’s position as a third generation Caribbean settled in England makes
the idea of the return (to an unsullied past ,and threby a complete, rooted
identity )doubly problematic . In one of his essays ,Naipaul wrote , “ although
the English language was mine , [ …] its tradition was not ” . There is no
virtually Caribbean ‘ tradition’ that he can fall back upon , and this perhaps is
the basis for his anguished sense . The aboriginal peoples of the Caribbean
have long been extinct .Naipaul has also in his many interviews and essays
,made his own myth into that of the writer as a displaced person ,one who does
not “ have a side , doesn’t have a country ;doesn’t have a community ; one who
is entirely an individual ” , a figure who has achieved a ‘Brahminical ideal of
non –attachment ’,a man without a home . His protagonist Mr . Boswas depicts
this linked to the ownership of ‘a house ’ – ‘a home ’.The slow and stately
rhythm of his prose ,the measured tone ,reflects a grim solidity , and grants to
it something of the status of fact . Naipaul visited India for many months on
different occasions in order to gather ‘materials’ for his ‘An Area of Darkness ’
(1964),India :A Wounded Civilisation (1977),andIndia:A Mmillion Mutinies Now
(1990). They are serious undertakings that entail much thought and analysis ;
thus ,the eye-witness account gives ‘authority’ to his writings . It is a first hand
account of what happened and who was involved . No one can doubt the
extraordinary qualities of Naipaul’s observations ,they are keen ,detailed and
In ‘An Area of Darkness’ , the ‘quest’ for ‘self ’ is notable : there is an intence
preoccupation withself, and this colours all of Naipaul’s observations and
comments . The narrative is replete ,with confessional statements ,with
philosophical commentaries ,his own fears and anxieties about India . The
philosophical perspective is imbedded everywhere in both of Naipaul’s fiction
and traver narratives ;it is this substantive –idea that permeates his writings
,and is at times connected with the ‘autobiographical ’sense. In many passages
philosophical ideas are brought out through autobiographical instances there is
a dynamic interrelationship between both travel and fictional writings . The
sharp literary image gives his travel narratives the necessary ‘literariness’ , and
at the same time ,his travel narrative
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the basement will be in R.C.C 1:1 of plinth beam 750 mm above the ground level for all main walls and is filled wit a soil to a depth 630 and P.C.C.1:4:8, 100 mm thick for the flooring A.D.C.P in C.m. 1:3, 20 mm thick will be provided for all at basement level
Subject: Civil Engineering
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BASICS’16 – A State Level Symposium for first year students were conducted on 02.03.20016 by the Department of Science and Humanities of M.A.M School of Engineering, Siruganur. The function was inaugurated by Dr.P.Ranjith Kumar, Principal, M.A.M School of Engineering at 9.00 am by lighting the kuthu vizhakku. Dr. V. Kannan Convener of BASICS’16 felicitated the gathering. Nearly 250 student from 30 colleges participated in the Symposium. The following programs were conducted. Paper presentation, Science project model Expo, Mathematics Puzzles, Web world, Treasurer Hunt and Short film.
Subject: Literary Translations
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you are going to have a fresh start. It is advised to be level headed in romance as there is a tendency to fall for unworthy individuals. Enjoy the festive season as a secret admirer finally surfacesfor you
நீங்கள் ஒரு புதிய தொடக்கத்தை வேண்டும் போகிறீர்கள். அது உதவாத தனிநபர்கள் விழ ஒரு போக்கு உள்ளது இந்தக் காதல் தலைமையில் அளவில் இருக்க வேண்டும். ஒரு ரகசிய ரசிகன் இறுதியாக நீங்கள் surfacesfor போன்ற பண்டிகைக் காலத்தில் அனுபவிக்க
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Application of recycled materials in the building industry is essential for permanently sustainable development of each country. The use of primary sources and materials is becoming unbearable both economically and ecologically, and therefore it is necessary to seek the possibility of reuse of those materials once their durability expired
This project deals with the Comparative study of flexural behavior of fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates with quarry dust replacement. For reducing cost of concrete and also to meet the demand, locally available waste materials such as quarry dust and recycled materials have been utilized in concrete. The aim of this project is to study enhancement of flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity due to the addition of POLYPROPYLENE fibres and recycled aggregates in concrete and the replacement of crusher dust in concrete.
The compressive strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust.
The split tensile strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust
The flexural strength of concrete beams attains max value of 54kN ultimate load at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers.
The load deflection behavior shows a ductile behavior at 0.5% of fiber replacement level.
The stiffness and energy absorption capacity at ultimate load are more in the 0.5% of fibre proportion.
Hence it is concluded that recycled building waste can be effectively used as a fully replacement for natural aggregate.
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AbstractRocket science has progressed greatly from its early development in the 1200’s. Our research consists ofthe design, fabrication, launch, and recovery of a supersonic experimental sounding rocket with a target apogee of25,000 feet above ground level. The configuration of the rocket will consist of a booster stage with a second stage,designed to carry a ten pound payload. Research has been conducted to mitigate trajectory failures, preventstructural damage, and locate the system after impact using BeeLine GPS. An onboard data acquisition computerwill acquire data including; altitude, velocity, acceleration, and other important statistics. Data measured will beused to validate computational models that are designed to predict the rocket’s trajectory. These models are based onNewton’s Laws in two dimensions which include velocity, mass, and altitude as a function of time. A test rocket hasbeen used to begin the validation of the computational programs and to also verify design specifications of the finalrocket.
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What is Time Management?
Working Smarter to Enhance Productivity
Improve the way that you use your time.
It seems that there is never enough time in the day. But, since we all get the same 24 hours, why is it that some people achieve so much more with their time than others? The answer lies in good time management.
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The regional round of ‘Tata Building India School Essay Competition’ themed at ‘Clean India’ will be conducted soon in the city by Tata Sons Limited.
According to a press release, the competition will be held in Tamil and a few other languages in two categories: junior level for students of classes 6 to 8 and senior level for classes 9 to 12. Interested students are required to submit an essay in 500 to 600 words.
The judging process involves the evaluation of the essay at three levels - school, city and national. The essays at school level are evaluated by judges within the school. Winning entries will qualify for city level where the entries are to be evaluated by panel of judges from various fields. The national level evaluation involves selection of essays from the best of each city by an elite panel of judges.
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My favourite sports personality is Mahendra Singh Dhoni . He is an Indian Cricketer and the current captain of India's National Cricket Team . He has lead his Team to many wins . Mahendra Singh Dhoni was born in Ranchi, Bihar to Pan Singh and Devaki Devi . Dhoni is a right-handed Batsman and Wicket-keeper . Dhoni is one of the number of wicket-keepers who have come through the ranks of junior and India A cricket teams to represent the national team . M.S.Dhoni was contracted by the Chennai Super Kings for 1.5 Million USD. This made him the most expensive player in the IPL for the first season Auctions which was closely followed by Andrew Symonds Dhoni is the present captain of the Chennai Super Kings team. India scored 328 in 50 overs with Dhoni contributing 68 in their first match of 2006 against Pakistan . Dhoni was named the captain of India Twenty 20 squad for the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 held in South Africa in September 2007.India were crowned champions as Dhoni led the team to victory against Pakistan in a thrilling contest . He, then went on to become the ODI captain of the Indian team for the seven-match ODI series against Australia in September 2007.He made his debut as full-time Test captain of India during the fourth and final test against Australia at Nagpur in November 2008 replacing Anil Kumble who retired from cricket after the third test . India eventually won that Test thus clinching the series 2–0 and retained the Border-Gavasker Trophy . Dhoni had previously captained India on a stand-in basis against South Africa and Australia in 2008 and 2009 respectively. It was under his captaincy that India climbed to No. 1 in the ICC Test Rankings in December 2009. After that he managed to lead India in a series leveling world championship of Test against the South Africans in Feb 2010. As a result India managed No. 1 spot in the ICC Test Rankings . Dhoni was handed a 2 match ban from playing in the ODI series against Sri Lanka for the team's slow over-rate during the second one-dayer in Nagpur (18 December 2009) by ICC match referee Jeff Crowe .
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Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview
A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances.
The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years.
Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes:
(a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc.
(b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc.
B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures.
(1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0
(i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters.
(ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations.
Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth.
The gaseous composition of unpolluted air
Parts per million (vol)
Harmful Effects of air pollution –
(a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system.
(b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system.
(c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity.
(d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature.
(e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution.
[For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ]
(2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are:
(a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc.
(b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely.
(c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen.
(d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water.
(e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water.
(2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution.
The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category.
The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies.
Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream.
Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities.
Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer.
[ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ]
(3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to
(i) Deforestation and
(ii) Dumping of solid wastes.
Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery.
[ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ]
(4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind.
In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels.
Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents.
C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution:
As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below:
a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants –
1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2.
2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents.
3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent.
b. Methods to control particulate emissions –
1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter
(i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force.
(ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum.
2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged.
3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc.
4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator
c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution.
(i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home.
(ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards.
(iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses.
(iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs.
(v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants.
d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air.
The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used.
e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment.
1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead.
2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden.
3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace.
4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill.
5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution.
6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too.
On the Road:
7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated.
8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution.
9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine.
10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes.
D. Water pollution prevention and control:
Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat.
Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life.
Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro
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John Helliwell, the well-known University of British Columbia economist, is often accused of being an apologist for marriage. He denies it. He says he just analyzes the research. And most of the research (sorry, singles!) says that married people, over all, are happier than unmarried ones. “We have found in Canadian, British and American data, when you include demographic variables like ‘married,’ marriage typically turns out to have a significant positive effect,” he told me over the phone. Among other benefits, “marriage is good for people because it is a vehicle and a place where good friends are made and cherished.” But does marriage really make you happier in the long run? Or are happier people simply more likely to get married in the first place? Prof. Helliwell thinks he’s found the answer. In a new research paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, he and colleague Shawn Grover conclude not only that marriage does make people happier, but that being married to your best friend makes you extra happy. The same goes for people who live together. “Those who are best friends with their partners have the largest well-being benefits from marriage and cohabitation, even when controlling for premarital well-being levels,” they write. Prof. Helliwell is an old hand in the field of “happiness studies,” which attempt to measure the factors that influence people’s sense of well-being. He has found that, overwhelmingly, it’s the social context of life that determines whether people are happy. Both marriage and friendship are known to improve well-being. So when he came across a comprehensive survey that included the question “Who is your best friend?”, he knew he’d struck gold. “We were able to break down the marriage effect between people who had another best friend and the people whose best friend happened to be their spouse,” he told me. What they found was that the happiness effect of being married to your best friend is twice as big. In other words, a best friend who’s always by your side is the best kind of friend of all. People who are married to their best friends don’t need as many friends as other people to get the same benefit. About half the married and cohabiting people surveyed named their spouse as their best friend. The happiness effect was stronger for women than for men, especially in middle age, when happiness typically dips for everyone. It seems marital friendship is a great buffer against the ravages of midlife. I think I have a clue why. The world may not think you’re sexy any more – but he still does. The very subject of marriage is highly charged these days. Conservatives say we should promote it because married people (and their kids) are better off. Liberals say the decline of marriage is a consequence, not a cause, of growing inequality. Singles say Prof. Helliwell and his ilk unfairly demonize them. But he denies having an agenda. And he says this study, in particular, is free of policy implications. “Some people say this study means you should marry your best friend,” he says. “But we don’t say that. The lesson for those who are thinking of marriage is not to marry your best friend, but to make sure you treat your spouse as if he or she were.” As for those irate singles, he says, “The major benefits of marriage can be achieved outside marriage. Single people shouldn’t feel that marriage is either a threat or a requirement.” They just need to make sure they have a bunch of great friends. Interestingly, these findings on marital happiness are not global. In some regions (Latin America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia), singles are actually happier than marrieds. however, made him blissfully happy.
John Helliwell, the well-known University of British Columbia economist, is often accused of being an apologist for marriage. He denies it. He says he just analyzes the research. And most of the research (sorry, singles!) says that married people, over all, are happier than unmarried ones.
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Wireless network is used to exchange information between the people and devices. For example, the home networks enable a new class of intelligent electronic devices that can interact with each other and with the internet in addition to providing connectivity between computers, phones and security/monitoring applications. Wireless networks are also used for video conferencing, smart class and remote training facilities. The wireless sensors have an enormous range of both commercial and military applications that include monitoring of fire hazards, stress and strain in buildings and bridges, carbon dioxide movement and the spread of chemicals and gases at a disaster site. These wireless sensors are self configured into a network to process and interpret sensor measurement and they convey this information to a centralized control location. Wireless sensors are used mainly in military applications that include identification and tracking of enemy targets, detection of chemical and biological attacks, and support of unmanned robotic vehicles. Finally, wireless networks enable distributed control systems with remote devices, sensors, and actuators are linked together via wireless communication channels. Such networks enable automated highways and mobile robot. These necessity overhead throughout extremely dynamic network like MANET (Mobile adhoc Network) and such networks are more dynamic owing to the high mobility of transmitting nodes in the network due to collision occurrence and the sleep/awake rounds are frequently employed to reduce energy wastages of such devices and present an anti-collision technique.
A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network), perhaps brought in as an infrastructure less dynamic network, consists of independent number of mobile nodes that can communicate to one another through radio wave. A MANET is a self assembling infrastructure of a couple of networks of mobile devices that are linked up by wireless. These set of wireless mobile devices called wireless nodes which actively connect and transfer information. Each node in a MANET is capable of moving independently in any direction, and hence it varies its connection to other devices often; each must send on traffic unrelated to its own use, and consequently be a router. The MANET network alters servers and clients to communicate in an undetermined topology area and it is utilized in many applications and fast developing networks. With the raising usage of mobile nodes, these nodes will collide with one another rendering the computing power and connectivity to operate applications such as multiplayer games or collaborative work tools, MANETs are becoming more crucial since they satisfy the demand of today’s users to connect and interact in a quick manner using hybrid beacon scheduling approach especially to avoid the collision in mobile nodes.
Localization for autonomous mobile robots is the process of finding out and tracking the position and direction of the robot in any given environment. Localization has become a subject matter over the past few decades. Localization is the principle practice that allows a robot to navigate, investigate, and carry out its allotted work effectively without human intrusion. Exteroceptive sensory systems, such as ultrasonic sensors, Light detection and Ranging devices (LRDs) and image sensors, act as alternative techniques in addressing the above mentioned restriction by offering information about the external environment around the robot. These external sensors help in determining the orientation of the robot with the measurements such as distance, and angle, etc. with the beacons in the external environment. When all these external measurements that are in correspondence with the same robot pose, self-localization method is applied.
During continuous movement of the robot, external measurements are obtained at different times, and they do not coincide accurately with similar robot poses. Thus, self localization method results in larger errors due to collision while calculating the robot pose. Hence to overcome this issue, most of the systems work by combining odometry values with measured values of external environment to obtain optimal evaluation of the robot poses. The most extensively used tool for this fusion technique is the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF and its variants were used for localization in many conventional techniques. Also, the particle filter was used as an alternate means to combine odometry and external measurements, which was one of the probabilistic approaches.
The localization system used in this method employs ultrasonic sensors. Many ultrasonic transmitters are attached to the ceiling at certain recognized locations in the global co-ordinate system for anti-collision. Three ultrasonic receivers are placed equilaterally over the top of the mobile robot. It is assumed that the robot navigates over an indoor plane as common in most of the indoor applications. Also the z-value of the robot and the receivers are assumed to be in the global coordinate system.
A novel technology in wireless communication called Multiple Input- Multiple Output (MIMO) assures to eliminate the boundaries and defeats of wireless communication networks by rendering the efficiency of spectrum close to Shannon’s bound is proposed in this work. MIMO procreates range, dependability and information speed of previous wireless communication systems. Owing to its benefits, MIMO system is recruited into almost each and every wireless communication network like CDMA-2000 and WCDMA technologies.
aph to tamil translation online
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First of all I want to take this opportunity to wish you all the best for this New Year 2015 that is just around the corner, bringing with it an atmosphere of joy and happiness, but not only! As in what concerns you, Richard, the year 2015 will also mark an important period of change and transformation, a fresh start that will push you towards a path of happiness and stability in different areas of your life, and more precisely in your love life, career, financial success, family relations and all the areas of your life that you are concerned about at the moment.
Richard, in many aspects the year 2015 will be a lot busier then several last years, and especially in the areas where talent and creative abilities are important. A lot of changes of the prior importance are going to happen in your life during the next coming months, which is due to powerful planetary movement happening in your natal chart and which is going to have numerous important repercussions, making 2015 unforgettable for you.
Richard, of course I am going to explain to you in details everything that is going to happen and I have also worked on an outline of the sequence of the astrological events that are going to lead to these changes, however I would like to start with the explanation on how exactly I have been able to find out all these details.
I have started with the in depth analysis of your personal astral configuration using your details, such as your date of birth 3rd January 1994, your astrological sign Capricorn and your place of birth tuticorin. This has allowed me to draw a picture of your natal chart and then to see what exactly is going to happen in your life, like for example the Mercury Retrograde happening at the very beginning of 2015. You should also be aware of Uranus being in Opposition to the Lunar Node, as this is going to bring some particular sensitive aspects into your everyday life. But I do not want to be too technique, Richard, as what is the most important for you is to know what repercussions all these planetary movements and shifts are going to have on your everyday life, and we are going to come to this point shortly.
Richard, as you know I am used to be precise in my work and I always double check each and every statement and prediction I give you about your future in order to be sure you get the best out of all the opportunities that are waiting for you, and of course while working on this reading and to give you a broader picture of this important year 2015, Richard, I have completed the analysis of your natal chart with a numerological reading based on your name Richard, and also based on different other personal details you have provided me with.
According to my analysis this year 2015 will be marked by an important peak point, that is going to be a start of a new period in different areas of your life, and this peak date is going to be particularly important in what concerns your love life, as the way you act and also the timing are going to define not only the short-term atmosphere in your romantic sphere , but also this period is going to have important repercussions for the next years to come and in the long-term period. This event is going to happen at the same time when Mercury is going to be in retrograde motion which coincides with the peak period according to your numerological analysis. Richard, it means that at this time in 2015 (I will need to look into it in more details later on), you will need to be in the right time and in the right place and also act in a very precise manner in order to seize this unique opportunity in your love life.
Let me be direct with you Richard, this is your time! And you will need to take an important decision in regards to your love life during this crucial peak date that will define all the future course of your romantic relationships; the importance of this decision cannot be underestimated and it is completely unthinkable that you take it without being properly guided and informed. Richard, you should be aware of all the pitfalls and misunderstandings to choose what is the best for you and the stars can show you the way to how make the best choices, as yes, Richard, the planets will open the doors to happy and flourishing love life for you but it is up to you to pass through.
Richard, but this is just the beginning of all the important changes that are going to happen in your life during the year 2015! Another area of your life where the influence of planetary shifts is going to have a huge impact will be your career path and professional environment, and this both according to you natal chart and also from the numerological point of view. This year 2015 will be very busy for you, Richard, as Jupiter is going through your 6th house, which is a promise of an important encounter with the person who is going to play a very important role in your professional life in the future.
The next point which is important to emphasize for you, Richard, is that due to the very strong interaction between Jupiter going through your natal chart and taking into account the position of Mercury there is a strong link between your professional and career sector with the friendship, mutual understanding. It seems like success in one of them will nourish success in the other one. During 2015 you will meet a person (I cannot tell for now if you already know this person or not, this point needs to be explored in a more detailed report) that will push you towards an important opportunity in your career sector, and thus giving you the chance to find more friends in your professional environment, who in their turn will open more and more chances for further professional development. The crucial thing here is not to miss out this encounter with the person who will actually start this so-called "chain reaction" and for this you will need to be in the right place at the right time and act in a very precise manner, so that you can benefit from this chance to get your professional success to the next level!
As you already know Richard, this encounter is going to happen during the peak period (which I have discovered for you according to the numerological analysis of your personal details) and I was so astonished to see that this peak period coincides with Mars entering your sign Capricorn, so you should absolutely not let this chance go by and benefit from positive influence of the planets to boost your life in different spheres!
Moreover, I have clearly sensed that you have some kind of project on your mind, which you have been thinking about for some time already, and this year (let me mention, Richard, that it is going to be the year of Wooden Goat according to the Chinese astrology) will also be beneficial in terms of the realization of this project, as additional success and financial independence gained through career development, which I have just talked about, will give you a possibility to put more time and money into this particular project, so important for you. The negative aspect between Saturn and Uranus present in your astral sky since 2012 and which was blocking you to the certain degree, is going to shift, opening you the way towards new achievements. However you should be aware, that 2015 will set the basis for the future, as during this time you will absolutely need to start moving forward in order to get the results you are hoping to see some time later.
Generally, this year will be very beneficial and lucky for you in all the areas of your life you are concerned about at the moment, including financial success. Richard, I can see that at the moment you are particularly worried about your financial situation and this point stands out clearly in your natal chart, and also it makes your worried not only about yourself, but also about some people that are very close to you and who are important to you, Richard. Let me reassure you, that during the peak period you will be able to completely change this situation. On one hand it will be due to the career progress we have talked about before, but on the other hand during the year 2015 you will have an important financial opportunity that you need to seize. However I cannot tell you more about this point simply because a more detailed study of your natal chart is necessary in order to identify all the lucky dates during this year, so that you do not pass by this unique chance to achieve prosperity.
Richard, as you can see all the areas of your life are going to be touched by the important and crucial positive changes waiting for you in 2015, starting from your love life, your professional success, financial situation, family relations, friends, home and a lot more. On the page below that I have set up for you Richard you can discover more about what the next year has ins tore for you:
To summarize the most important changes that are going to happen in your life will be:
-IN TERMS OF YOUR LOVE LIFE: you will need to take an important decision in your love life in regards to the situation you find yourself in at the moment, and this decision absolutely needs to be the right one for you, Richard, as it will define not only your immediate future in this area of your life, but it will also have important repercussions for the years to come. This decision needs to be taken having all the information at hand in order to avoid all the hidden pitfalls and to be sure you will be completely satisfied with your love life in the future.
-IN WHAT CONCERNS YOUR PROFESSIONAL AREA: During 2015 you will have an opportunity to meet a person, who is going to play an important role in your professional and financial success in the future, as this person will open you the doors to the new professional opportunity. Besides this person will allow you to meet more people, who will become your friends and who will contribute to your career in different however always positive ways.
-AS FOR YOUR FINANCIAL SITUATION: Richard, your financial situation is also going to changes, and there will be two main factors leading to important step forward and helping you to resolve your current issues, which are you professional success but also an important financial opportunity that is going to be presented to you during the next year.
-AND MUCH MORE...: You will also make numerous positive changes in other areas of your life, like for example: you will have a chance to put into life a project you have on your mind, also it will be a period for your personal development and self-realization.
Richard, I can clearly sense that you are very excited about all these changes and I know that you really need and deserve them, but at the same time you also know that the astrological influences can only open the doors and you and only you will be responsible for going through them! Yes, Richard, you will need to be alert and active and act in a very precise moment in order to make your dreams come true. I want to warn (as I am here for you and everything I am writing now is only in your best interest, dear friend), that if you just count on stars to do everything at your place, you risk missing out your chances and all the opportunities. I want you to understand, Richard, that you are the master of your destiny and astrological events only give you opportunities to make changes, they give you a choice now during the coming year 2015 to change your life for the better on different levels, but at the end what counts is your free will and you will decide if you grab this chance or just let it go.
Richard, you need to start getting ready for this incredible year right now, you need to be ready to act and also you should have all the information in your disposition in order to know how, when and in which way to act to have all the chances on your side. So I am offering you my help and I will put all my experience and professionalism at your service, Richard, and on the link below you can find out how exactly I can help you:
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1. Working together…work safely if everyone is moving forward together and taking responsibility for their safe work environment then our safety takes care of itself.
2. Visualize, Internalize and Realize that safety depends on you so focus on safety every day and you’ll find that you’re Safe actions will bring lasting satisfaction.
3. There are no guarantees when it comes to safety unless you are doing your part so turn your attention to accident prevention and stay alert to the possible hazards in your work environment so that you can take steps to correct or guard against them.
4. We all find ourselves in situations that at times seem hopeless. And, we all have the choice to do nothing or take action. Your actions could save lives, so don’t be a bystander when it comes to safety.
5. A Great Work Practice is To Concentrate on the task(s) at hand. Distractions, boredom or fatigue can lead to accidents and other safety hazards. Always remember a danger foreseen is half avoided
6. The lesson for the day is time runs out on luck; obeying safety rules will save us from having to learn this lesson the hard way.
7. No project, no matter how critical, is worth a lost finger, a blinded eye, or tragic loss of life. When safety becomes the primary guideline for progress, all parties reap the rewards of a job well done and done safely.
8. Lead your teams by example in following all established safety procedures for alone we can do so little, but together we can do so much.
9. Prevent the worst and Put safety first, because being Safe today will keep you Alive tomorrow.
10. How do you spell Safety? Safety Means Always Remember Teamwork
11. Safety a culture to live by; Communication Urge Leadership Teamwork Understanding RecognitionEmpowerment
12. OUR STRENGTH IS THE SUM OF THE INDIVIDUALS WHO WORK HERE PRACTICE SAFETY ALWAYS
13. Safety is about doing the right thing, even if no one is looking, because safety starts with me!
14. People, helping people all lending hands for our safety.
15. The difference between a safe act and an unsafe act depends on the level of importance one places on doing what is right.
16. The safety of our team members should always come before the production of our parts.
17. “Winning at safety is like winning in sports. It’s not the effort of one person, but the focus and determination of the entire team working towards a common goal. You have to get out and give it your best, every single day”
18. If you put good people in bad systems you get bad results so let us always remember to promote safety in all we do as to ensure our system works so our Team members will always be safe!
19. When it comes to safety lets us never leave a team member behind for it is the responsibility of all that everyone goes home safe to their families.
20. Although hope maybe a pleasant acquaintance, it is better to have Safety as your best friend.
21. THINK SAFETY! Watch your THOUGHTS; they become WORDS.
22. TALK ABOUT SAFETY! Watch your WORDS; they become ACTIONS.
23. TEACH SAFETY! Watch your ACTIONS; they become HABITS.
24. WORK SAFELY! Watch your HABBITS; they become CHARACTER.
25. LIVE SAFELY Watch your CHARACTER; it becomes your DESTINY.
26. Take the extra step when it comes to safety, because if you just tell me, I may forget, If show you me, I might remember, but if you involve me I’m committed.
27. Plan ahead, always put safety first.
28. Because when it comes to accidents,
29. Nobody can go back and start a new beginning,
30. But anyone can start today and make a new ending.
31. Each and every one of us shares the responsibility of making sure everyone goes home to their family’s safe daily. We can achieve this by following the safety procedures that are in place, our families count on us, let’s not let them down.
32. If You Know Your Eyes are Priceless then protecting them at work should always be your number onepriority so make the right choice and use Eye protection always after all Your Personal Safety Depends on You!
33. Living with your mistakes is harder than you think….Always remember that no matter what profession you are in, workplace safety is a concept, which should be taken seriously and followed meticulously Your Family Depends on It!
34. The nice thing about teamwork is that you always have others on your side. So remember Courtesy and common sense promotes safety.
35. We live in a world full of uncertainties most of which we have little or no control over. Our Safety does not have to be one of those uncertainties if we work together and follow the rules.
36. Take responsibility for your safe work environment. Have the strength to do the right thing every time even when it’s seems easier not to.
37. Stop to think before you act. Accidents are not always the result of bad luck. They occur when someone decides – consciously or not – to take a chance. Be smart and avoid taking unnecessary risks
The 10 commandments of workplace safety
1. Always be responsible for the safety of yourself and others.
2. Always remember all accidents are preventable.
3. Always follow company rules, regulations and procedures.
4. Always assess the risks, Stop and think.
5. Always be proactive about safety.
6. Always deter from situations you’re not trained to handle.
7. Always manage the lift.
8. Always Be prepared.
9. Always practice good housekeeping.
10. Always take the safest path, never take shortcuts.
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One of the biggest issues facing employers today is the safety of their employees. Workplace accidents are increasingly common. In 2003, for instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported a total of 4.4 million nonfatal workplace injuries in private industries. Organizations have a moral responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of their members. Organizational practices that promote safety can also help a company establish competitive advantage by reducing costs and complying with safety laws.
Workplace safety can be quite expensive. Unintentional injuries alone cost more than $146.6 billion per year for medical and insurance costs, workers' compensation, survivor benefits, lost wages, damaged equipment and materials, production delays, other workers' time losses, selection and training costs for replacement workers, and accident reporting.
State and federal governments strictly regulate organizational safety practices. The government views safety violations very seriously, and the penalties for violating safety laws can be quite severe. In addition to being issued large fines, employers who violate safety regulations can be held liable for criminal charges. The following examples illustrate the types of penalties associated with such violations:
In November of 2004, OSHA fined General Motors (GM) Powertrain plant in Massena, NY for six serious safety violations, including an obstructed exit route, inadequate guarding of moving machine parts, and the failure to assess the need for personal protective equipment for workers. There were additional fines for recordkeeping violations, specifically underreporting injuries and illnesses. The penalty was $160,000.
In September of 2004, a Weyerhaeuser plant in West Virginia was cited for improper reporting of injuries and illnesses to OSHA. The fine was $77,000 and the company had nine months to undergo an independent audit of their recordkeeping practices.
In July of 2004, OSHA issued a proposed fine against Fru-Con Construction Corp in the amount of $280,000 for the company's negligence which resulted in the deaths of four employees. An improperly secured 2 million pound, 315 foot long launching truss collapsed, killing the four employees.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF SAFETY
PRACTICES AT THE WORKPLACE
Federal laws regulate the safety practices of most organizations. We limit our discussion to laws that affect a majority of organizations, but note that several additional laws exist which cover particular segments of the workforce. For instance, numerous laws pertain to government contractors, to specific states, and to specific industries (e.g., transportation, nuclear power, food, and drug).
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is probably the most comprehensive and wide-ranging legislation in this area. It applies to nearly all U.S. workplaces. The act aims to ensure safe working conditions for every American worker by:
Setting and enforcing workplace safety standards;
Promoting employer-sponsored educational programs that foster safety and health; and
Requiring employers to keep records regarding job-related safety and health matters.
Three separate agencies were created by the act:
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) develop and enforce health and safety standards.
The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission hear appeals from employers who wish to contest OSHA rulings.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducts health and safety research to suggest new standards and update previous ones.
The following discussion focuses on the safety standards imposed by OSHA and how they are enforced. OSHA has issued literally thousands of safety and health standards. Areas of basic concern include fire safety, personal protection equipment, electrical safety, basic housekeeping, and machine guards. Each standard specifies such things as permissible exposure limit, monitoring requirements, methods of compliance, personal protective equipment, hygiene facilities, training, and record-keeping.
To comply with these standards, most mid- to large-sized organizations employ safety professionals to keep up with them and ensure that each is being met. These professionals face too many specific issues to mention here, but some of the most important issues they must address appear in Figure 1.
Figure 1 OSHAEmployee Responsibilities
Companies with more than ten employees are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Companies with fewer than ten employees are exempt from such inspections, but can be investigated if a safety-related problem is brought to the attention of OSHA. High-hazard industries, such as manufacturing firms, chemical companies, and construction companies, are subject to inspections regardless of the number of employees.
OSHA conducts inspections based on the following priority classifications, which are listed in order of importance:
Imminent danger. OSHA gives top priority to workplace situations that present an "imminent danger" of death or serious injury to employees. The company must take immediate corrective action.
Fatality or catastrophe investigations. The second highest priority is given to sites that have experienced an accident that has caused at least one employee to die or three or more to be hospitalized. Employers must report these events within 8 hours. The inspection aims to determine the cause of the accident and whether any violation of OSHA standards contributed to it.
Employee complaint investigations. OSHA responds third to employee complaints about hazards or violations. The speed with which OSHA responds depends on the seriousness of the complaint. Employees may request to remain anonymous.
Referrals from other sources. Consideration is given to referrals of hazard information from federal, state and local agencies, individuals, organizations, and the media.
Follow-ups. OSHA sometimes will return to verify that violations have been corrected.
General programmed inspections. OSHA will also inspect an organization if it is a high-hazard industry or has a lost workday injury rate that is above the national norm for that industry.
When an OSHA inspection reveals that an employer has violated one of its standards, it issues a citation. The citation, posted near the site of the violation, lists the nature of the violation, the abatement period (i.e., the time frame within which the company must rectify the problem), and any penalty levied against the employer. Willful violations (i.e., those that an employer intentionally and knowingly commits) carry a penalty of up to $70,000 for each offense. If a death occurs because of a willful violation, the employer may be both fined and imprisoned.
Congress enacted the Hazard Communication Standard (more commonly referred to as the Employee Right-to-Know Law) in 1984. This law gives workers the right to know what hazardous substances they are dealing with on the job. A substance is considered hazardous if exposure to it can lead to acute or chronic health problems. Federal and state agencies have compiled lists of more than 1,000 substances deemed hazardous under this law. The law requires all organizations to (1) develop a system for inventorying hazardous substances, (2) label the containers of these substances, and (3) provide employees with needed information and training to handle and store these substances safely.
Employers typically violate the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard more frequently than any other OSHA standard. The majority of companies are cited for failing to have:
written hazard communication programs
an up-to-date hazardous chemical inventory list
properly labeled chemical containers
material safety data at the work site, in the form of material safety data sheets (MSDS)
training programs for teaching employees about the chemicals they work with
Government fines for right-to-know violations may be as high as $1000 per chemical for first violations and $10,000 per chemical for second violations. Additional penalties for environmental crimes include fines up to $75,000 per day and imprisonment.
Another law affecting organizational safety and health practices is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). An individual is protected by the ADA if he or she is disabled, that is, if the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the individual's major life activities. According to the ADA regulations, temporary, non-chronic impairments that are short in duration and have little or no long-term impact are usually not considered disabilities under the act. For example, broken limbs, sprains, concussions, appendicitis, or influenza are not disabilities. However, if a broken leg did not heal properly and resulted in permanent impairment that significantly restricted walking or other major life activities, it could then be considered a disability.
In 2004, there were 15,376 total charges filed as ADA violations with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). From July 1992 (when the law first took effect) through the end of September 2004, employees filed 204,997 complaints with the EEOC. Employees who became disabled as the result of workplace conditions or injuries filed about half of these charges. Individuals with back impairments have lodged the greatest number of charges. People also frequently claimed emotional, neurological, and extremity impairments.
Penalties for ADA violations may be as high as $50,000 for initial violations and up to $100,000 for each subsequent violation. In addition, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 allows claimants to collect up to $300,000 in punitive damages for "willful" violations.
ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT
Despite laws designed to ensure safety at the workplace, U.S. companies' accident rates are alarmingly high. According to one estimate, employees lost eighty million workdays in 2002 from workplace injuries, and more than 3.7 million people suffered disabling injuries on the job that year.
What causes all of these industrial injuries? These causes can be divided into three categories: employee error, equipment insufficiency, and procedure insufficiency. Examples of causes falling within each category are listed here:
Employee error—misjudged situations; distractions by others; neuromuscular malfunctions; inappropriate working positions; and knowingly using defective equipment;
Equipment insufficiency—use of inappropriate equipment; safety devices being removed or inoperative; and the lack of such things as engineering controls, respiratory protection, and protective clothing;
Procedure insufficiency—failure of procedure for eliciting warning of hazard; inappropriate procedure for handling materials; failure to lock out or tag out; and a lack of written work procedures.
Workplace accidents pose serious problems for employees and for a firm's competitive advantage, but employers can prevent most of them. Many preventive strategies work.
Some people just seem to be accident prone. If some people do have inherent tendencies toward accidents, then organizations should be able to lower their accident rates by screening out accident-prone applicants. Research studies have discovered that individuals with certain personality characteristics are more likely than others to be involved in industrial accidents. For instance, one study found that people with higher accident rates tend to be impulsive and rebellious, and they tend to blame outside forces, rather than themselves, for their mishaps. Another study identified the following four "high-risk" personality characteristics:
Risk taking: high risk-takers actually seek out danger rather than trying to minimize or avoid it.
Impulsiveness: impulsive individuals fail to think through the consequences of their actions.
Rebelliousness: rebellious individuals tend to break established rules, including safety rules.
Hostility: hostile individuals tend to lose their tempers easily and thus engage in aggressive acts, such as kicking a jammed machine.
Many organizations now use personality tests to screen out individuals with accident-prone tendencies. For example, some companies use a test (called the Personnel Selection Inventory-Form 3S) to assess applicants' safety consciousness. One part of the test measures the degree to which individuals perceive a connection between their own behavior and its consequences. As noted earlier, individuals unable to see this connection are at greater risk for accidents.
Employers who provide all new employees with training on safe and proper job procedures experience fewer accidents. Employees should learn how to perform each of their tasks as safely as possible. Training should be very specific, as illustrated in the example that follows. This example covers the procedures to be followed by employees working at a large food manufacturing plant:
When picking up pans from the conveyor belt, pick up no more than two pans before you place them on the pan rack.
Stack roll pans no higher than the rear rail of the pan rack.
When you lift or lower the dough, keep both hands on the dump chain.
When you pull the dough trough away from the dough mixer, hold both hands on the front rail and not on the rail sides.
While safety training is essential, employees do not always apply what they have learned. Just as many automobile drivers know it is wrong to exceed legal speed limits, but do it anyway, workers may choose to ignore instructions and carry out procedures in their own, unsafe way. One way to mitigate this problem is to implement a safety incentive program. Such programs aim to motivate safe behavior by providing workers with incentives for avoiding accidents. The organization formulates safety goals (usually on a department-wide basis) and rewards employees if these goals are met. For example, a particular department may establish the goal of reducing lost-time accidents by 50 percent over the next three months. If this goal were to be met, all employees within that department would receive an incentive reward, usually in the form of a cash bonus or merchandise.
Safety incentive programs often work quite well. For example, Willamette Industries implemented a program because it was experiencing an average of thirty accidents per year that caused people to miss work. As a result of the program, the company went 450 days without a lost-time accident.
Two problems often arise with safety incentive programs, however. In some cases, workers get so caught up in trying to win incentive rewards that they conceal their injuries and do not report them. When injuries go unreported, injured workers relinquish their rights to workers' compensation and firms remain unaware of safety problems. Second, workers may continue to perform in an unsafe manner (e.g., take risky shortcuts) because they remain unconvinced that such behavior is likely to result in accidents. Unfortunately, these employees are grievously mistaken; unsafe behaviors are a leading cause of accidents. According to one estimate, for every 100,000 unsafe behaviors there are 10,000 near-miss accidents, 1,000 recordable accidents, 100 lost-time accidents, and 1 fatality.
Because employees who "know better" often continue to engage in accident-causing behavior, many employers have redirected their focus from accident prevention to the prevention of unsafe acts that could lead to an accident. To do so, firms conduct safety audits. A safety committee or supervisors who observe employees on the job and correct unsafe behaviors generally conduct such audits.
Each employee should be monitored according to a planned schedule, generally on a weekly basis, as follows:
STEP 1: OBSERVATION.
Stop in the work area for a few moments and observe worker's activities, looking for both safe and unsafe practices. Use the following guide:
Be alert to unsafe practices that the employee corrects immediately upon seeing you enter the area (putting on protective equipment, such as gloves or goggles).
Note whether appropriate protective clothing is being worn.
Observe how employees use tools.
Scrutinize the safety of the work area. For instance, is the floor slippery?
Determine whether rules, procedures, and operating instructions are being followed.
STEP 2: EMPLOYEE DISCUSSION.
These discussions should help employees recognize and correct their unsafe acts. When engaging in them, adhere to the following advice:
If you spot an unsafe act, be non-confrontational. Point out the violation and ask the worker to state what he or she was doing and what safety-related consequences may arise if such behavior continues. Your goal is to help, not blame. Audits should not result in disciplinary actions unless an individual consistently violates safety rules.
As you observe your employees, encourage them to discuss any safety concerns they may have and ask them to offer any ideas for safety improvement.
Commend any good performance that you observe.
STEP 3: RECORDING AND FOLLOW-UP.
Findings should be recorded in writing. Pursue any item discussed during the audit that requires follow-up.
Accident investigations determine accident causes so that changes can be made to prevent the future occurrence of similar accidents. "Near misses" should also be investigated so that problems can be corrected before serious accidents occur. Supervisors always play a key role in accident investigations. For minor accidents, investigation may be limited to the supervisor meeting with the injured worker and filing a report. In large-scale investigations, the supervisor is usually part of a team of experts, which may also include an engineer, maintenance supervisor, upper-level manager, and/or safety professional.
Accident investigations should be performed in the following manner. When an accident occurs, the investigator's first responsibility is to ensure the safety of all employees by:
making sure the injured are cared for and receive medical attention, if necessary;
guarding against a more dangerous secondary event by removing danger sources and evacuating other personnel from the area if necessary; and
restricting access to the area so no one else will be harmed, and so the scene will not be disturbed.
You should then begin an investigation to identify both the immediate and underlying causes of the accident. The immediate cause is the event that directly led to the accident, such as a slippery floor, failure to wear safety gear, or failure to follow proper procedures.
Immediate causes, while easily found, are not always very helpful in suggesting how future incidents of this nature can be avoided. To accomplish this aim, the investigator must discover the underlying cause of the accident. For example, suppose a worker slips and falls on spilled oil. The oil on the floor is the immediate cause of the accident, but you need to know why it was not cleaned up and why a machine was leaking oil in the first place. Poor training, lack of rule enforcement, low safety awareness, poor maintenance, or crowded work areas commonly underlie accidents.
The investigator should ensure the accident scene is kept intact until the investigation is finished, as this will be the only chance to view the scene exactly as it was at the time of the accident. If a camera is available, photographs of the scene should be taken. Nothing related to the incident should be destroyed or discarded. The investigator should inspect the location (e.g., check for chemicals, broken pieces of machinery) and interview injured or affected workers, eyewitnesses, and anyone else who may be familiar with the accident area. Interviews should be conducted immediately, while the incident is still fresh in everyone's mind. Individuals should give their own account of the incident; by letting them tell their stories wi
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