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English

Tamil

Info

English

risk

Tamil

Puzzle

Last Update: 2013-09-02
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Risk

Tamil

இடர்

Last Update: 2014-09-05
Usage Frequency: 36
Quality:
Reference:

English

Risk Assessment

Tamil

இடர் மதிப்பீடு

Last Update: 2015-05-01
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:

English

Risk management

Tamil

இடர் மேலாண்மை

Last Update: 2014-06-06
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:

English

Relative freedom from danger, risk, or threat of harm, injury, or loss to personnel and/or property, whether caused deliberately or by accident.

Tamil

உறவினர் ஆபத்து, ஆபத்து, அல்லது தீங்கு அச்சுறுத்தல், காயம், அல்லது இழப்பு இருந்து சுதந்திரம் பணியாளர்கள் மற்றும் / அல்லது சொத்து, வேண்டுமென்றோ அல்லது ஏற்படும் என்பதை விபத்து.

Last Update: 2015-11-26
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Even crowd funding would most likely be declined due to the high risk of default.

Tamil

மேலும்,இயல்புநிலையில் அதிக ஆபத்து இருப்பதன் காரணமாக ஈவன் கிரொவ்ட் நிதி உதவியும் பெரும்பாலும் அனேகமாக மறுக்கப்படக்கூடும்.

Last Update: 2015-10-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:

English

_________ is an international food safety regulation that is followed to reduce the risk of hazards in a food-processing unit.

Tamil

_________ உணவுப் செயலாக்க அலகு இடையூறுகளைச் அபாயத்தை குறைக்க தொடர்ந்து என்று ஒரு சர்வதேச உணவு பாதுகாப்பு நெறிப்படுத்துதல் ஆகும்.

Last Update: 2015-09-26
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Preventing the risk of infection associated with a significant decrease in neutrophils: warning signs / action to be taken in the first 2 months of treatment.

Tamil

நியூட்ரோபில்ஸில் (பல முனை வெள்ளணுக் கருக்கள்) ஒரு குறிப்பிடத்தக்க சரிவுடன் தொடர்புடைய நோய்த்தொற்று ஆபத்தைத் தடுத்தல்: எச்சரிக்கை அறிகுறிகள் / சிகிச்சையின் முதல் 2 மாதங்களில் எடுக்கப்பட வேண்டிய நடவடிக்கை .

Last Update: 2014-07-09
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:

English

Preventing the risk of severe skin toxicity: warning signs / action to be taken in the first 2 months of treatment:

Tamil

கடுமையான தோல் நச்சுத்தன்மை ஆபத்தைத் தடுத்தல்: எச்சறிக்கை அறிகுறிகள் / சிகிச்சையின் முதல் 2 மாதங்களில் எடுக்கப்பட வேண்டிய நடவடிக்கை:

Last Update: 2014-07-09
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference:

English

Extended work shifts of twelve hours or longer is common with hospital staff nurses. Nurses who work when they have not obtained sufficient sleep are putting their patients’ health at risk. They also risk damaging their own health and if they drive home when they are drowsy, also put the health of the general public at risk. Furthermore, nurses working shifts of ten hours or longer were up to two and a half times more likely than nurses working shorter shifts to experience burnout and job dissatisfaction and intend to leave the job. Thus this study is a simple way of bringing forth the negative impacts of sleep deprivation on shift working nurses.

Tamil

பத்தி

Last Update: 2016-03-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT I. Contract Parties Now comes (builder’s name) of (address) and (buyer’s name) of (address) to hereby agree to build a house on property located at (common address) and legally described as (Insert legal description here.) . II. Contract Documents The terms of this contract include all the documents specifically listed below, and constitute the entire terms of the agreement between the parties. The terms of this contract shall prevail over any conflicting provision in the documents incorporated by reference. 1. Architectural Plans and Drawings dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 2. Specifications dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 3. Schedule of Allowance Items dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 4. Title of document – add any documents not included in the previous samples, delete any of the previous samples no longer needed dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. III. Building Plans FIRST OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUYERS The builder agrees to construct the home in accordance with the plans, including specifications and drawings, supplied by the buyer and incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents. The builder assumes no responsibility or liability for defects in the design or engineering in these plans. The buyer represents to the builder that the buyer is the sole owner of the plans or has the legal right to use the plans. The buyer agrees to indemnify and hold the builder harmless for any copyright action which may be asserted as a result of the use of the plans. The buyer warrants that the plans are adequate and that the builder can rely on them. The buyer will be liable for any damages caused by defects in the plans, including, but not limited to, additional material costs, additional labor costs, pro rata overhead and profit. SECOND OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUILDER The builder has provided the plans, specifications and drawings which are incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents, and which are to be used for the construction of the house. The builder makes no representation about the quality of these plans beyond those specifically provided in the warranties clause of this contract. IV. Completion Time Assuming all conditions are satisfied and weather permits, the work to be performed under the contract shall be substantially completed no later than days after the work commences. The work shall commence within days after the permits necessary to start work have been issued, the buyer has supplied the builder with a written notice of financing as described in paragraph V. Financing, and the buyer shall have supplied the builder with a correct statement of the recorded legal title of the property and the buyer’s interest in the property. Any time lost by reason of changes to the contract or changes in plans by the buyer, other acts of the buyer, strikes, weather conditions not reasonably anticipated, or any other condition not within the builder’s control shall be added to the specified time for completion. For any delays which are not the builder’s responsibility, the contract price shall increase by any increase in the builder’s costs caused by the delay. A claim for an increase in time for the performance of the contract, or an increase in the contract cost shall be made within days after the builder first recognizes the condition giving rise to the claim. V. Financing This contract is contingent upon the buyer obtaining a construction loan in the amount of $ dollars. All fees and expenses of obtaining a loan shall be borne by the buyer. The builder is not required to begin construction until the buyer provides the builder with written notice from the lender confirming the loan. VI. Contract Price FIRST OPTION: FIXED PRICE CONTRACT The buyer agrees to pay a total price of $ dollars to the builder for construction of the house, and the builder agrees to provide all the labor, materials, equipment, tools, and other services necessary to construct the house. Upon the signing of this contract, the buyer agrees to pay $ dollars to the builder as a deposit. The buyer will make the following interim payments: (List the amounts and number of the progress payments and what triggers them: for example, specific dates such as the first Monday of every month; or the start or the completion of specific construction events.) The buyer agrees to make a final payment in the amount of $ within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. SECOND OPTION: COST PLUS FEE The builder agrees to construct the house according to the plans. As consideration for the builder constructing the house, the buyer agrees to pay the builder’s full costs and expenses, plus a fixed fee of $ dollars. Upon signing the documents, the buyer will pay $ dollars as a deposit. Each (at the end of the week or month) the builder shall prepare for the buyer itemized statements of the costs and expenses incurred to date. The buyer will make a regular payment to the builder on (a regular recurring date such as the first Monday of each week) of the builder’s unpaid costs and expenses as stated in the most recent itemized statement. The builder’s costs and expenses include the following: All gross wages, employment benefits, costs of workers’ compensation, and unemployment insurance incurred by the builder as the cost of labor during the performance of this contract, plus all salaries for builder’s employees, but only to the extent that their time is spent on work required by this contract; The cost of all materials, supplies, and equipment consumed in this project, including the cost of delivery and transportation of materials; Rental charges consistent with those prevailing in the area for the use of machinery and equipment used at the construction site, whether owned by the builder or by others; All land costs associated with building this house, which are paid by the builder; All payments made by the builder for work performed according to subcontracts under this agreement; All costs incurred for safety and security at the job site; All costs incurred for building and code compliance; All landscaping and backfilling costs necessary under the contract documents; All builder’s risk and other insurance costs necessary under the contract documents; All soil fees and civil engineering fees necessary for this building project; All costs associated with differing site conditions. A differing site condition is a physical characteristic of the property that materially changes the construction techniques from those reasonably expected at the time of the contract. The buyer shall also pay to the builder a salary or hourly rate of $ for the builder’s actual hours spent on supervision of the construction of this house. The buyer will make a final payment of all amounts still owing within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. VII. Allowance Items Upon signing this contract, the buyer shall be given the selection guide that is incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents to help the buyer select allowance items, materials, and colors that will be required during the construction process. Exterior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. Interior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. VIII. Late Payments Payments not made in a timely fashion shall incur daily interest at the rate of % from the day the payment is due. If the buyer fails to pay the builder within seven days of the date the payment is due, through no fault of the builder, the builder may stop work and may keep the job idle until such time as payments that are due to the builder are paid. If the builder chooses not to stop work after a payment delay, this is not to be construed as a waiver of his rights to stop work if future payments are delayed. All attorney fees incurred by the builder to collect sums owed by the buyer shall be paid by the buyer, together with interest at the rate of %. IX. Permits and Surveys The buyer shall obtain and furnish all necessary surveys describing the physical characteristics of the property, the location of all utilities, and the location of all easements to the building that are necessary to allow the builder to complete his performance. If additional easements are necessary to complete the work, the buyer shall obtain those easements promptly. If no soil report is available, the buyer shall provide one at his own expense. The builder shall obtain building permits, licenses, building inspections and approvals required by local law. If a covenant or architectural review committee requires the approval of plans and specifications, the buyer shall be responsible for obtaining these approvals and paying for any fees connected with them. X. Change Orders The buyer may order changes in the work within the terms of this contract, but only by a prior written order and agreement with the builder that states the changes to the contract, the amount of any additional cost, and the additional number of days to be added to the contract completion date. Any of the buyers may sign the change order and that signature will be binding upon all of the buyers. The buyers hereby agree to make all requests for change orders to the builder, and not to issue instructions to, or otherwise negotiate for additional or changed work specifications with, the builder’s employees or subcontractors. XI. Insurance and Risk Management The builder shall obtain all workers’ compensation, commercial general liability insurance and comprehensive liability insurance necessary to protect builder from claims for damages due to bodily injury, including death, and for damages to property that may arise out of and during operations under this contract. The buyer shall purchase his own liability insurance including fire and casualty insurance to the full insurable value of the house and shall name the builder as an additional insured. Each party shall issue a certificate of insurance to the other prior to the commencement of construction. XII. Access to the Property Site The buyer shall have access to the property and the right to inspect the work in the presence of the builder. If the buyer enters the property during the course of construction without the permission of the builder, he does so at his own risk, and the buyer hereby releases the builder and does hereby hold the builder harmless from any and all claims for injury or damage to his person or property, and to the person or property of any person accompanying the buyer. XIII. Inspection, Acceptance, Final Payment and Possession At the final inspection, the buyer will give the builder a signed and dated list that identifies any alleged deficiencies in the quality of the work or materials. The builder shall correct any items on the buyer’s list that are, in the good faith judgment of the builder, deficient in the quality of the work and/or materials according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built. The builder shall correct those defects within a reasonable period of time. After the defects have been corrected according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built, the buyer shall sign a certificate of acceptance acknowledging that the defects on the buyer's list have been corrected according to the standards of this contract. The builder shall provide the buyer with an affidavit stating that all materials and services for which a lien could be filed have been paid, or an affidavit identifying what services and materials for which a lien could be filed have not been paid, and swearing that such amounts will be paid from the proceeds of the final payment. (Some states give the property owners the right to withhold amounts for unpaid potential lienholders, and make those payments directly to those potential lienholders.) Occupancy will be granted to the buyer when the buyer makes a final inspection of the home, signs a certificate of acceptance, and makes the final payment. XIV. Warranties All warranties are limited to the implied warranties of habitability and workmanlike construction and are limited to a period of one year from the date of the issuance of a certificate of occupancy by the local building code enforcement authority. This limited warranty is the only express warranty provided by the builder. XV. Disputes Should any dispute arise relative to the performance of this contract that the parties cannot resolve, the dispute shall be referred to a single arbitrator acceptable to the builder and the buyer. If the builder and the buyer cannot agree upon an arbitrator, the dispute shall be referred to the American Arbitration Association for resolution. All attorney fees that shall be incurred in the resolution of disputes shall be the responsibility of the party not prevailing in the dispute. XVI. The Governing Law and Assignment This contract will be construed, interpreted, and applied according to the law of the state where the property is located. This contract shall not be assigned without the written consent of all parties. XVII. Effective Date and Signature This contract shall become effective on the date it is signed by both parties. We, the undersigned, have read, understood, and agree to each of the provisions of this contract and hereby acknowledge receipt of a copy of this contract. By: (Builder’s name) on behalf of (Builder’s company name) Title: Date: By: (Buyer) Date: By: (Buyer) Date: Attached Contract Documents: Final Contract 1. Plans and Specifications 2. Allowance Schedule (Describe and include any other documents that have been incorporated by reference into the contract.)

Tamil

கட்டிடம் ஒப்பந்த உடன்பாடு

Last Update: 2015-11-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT I. Contract Parties Now comes (builder’s name) of (address) and (buyer’s name) of (address) to hereby agree to build a house on property located at (common address) and legally described as (Insert legal description here.) . II. Contract Documents The terms of this contract include all the documents specifically listed below, and constitute the entire terms of the agreement between the parties. The terms of this contract shall prevail over any conflicting provision in the documents incorporated by reference. 1. Architectural Plans and Drawings dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 2. Specifications dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 3. Schedule of Allowance Items dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. 4. Title of document – add any documents not included in the previous samples, delete any of the previous samples no longer needed dated with number of pages is hereby incorporated into this document. III. Building Plans FIRST OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUYERS The builder agrees to construct the home in accordance with the plans, including specifications and drawings, supplied by the buyer and incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents. The builder assumes no responsibility or liability for defects in the design or engineering in these plans. The buyer represents to the builder that the buyer is the sole owner of the plans or has the legal right to use the plans. The buyer agrees to indemnify and hold the builder harmless for any copyright action which may be asserted as a result of the use of the plans. The buyer warrants that the plans are adequate and that the builder can rely on them. The buyer will be liable for any damages caused by defects in the plans, including, but not limited to, additional material costs, additional labor costs, pro rata overhead and profit. SECOND OPTION: USE WHEN THE PLANS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE BUILDER The builder has provided the plans, specifications and drawings which are incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents, and which are to be used for the construction of the house. The builder makes no representation about the quality of these plans beyond those specifically provided in the warranties clause of this contract. IV. Completion Time Assuming all conditions are satisfied and weather permits, the work to be performed under the contract shall be substantially completed no later than days after the work commences. The work shall commence within days after the permits necessary to start work have been issued, the buyer has supplied the builder with a written notice of financing as described in paragraph V. Financing, and the buyer shall have supplied the builder with a correct statement of the recorded legal title of the property and the buyer’s interest in the property. Any time lost by reason of changes to the contract or changes in plans by the buyer, other acts of the buyer, strikes, weather conditions not reasonably anticipated, or any other condition not within the builder’s control shall be added to the specified time for completion. For any delays which are not the builder’s responsibility, the contract price shall increase by any increase in the builder’s costs caused by the delay. A claim for an increase in time for the performance of the contract, or an increase in the contract cost shall be made within days after the builder first recognizes the condition giving rise to the claim. V. Financing This contract is contingent upon the buyer obtaining a construction loan in the amount of $ dollars. All fees and expenses of obtaining a loan shall be borne by the buyer. The builder is not required to begin construction until the buyer provides the builder with written notice from the lender confirming the loan. VI. Contract Price FIRST OPTION: FIXED PRICE CONTRACT The buyer agrees to pay a total price of $ dollars to the builder for construction of the house, and the builder agrees to provide all the labor, materials, equipment, tools, and other services necessary to construct the house. Upon the signing of this contract, the buyer agrees to pay $ dollars to the builder as a deposit. The buyer will make the following interim payments: (List the amounts and number of the progress payments and what triggers them: for example, specific dates such as the first Monday of every month; or the start or the completion of specific construction events.) The buyer agrees to make a final payment in the amount of $ within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. SECOND OPTION: COST PLUS FEE The builder agrees to construct the house according to the plans. As consideration for the builder constructing the house, the buyer agrees to pay the builder’s full costs and expenses, plus a fixed fee of $ dollars. Upon signing the documents, the buyer will pay $ dollars as a deposit. Each (at the end of the week or month) the builder shall prepare for the buyer itemized statements of the costs and expenses incurred to date. The buyer will make a regular payment to the builder on (a regular recurring date such as the first Monday of each week) of the builder’s unpaid costs and expenses as stated in the most recent itemized statement. The builder’s costs and expenses include the following: All gross wages, employment benefits, costs of workers’ compensation, and unemployment insurance incurred by the builder as the cost of labor during the performance of this contract, plus all salaries for builder’s employees, but only to the extent that their time is spent on work required by this contract; The cost of all materials, supplies, and equipment consumed in this project, including the cost of delivery and transportation of materials; Rental charges consistent with those prevailing in the area for the use of machinery and equipment used at the construction site, whether owned by the builder or by others; All land costs associated with building this house, which are paid by the builder; All payments made by the builder for work performed according to subcontracts under this agreement; All costs incurred for safety and security at the job site; All costs incurred for building and code compliance; All landscaping and backfilling costs necessary under the contract documents; All builder’s risk and other insurance costs necessary under the contract documents; All soil fees and civil engineering fees necessary for this building project; All costs associated with differing site conditions. A differing site condition is a physical characteristic of the property that materially changes the construction techniques from those reasonably expected at the time of the contract. The buyer shall also pay to the builder a salary or hourly rate of $ for the builder’s actual hours spent on supervision of the construction of this house. The buyer will make a final payment of all amounts still owing within days of the buyer’s final inspection and acceptance of the property (alternative language, such as: “within days after substantial completion”). The buyer is not entitled to possession until after final payment. VII. Allowance Items Upon signing this contract, the buyer shall be given the selection guide that is incorporated by reference into paragraph II. Contract Documents to help the buyer select allowance items, materials, and colors that will be required during the construction process. Exterior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. Interior selections must be made within days of signing this contract. VIII. Late Payments Payments not made in a timely fashion shall incur daily interest at the rate of % from the day the payment is due. If the buyer fails to pay the builder within seven days of the date the payment is due, through no fault of the builder, the builder may stop work and may keep the job idle until such time as payments that are due to the builder are paid. If the builder chooses not to stop work after a payment delay, this is not to be construed as a waiver of his rights to stop work if future payments are delayed. All attorney fees incurred by the builder to collect sums owed by the buyer shall be paid by the buyer, together with interest at the rate of %. IX. Permits and Surveys The buyer shall obtain and furnish all necessary surveys describing the physical characteristics of the property, the location of all utilities, and the location of all easements to the building that are necessary to allow the builder to complete his performance. If additional easements are necessary to complete the work, the buyer shall obtain those easements promptly. If no soil report is available, the buyer shall provide one at his own expense. The builder shall obtain building permits, licenses, building inspections and approvals required by local law. If a covenant or architectural review committee requires the approval of plans and specifications, the buyer shall be responsible for obtaining these approvals and paying for any fees connected with them. X. Change Orders The buyer may order changes in the work within the terms of this contract, but only by a prior written order and agreement with the builder that states the changes to the contract, the amount of any additional cost, and the additional number of days to be added to the contract completion date. Any of the buyers may sign the change order and that signature will be binding upon all of the buyers. The buyers hereby agree to make all requests for change orders to the builder, and not to issue instructions to, or otherwise negotiate for additional or changed work specifications with, the builder’s employees or subcontractors. XI. Insurance and Risk Management The builder shall obtain all workers’ compensation, commercial general liability insurance and comprehensive liability insurance necessary to protect builder from claims for damages due to bodily injury, including death, and for damages to property that may arise out of and during operations under this contract. The buyer shall purchase his own liability insurance including fire and casualty insurance to the full insurable value of the house and shall name the builder as an additional insured. Each party shall issue a certificate of insurance to the other prior to the commencement of construction. XII. Access to the Property Site The buyer shall have access to the property and the right to inspect the work in the presence of the builder. If the buyer enters the property during the course of construction without the permission of the builder, he does so at his own risk, and the buyer hereby releases the builder and does hereby hold the builder harmless from any and all claims for injury or damage to his person or property, and to the person or property of any person accompanying the buyer. XIII. Inspection, Acceptance, Final Payment and Possession At the final inspection, the buyer will give the builder a signed and dated list that identifies any alleged deficiencies in the quality of the work or materials. The builder shall correct any items on the buyer’s list that are, in the good faith judgment of the builder, deficient in the quality of the work and/or materials according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built. The builder shall correct those defects within a reasonable period of time. After the defects have been corrected according to the standards of construction in the area in which the house is built, the buyer shall sign a certificate of acceptance acknowledging that the defects on the buyer's list have been corrected according to the standards of this contract. The builder shall provide the buyer with an affidavit stating that all materials and services for which a lien could be filed have been paid, or an affidavit identifying what services and materials for which a lien could be filed have not been paid, and swearing that such amounts will be paid from the proceeds of the final payment. (Some states give the property owners the right to withhold amounts for unpaid potential lienholders, and make those payments directly to those potential lienholders.) Occupancy will be granted to the buyer when the buyer makes a final inspection of the home, signs a certificate of acceptance, and makes the final payment. XIV. Warranties All warranties are limited to the implied warranties of habitability and workmanlike construction and are limited to a period of one year from the date of the issuance of a certificate of occupancy by the local building code enforcement authority. This limited warranty is the only express warranty provided by the builder. XV. Disputes Should any dispute arise relative to the performance of this contract that the parties cannot resolve, the dispute shall be referred to a single arbitrator acceptable to the builder and the buyer. If the builder and the buyer cannot agree upon an arbitrator, the dispute shall be referred to the American Arbitration Association for resolution. All attorney fees that shall be incurred in the resolution of disputes shall be the responsibility of the party not prevailing in the dispute. XVI. The Governing Law and Assignment This contract will be construed, interpreted, and applied according to the law of the state where the property is located. This contract shall not be assigned without the written consent of all parties. XVII. Effective Date and Signature This contract shall become effective on the date it is signed by both parties. We, the undersigned, have read, understood, and agree to each of the provisions of this contract and hereby acknowledge receipt of a copy of this contract. By: (Builder’s name) on behalf of (Builder’s company name) Title: Date: By: (Buyer) Date: By: (Buyer) Date: Attached Contract Documents: Final Contract 1. Plans and Specifications 2. Allowance Schedule (Describe and include any other documents that have been incorporated by reference into the contract.)

Tamil

கட்டிட ஒப்பந்த உடன்பாடு

Last Update: 2015-11-08
Subject: Civil Engineering
Usage Frequency: 8
Quality:

Reference:

English

What is child abuse? Child abuse is when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act, causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to a child. There are many forms of child maltreatment, including neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, exploitation, and emotional abuse

Tamil

பிங்

Last Update: 2015-06-17
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Responding to the needs of Children at risk in Kannagi Nagar and Ezhil Nagar comprising of 21656 households with one lakh population,

Tamil

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-05-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

English

Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

Tamil

sutru suzhal pathukappu கட்டுரை என்னை சொல்ல

Last Update: 2015-04-27
Subject: General
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free online englisLaser welding is the important technique used in the automation industries to weld the steel products. Speed of the laser welding has a possibility to change the position of the laser. Large sized damages or defects can be identified by naked eye easily but in case of any small pores or cracks which may not be detected manually. Manual defect detection is difficult for large scale industries. The main abstract of this project is to reduce the manpower in laser industry for identification of defect and to detect the minute defects of a laser products much faster and accurately. Automatic defect detection using classifiers and segmentation techniques are implemented to reduce such risk factors in automation industries. Feedforward neural network is the classifier used in existing method. FNN is a forward process. Feedback will never occur in FNN, error correction can only done by using repeated feedback process. Error rate is much larger in Feedforward Neural Network, therefore performance accuracy is very less and background noise is more in the existing method, to overcome all these defect, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is used. PNN detects the defect of the laser welded steel product with the help of Texture feature extraction and Co-occurrence feature. Pre-processing is the technique used to remove the noise present in the training image and in the output image. Wavelet Decomposition method is applied and the output is taken for the Co-occurrence Feature Extraction. PNN classifier are used to detect the defects on the surface of the steel products and Fuzzy C-means clustering is used to find the exact location of the defect in the surface of the steel products. All these processes is done by using Image Processing Tool Box of MATLAB software (Matrix laboratory), or SCIlab (SCIence laboratory). Proposed method gives the better performance accuracy, low complexity and compatibility. h to tamil translation service

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சேவை ஆங்கிலம் இலவச ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-04-15
Subject: General
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English

Dear Richard, First of all I want to take this opportunity to wish you all the best for this New Year 2015 that is just around the corner, bringing with it an atmosphere of joy and happiness, but not only! As in what concerns you, Richard, the year 2015 will also mark an important period of change and transformation, a fresh start that will push you towards a path of happiness and stability in different areas of your life, and more precisely in your love life, career, financial success, family relations and all the areas of your life that you are concerned about at the moment. Richard, in many aspects the year 2015 will be a lot busier then several last years, and especially in the areas where talent and creative abilities are important. A lot of changes of the prior importance are going to happen in your life during the next coming months, which is due to powerful planetary movement happening in your natal chart and which is going to have numerous important repercussions, making 2015 unforgettable for you. Richard, of course I am going to explain to you in details everything that is going to happen and I have also worked on an outline of the sequence of the astrological events that are going to lead to these changes, however I would like to start with the explanation on how exactly I have been able to find out all these details. I have started with the in depth analysis of your personal astral configuration using your details, such as your date of birth 3rd January 1994, your astrological sign Capricorn and your place of birth tuticorin. This has allowed me to draw a picture of your natal chart and then to see what exactly is going to happen in your life, like for example the Mercury Retrograde happening at the very beginning of 2015. You should also be aware of Uranus being in Opposition to the Lunar Node, as this is going to bring some particular sensitive aspects into your everyday life. But I do not want to be too technique, Richard, as what is the most important for you is to know what repercussions all these planetary movements and shifts are going to have on your everyday life, and we are going to come to this point shortly. Richard, as you know I am used to be precise in my work and I always double check each and every statement and prediction I give you about your future in order to be sure you get the best out of all the opportunities that are waiting for you, and of course while working on this reading and to give you a broader picture of this important year 2015, Richard, I have completed the analysis of your natal chart with a numerological reading based on your name Richard, and also based on different other personal details you have provided me with. According to my analysis this year 2015 will be marked by an important peak point, that is going to be a start of a new period in different areas of your life, and this peak date is going to be particularly important in what concerns your love life, as the way you act and also the timing are going to define not only the short-term atmosphere in your romantic sphere , but also this period is going to have important repercussions for the next years to come and in the long-term period. This event is going to happen at the same time when Mercury is going to be in retrograde motion which coincides with the peak period according to your numerological analysis. Richard, it means that at this time in 2015 (I will need to look into it in more details later on), you will need to be in the right time and in the right place and also act in a very precise manner in order to seize this unique opportunity in your love life. Let me be direct with you Richard, this is your time! And you will need to take an important decision in regards to your love life during this crucial peak date that will define all the future course of your romantic relationships; the importance of this decision cannot be underestimated and it is completely unthinkable that you take it without being properly guided and informed. Richard, you should be aware of all the pitfalls and misunderstandings to choose what is the best for you and the stars can show you the way to how make the best choices, as yes, Richard, the planets will open the doors to happy and flourishing love life for you but it is up to you to pass through. Richard, but this is just the beginning of all the important changes that are going to happen in your life during the year 2015! Another area of your life where the influence of planetary shifts is going to have a huge impact will be your career path and professional environment, and this both according to you natal chart and also from the numerological point of view. This year 2015 will be very busy for you, Richard, as Jupiter is going through your 6th house, which is a promise of an important encounter with the person who is going to play a very important role in your professional life in the future. The next point which is important to emphasize for you, Richard, is that due to the very strong interaction between Jupiter going through your natal chart and taking into account the position of Mercury there is a strong link between your professional and career sector with the friendship, mutual understanding. It seems like success in one of them will nourish success in the other one. During 2015 you will meet a person (I cannot tell for now if you already know this person or not, this point needs to be explored in a more detailed report) that will push you towards an important opportunity in your career sector, and thus giving you the chance to find more friends in your professional environment, who in their turn will open more and more chances for further professional development. The crucial thing here is not to miss out this encounter with the person who will actually start this so-called "chain reaction" and for this you will need to be in the right place at the right time and act in a very precise manner, so that you can benefit from this chance to get your professional success to the next level! As you already know Richard, this encounter is going to happen during the peak period (which I have discovered for you according to the numerological analysis of your personal details) and I was so astonished to see that this peak period coincides with Mars entering your sign Capricorn, so you should absolutely not let this chance go by and benefit from positive influence of the planets to boost your life in different spheres! Moreover, I have clearly sensed that you have some kind of project on your mind, which you have been thinking about for some time already, and this year (let me mention, Richard, that it is going to be the year of Wooden Goat according to the Chinese astrology) will also be beneficial in terms of the realization of this project, as additional success and financial independence gained through career development, which I have just talked about, will give you a possibility to put more time and money into this particular project, so important for you. The negative aspect between Saturn and Uranus present in your astral sky since 2012 and which was blocking you to the certain degree, is going to shift, opening you the way towards new achievements. However you should be aware, that 2015 will set the basis for the future, as during this time you will absolutely need to start moving forward in order to get the results you are hoping to see some time later. Generally, this year will be very beneficial and lucky for you in all the areas of your life you are concerned about at the moment, including financial success. Richard, I can see that at the moment you are particularly worried about your financial situation and this point stands out clearly in your natal chart, and also it makes your worried not only about yourself, but also about some people that are very close to you and who are important to you, Richard. Let me reassure you, that during the peak period you will be able to completely change this situation. On one hand it will be due to the career progress we have talked about before, but on the other hand during the year 2015 you will have an important financial opportunity that you need to seize. However I cannot tell you more about this point simply because a more detailed study of your natal chart is necessary in order to identify all the lucky dates during this year, so that you do not pass by this unique chance to achieve prosperity. Richard, as you can see all the areas of your life are going to be touched by the important and crucial positive changes waiting for you in 2015, starting from your love life, your professional success, financial situation, family relations, friends, home and a lot more. On the page below that I have set up for you Richard you can discover more about what the next year has ins tore for you: https://www.the-astrology.com/orderforecast/Richard To summarize the most important changes that are going to happen in your life will be: -IN TERMS OF YOUR LOVE LIFE: you will need to take an important decision in your love life in regards to the situation you find yourself in at the moment, and this decision absolutely needs to be the right one for you, Richard, as it will define not only your immediate future in this area of your life, but it will also have important repercussions for the years to come. This decision needs to be taken having all the information at hand in order to avoid all the hidden pitfalls and to be sure you will be completely satisfied with your love life in the future. -IN WHAT CONCERNS YOUR PROFESSIONAL AREA: During 2015 you will have an opportunity to meet a person, who is going to play an important role in your professional and financial success in the future, as this person will open you the doors to the new professional opportunity. Besides this person will allow you to meet more people, who will become your friends and who will contribute to your career in different however always positive ways. -AS FOR YOUR FINANCIAL SITUATION: Richard, your financial situation is also going to changes, and there will be two main factors leading to important step forward and helping you to resolve your current issues, which are you professional success but also an important financial opportunity that is going to be presented to you during the next year. -AND MUCH MORE...: You will also make numerous positive changes in other areas of your life, like for example: you will have a chance to put into life a project you have on your mind, also it will be a period for your personal development and self-realization. Richard, I can clearly sense that you are very excited about all these changes and I know that you really need and deserve them, but at the same time you also know that the astrological influences can only open the doors and you and only you will be responsible for going through them! Yes, Richard, you will need to be alert and active and act in a very precise moment in order to make your dreams come true. I want to warn (as I am here for you and everything I am writing now is only in your best interest, dear friend), that if you just count on stars to do everything at your place, you risk missing out your chances and all the opportunities. I want you to understand, Richard, that you are the master of your destiny and astrological events only give you opportunities to make changes, they give you a choice now during the coming year 2015 to change your life for the better on different levels, but at the end what counts is your free will and you will decide if you grab this chance or just let it go. Richard, you need to start getting ready for this incredible year right now, you need to be ready to act and also you should have all the information in your disposition in order to know how, when and in which way to act to have all the chances on your side. So I am offering you my help and I will put all my experience and professionalism at your service, Richard, and on the link below you can find out how exactly I can help you:

Tamil

ஜோதிட

Last Update: 2015-03-05
Subject: General
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English

One of the biggest issues facing employers today is the safety of their employees. Workplace accidents are increasingly common. In 2003, for instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported a total of 4.4 million nonfatal workplace injuries in private industries. Organizations have a moral responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of their members. Organizational practices that promote safety can also help a company establish competitive advantage by reducing costs and complying with safety laws. Workplace safety can be quite expensive. Unintentional injuries alone cost more than $146.6 billion per year for medical and insurance costs, workers' compensation, survivor benefits, lost wages, damaged equipment and materials, production delays, other workers' time losses, selection and training costs for replacement workers, and accident reporting. State and federal governments strictly regulate organizational safety practices. The government views safety violations very seriously, and the penalties for violating safety laws can be quite severe. In addition to being issued large fines, employers who violate safety regulations can be held liable for criminal charges. The following examples illustrate the types of penalties associated with such violations: In November of 2004, OSHA fined General Motors (GM) Powertrain plant in Massena, NY for six serious safety violations, including an obstructed exit route, inadequate guarding of moving machine parts, and the failure to assess the need for personal protective equipment for workers. There were additional fines for recordkeeping violations, specifically underreporting injuries and illnesses. The penalty was $160,000. In September of 2004, a Weyerhaeuser plant in West Virginia was cited for improper reporting of injuries and illnesses to OSHA. The fine was $77,000 and the company had nine months to undergo an independent audit of their recordkeeping practices. In July of 2004, OSHA issued a proposed fine against Fru-Con Construction Corp in the amount of $280,000 for the company's negligence which resulted in the deaths of four employees. An improperly secured 2 million pound, 315 foot long launching truss collapsed, killing the four employees. GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF SAFETY PRACTICES AT THE WORKPLACE Federal laws regulate the safety practices of most organizations. We limit our discussion to laws that affect a majority of organizations, but note that several additional laws exist which cover particular segments of the workforce. For instance, numerous laws pertain to government contractors, to specific states, and to specific industries (e.g., transportation, nuclear power, food, and drug). The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is probably the most comprehensive and wide-ranging legislation in this area. It applies to nearly all U.S. workplaces. The act aims to ensure safe working conditions for every American worker by: Setting and enforcing workplace safety standards; Promoting employer-sponsored educational programs that foster safety and health; and Requiring employers to keep records regarding job-related safety and health matters. Three separate agencies were created by the act: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) develop and enforce health and safety standards. The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission hear appeals from employers who wish to contest OSHA rulings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducts health and safety research to suggest new standards and update previous ones. The following discussion focuses on the safety standards imposed by OSHA and how they are enforced. OSHA has issued literally thousands of safety and health standards. Areas of basic concern include fire safety, personal protection equipment, electrical safety, basic housekeeping, and machine guards. Each standard specifies such things as permissible exposure limit, monitoring requirements, methods of compliance, personal protective equipment, hygiene facilities, training, and record-keeping. To comply with these standards, most mid- to large-sized organizations employ safety professionals to keep up with them and ensure that each is being met. These professionals face too many specific issues to mention here, but some of the most important issues they must address appear in Figure 1. Figure 1 OSHAEmployee Responsibilities Figure 1 OSHA–Employee Responsibilities Companies with more than ten employees are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Companies with fewer than ten employees are exempt from such inspections, but can be investigated if a safety-related problem is brought to the attention of OSHA. High-hazard industries, such as manufacturing firms, chemical companies, and construction companies, are subject to inspections regardless of the number of employees. OSHA conducts inspections based on the following priority classifications, which are listed in order of importance: Imminent danger. OSHA gives top priority to workplace situations that present an "imminent danger" of death or serious injury to employees. The company must take immediate corrective action. Fatality or catastrophe investigations. The second highest priority is given to sites that have experienced an accident that has caused at least one employee to die or three or more to be hospitalized. Employers must report these events within 8 hours. The inspection aims to determine the cause of the accident and whether any violation of OSHA standards contributed to it. Employee complaint investigations. OSHA responds third to employee complaints about hazards or violations. The speed with which OSHA responds depends on the seriousness of the complaint. Employees may request to remain anonymous. Referrals from other sources. Consideration is given to referrals of hazard information from federal, state and local agencies, individuals, organizations, and the media. Follow-ups. OSHA sometimes will return to verify that violations have been corrected. General programmed inspections. OSHA will also inspect an organization if it is a high-hazard industry or has a lost workday injury rate that is above the national norm for that industry. When an OSHA inspection reveals that an employer has violated one of its standards, it issues a citation. The citation, posted near the site of the violation, lists the nature of the violation, the abatement period (i.e., the time frame within which the company must rectify the problem), and any penalty levied against the employer. Willful violations (i.e., those that an employer intentionally and knowingly commits) carry a penalty of up to $70,000 for each offense. If a death occurs because of a willful violation, the employer may be both fined and imprisoned. Congress enacted the Hazard Communication Standard (more commonly referred to as the Employee Right-to-Know Law) in 1984. This law gives workers the right to know what hazardous substances they are dealing with on the job. A substance is considered hazardous if exposure to it can lead to acute or chronic health problems. Federal and state agencies have compiled lists of more than 1,000 substances deemed hazardous under this law. The law requires all organizations to (1) develop a system for inventorying hazardous substances, (2) label the containers of these substances, and (3) provide employees with needed information and training to handle and store these substances safely. Employers typically violate the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard more frequently than any other OSHA standard. The majority of companies are cited for failing to have: written hazard communication programs an up-to-date hazardous chemical inventory list properly labeled chemical containers material safety data at the work site, in the form of material safety data sheets (MSDS) training programs for teaching employees about the chemicals they work with Government fines for right-to-know violations may be as high as $1000 per chemical for first violations and $10,000 per chemical for second violations. Additional penalties for environmental crimes include fines up to $75,000 per day and imprisonment. Another law affecting organizational safety and health practices is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). An individual is protected by the ADA if he or she is disabled, that is, if the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the individual's major life activities. According to the ADA regulations, temporary, non-chronic impairments that are short in duration and have little or no long-term impact are usually not considered disabilities under the act. For example, broken limbs, sprains, concussions, appendicitis, or influenza are not disabilities. However, if a broken leg did not heal properly and resulted in permanent impairment that significantly restricted walking or other major life activities, it could then be considered a disability. In 2004, there were 15,376 total charges filed as ADA violations with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). From July 1992 (when the law first took effect) through the end of September 2004, employees filed 204,997 complaints with the EEOC. Employees who became disabled as the result of workplace conditions or injuries filed about half of these charges. Individuals with back impairments have lodged the greatest number of charges. People also frequently claimed emotional, neurological, and extremity impairments. Penalties for ADA violations may be as high as $50,000 for initial violations and up to $100,000 for each subsequent violation. In addition, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 allows claimants to collect up to $300,000 in punitive damages for "willful" violations. ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION Despite laws designed to ensure safety at the workplace, U.S. companies' accident rates are alarmingly high. According to one estimate, employees lost eighty million workdays in 2002 from workplace injuries, and more than 3.7 million people suffered disabling injuries on the job that year. What causes all of these industrial injuries? These causes can be divided into three categories: employee error, equipment insufficiency, and procedure insufficiency. Examples of causes falling within each category are listed here: Employee error—misjudged situations; distractions by others; neuromuscular malfunctions; inappropriate working positions; and knowingly using defective equipment; Equipment insufficiency—use of inappropriate equipment; safety devices being removed or inoperative; and the lack of such things as engineering controls, respiratory protection, and protective clothing; Procedure insufficiency—failure of procedure for eliciting warning of hazard; inappropriate procedure for handling materials; failure to lock out or tag out; and a lack of written work procedures. Workplace accidents pose serious problems for employees and for a firm's competitive advantage, but employers can prevent most of them. Many preventive strategies work. Some people just seem to be accident prone. If some people do have inherent tendencies toward accidents, then organizations should be able to lower their accident rates by screening out accident-prone applicants. Research studies have discovered that individuals with certain personality characteristics are more likely than others to be involved in industrial accidents. For instance, one study found that people with higher accident rates tend to be impulsive and rebellious, and they tend to blame outside forces, rather than themselves, for their mishaps. Another study identified the following four "high-risk" personality characteristics: Risk taking: high risk-takers actually seek out danger rather than trying to minimize or avoid it. Impulsiveness: impulsive individuals fail to think through the consequences of their actions. Rebelliousness: rebellious individuals tend to break established rules, including safety rules. Hostility: hostile individuals tend to lose their tempers easily and thus engage in aggressive acts, such as kicking a jammed machine. Many organizations now use personality tests to screen out individuals with accident-prone tendencies. For example, some companies use a test (called the Personnel Selection Inventory-Form 3S) to assess applicants' safety consciousness. One part of the test measures the degree to which individuals perceive a connection between their own behavior and its consequences. As noted earlier, individuals unable to see this connection are at greater risk for accidents. Employers who provide all new employees with training on safe and proper job procedures experience fewer accidents. Employees should learn how to perform each of their tasks as safely as possible. Training should be very specific, as illustrated in the example that follows. This example covers the procedures to be followed by employees working at a large food manufacturing plant: When picking up pans from the conveyor belt, pick up no more than two pans before you place them on the pan rack. Stack roll pans no higher than the rear rail of the pan rack. When you lift or lower the dough, keep both hands on the dump chain. When you pull the dough trough away from the dough mixer, hold both hands on the front rail and not on the rail sides. While safety training is essential, employees do not always apply what they have learned. Just as many automobile drivers know it is wrong to exceed legal speed limits, but do it anyway, workers may choose to ignore instructions and carry out procedures in their own, unsafe way. One way to mitigate this problem is to implement a safety incentive program. Such programs aim to motivate safe behavior by providing workers with incentives for avoiding accidents. The organization formulates safety goals (usually on a department-wide basis) and rewards employees if these goals are met. For example, a particular department may establish the goal of reducing lost-time accidents by 50 percent over the next three months. If this goal were to be met, all employees within that department would receive an incentive reward, usually in the form of a cash bonus or merchandise. Safety incentive programs often work quite well. For example, Willamette Industries implemented a program because it was experiencing an average of thirty accidents per year that caused people to miss work. As a result of the program, the company went 450 days without a lost-time accident. Two problems often arise with safety incentive programs, however. In some cases, workers get so caught up in trying to win incentive rewards that they conceal their injuries and do not report them. When injuries go unreported, injured workers relinquish their rights to workers' compensation and firms remain unaware of safety problems. Second, workers may continue to perform in an unsafe manner (e.g., take risky shortcuts) because they remain unconvinced that such behavior is likely to result in accidents. Unfortunately, these employees are grievously mistaken; unsafe behaviors are a leading cause of accidents. According to one estimate, for every 100,000 unsafe behaviors there are 10,000 near-miss accidents, 1,000 recordable accidents, 100 lost-time accidents, and 1 fatality. SAFETY AUDITS Because employees who "know better" often continue to engage in accident-causing behavior, many employers have redirected their focus from accident prevention to the prevention of unsafe acts that could lead to an accident. To do so, firms conduct safety audits. A safety committee or supervisors who observe employees on the job and correct unsafe behaviors generally conduct such audits. Each employee should be monitored according to a planned schedule, generally on a weekly basis, as follows: STEP 1: OBSERVATION. Stop in the work area for a few moments and observe worker's activities, looking for both safe and unsafe practices. Use the following guide: Be alert to unsafe practices that the employee corrects immediately upon seeing you enter the area (putting on protective equipment, such as gloves or goggles). Note whether appropriate protective clothing is being worn. Observe how employees use tools. Scrutinize the safety of the work area. For instance, is the floor slippery? Determine whether rules, procedures, and operating instructions are being followed. STEP 2: EMPLOYEE DISCUSSION. These discussions should help employees recognize and correct their unsafe acts. When engaging in them, adhere to the following advice: If you spot an unsafe act, be non-confrontational. Point out the violation and ask the worker to state what he or she was doing and what safety-related consequences may arise if such behavior continues. Your goal is to help, not blame. Audits should not result in disciplinary actions unless an individual consistently violates safety rules. As you observe your employees, encourage them to discuss any safety concerns they may have and ask them to offer any ideas for safety improvement. Commend any good performance that you observe. STEP 3: RECORDING AND FOLLOW-UP. Findings should be recorded in writing. Pursue any item discussed during the audit that requires follow-up. Accident investigations determine accident causes so that changes can be made to prevent the future occurrence of similar accidents. "Near misses" should also be investigated so that problems can be corrected before serious accidents occur. Supervisors always play a key role in accident investigations. For minor accidents, investigation may be limited to the supervisor meeting with the injured worker and filing a report. In large-scale investigations, the supervisor is usually part of a team of experts, which may also include an engineer, maintenance supervisor, upper-level manager, and/or safety professional. Accident investigations should be performed in the following manner. When an accident occurs, the investigator's first responsibility is to ensure the safety of all employees by: making sure the injured are cared for and receive medical attention, if necessary; guarding against a more dangerous secondary event by removing danger sources and evacuating other personnel from the area if necessary; and restricting access to the area so no one else will be harmed, and so the scene will not be disturbed. You should then begin an investigation to identify both the immediate and underlying causes of the accident. The immediate cause is the event that directly led to the accident, such as a slippery floor, failure to wear safety gear, or failure to follow proper procedures. Immediate causes, while easily found, are not always very helpful in suggesting how future incidents of this nature can be avoided. To accomplish this aim, the investigator must discover the underlying cause of the accident. For example, suppose a worker slips and falls on spilled oil. The oil on the floor is the immediate cause of the accident, but you need to know why it was not cleaned up and why a machine was leaking oil in the first place. Poor training, lack of rule enforcement, low safety awareness, poor maintenance, or crowded work areas commonly underlie accidents. The investigator should ensure the accident scene is kept intact until the investigation is finished, as this will be the only chance to view the scene exactly as it was at the time of the accident. If a camera is available, photographs of the scene should be taken. Nothing related to the incident should be destroyed or discarded. The investigator should inspect the location (e.g., check for chemicals, broken pieces of machinery) and interview injured or affected workers, eyewitnesses, and anyone else who may be familiar with the accident area. Interviews should be conducted immediately, while the incident is still fresh in everyone's mind. Individuals should give their own account of the incident; by letting them tell their stories wi

Tamil

என் வேலை இடத்தில்

Last Update: 2015-03-03
Subject: General
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English

Road traffic safety refers to methods and measures for reducing the risk of a person using the road network being killed or seriously injured. The users of a road include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, their passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport, mainly buses and trams. Best-practice road safety strategies focus upon the prevention of serious injury and death crashes in spite of human fallibility[1] (which is contrasted with the old road safety paradigm of simply reducing crashes assuming road user compliance with traffic regulations). Safe road design is now about providing a road environment which ensures vehicle speeds will be within the human tolerances for serious injury and death wherever conflict points exist. Furthermore, the highest possible degree of safety shall be ensured when transporting goods by road. It is of vital importance to monitor and validate the road transportation safety, including comprehensive checks on drivers, vehicles and safety processes.[2]

Tamil

தமிழ் சாலை பாதுகாப்பு கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2015-01-16
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Building Agreement Between The Owners And The Contractor On Fee Plus Cost Of Labour And Materials THIS AGREEMENT made at ………………….. on this …………. day of ………………2000, between Shri…………………… S/o ………………….. resident of ………………………… (hereinafter called ‘the owner’ which expression shall unless repugnant to the context or meaning thereof, be deemed to include his heirs, legal representatives, executors and administrators) of the ONE PART and M/s ABC Builders & Contractors, a partnership firm registered under Partnership Act, 1932 and having its registered office at ……………… (hereinafter referred to as ‘the builders’ which expression shall unless repugnant to the context or meaning thereof, be deemed to include every partner for the time being of the said firm, the survivor or survivors or the legal representatives, executors or administrators of the last survivor of the OTHER PART. WHEREAS the first party is the owner of the plot of land admeasuring ……………….. sq. meters bearing plot No. ……….. city survey No. …………………. Khasra No. ………………… situate, lying and being at …………………. Tahsil and District …………………. (hereinafter referred to as the “said plot of land”) and is desirous of getting a house constructed on the said plot of land. AND WHEREAS the first party has appointed Shri …………….. as the architect and the said architect has prepared the plans, drawings and elevations of the said intended house and the specification of the works to be done and of the materials. AND WHEREAS the second party is a big contractor and is having vast experience in construction of big buildings and has agreed to construct the house on the said plot of land. NOW IT IS AGREED BY AND BETWEEN THE PARTIES AS FOLLOWS: 1. The builders will construct the building on the said plot of land in conformity with the plans, drawings, specifications and elevations as prepared by the architect which has been annexed hereto and marked as Annexure A, with the material of best quality and in the most substantial and workman like manner and to the satisfaction of the architect. 2. The builders hereby undertake to commence the construction within fifteen days of execution of these presents and complete the construction on or before the expiry of ………………. months from the date of execution of these presents in accordance with the plans duly approved and sanctioned by the Municipal Corporation of ……………………………. and specifications and conditions as are set out in Annexure A hereunder written. 3. If the builders fail to complete the said work within the period as stipulated in the foregoing provision, the builders shall, at the option of the owner but without prejudice to the other rights under law of the owner and other provisions herein, pay liquidated damages calculated at the rate of Rs………. per day (but subject to a maximum of 2% of the total contract amount payable by the owner under this agreement) for the period between the said stipulated time for completion of the works. The builders hereby specifically agree and authorise the owner to deduct such liquidated damages, if any, from any installment of payment becoming due and payable to the builders in terms of this agreement. 4. The owner will pay to the builders a sum of Rs…………. out of which the owner shall pay to the builders weekly such sum as may be sufficient to defray the expenses incurred by the builders in respect of materials used in the works, checked and certified by the architect, Rs ……… on the certificate by the architect that the work upto first floor has been completed, the further sum of Rs …………. on the certificate by the architect that the work upto second floor has been completed and the balance shall be paid on the certificate by the architect that the said works have been completed in all respects according to the agreement and the builders have at their own expenses removed and cleared all scaffolding, fencing, unused materials and rubbish from the premises and made and prepared the bungalow fit for use and habitation and immediate occupation. However, a sum equivalent to 5 per cent of the total contract amount payable by the owner under this agreement shall be retained by the owner as retention money, which shall be paid after a period of 12 months from the date of handing over the said bungalow complete in all respects and fit for occupation. The builders hereby agree and undertake to rectify all such defects as may be found or detected during the period of 12 months. If the builders fail to rectify the defects pointed out or decline to cure such defects as pointed by the owner within fifteen days from the date of reporting to the builders, the owner shall be entitled to have such defects cured by such other agencies as it may deem fit at the entire cost and risk of the builders and utilise the retention money; Provided further that in the event of the said retention money being inadequate to meet such costs, charges and expenses incurred by the owner for curing the defects in the construction, the builders shall within 7 days of a demand in writing made by the owner make good the defect, failing which the builders shall be liable to pay the same together with the interest at 15% per annum. 5. The owner shall allow free ingress to and egress from the premises to the builder’s servants, employees, sub-contractors and all other persons, who are necessary in connection with the carrying out of the works under the agreement. 6. The builders shall indemnify the owner in respect of all claims, damages or expenses payable in consequence to any injury to any employee, workman, nominee, invitee while in or upon the said premises. The builders shall also be responsible for any damage to buildings, whether immediately adjacent or otherwise and any damage to roads, streets, foot-paths, bridges or ways as well as all damages caused to the buildings, and work forming the subject to this contract by frost, rain, wind or other inclemency of weather. 7. If the builders abandon the contract or fail to commence the work or suspend the progress of the work for 14 days without any lawful excuse under these conditions, or fail to proceed with the works with such due diligence and fail to make such due progress as would enable d the works to be completed within the time agreed upon or fail to remove materials from the site or to pull down and replace work for seven days after receiving from the architect written notice that the said materials or the works were defective and rejected by the said architect or neglect or fail persistently to observe and perform all or any of the acts, materials or things required by this contract to be observed and performed by the owner for seven days after written notice shall have given to the builders requiring them to observe or perform the same and the architect certifies in writing to the owner to the said effect, then and in any of the said cases the owner may, notwithstanding any previous waiver, after giving seven days notice through the said architect in writing to the builders terminate the licence in favour of the builders and in so far as it relates to the completion of the remaining construction work, but without thereby affecting the powers of the architect, or the obligations and liabilities of the builders, the whole of which shall continue in force as fully as if this Agreement had not been so determined. And the owner by his servants or agents may enter upon and take possession of the work, tools, scaffolding, sheds, machinery, power, utensils and materials lying upon the premises or in the adjoining lands or roads and use the same as its own property or may employ the same by means of its own servants and workmen in carrying on and completing the work or by employing any other contractor or other person to complete the works and the builders shall not in any way interrupt or do any act, matter or thing to prevent or hinder such other contractor or other person or persons employed for completing and finishing the works or using the material and plant for the works. 8. When the said works are terminated in the manner as stipulated in the foregoing provision, the architect shall give a notice in writing to the builders to remove their surplus materials and plant, and should the builders fail to as so within a period of seven days, after receipt thereof by them, the owner may sell the same by public auction and give credit to the builders for the net amount realised. The architect shall thereafter ascertain and certify in writing, what (if any thing) shall be due or payable to or by the owner, for the value of the said building and materials so taken possession of by the owner and the expense or loss which the owner shall have been put to in procuring the work to be completed and the amount, if any, owing to the builders and the amount which shall be so certified shall thereupon be paid by the owner to the builders or by the builders to the owner, as the case may be, and the certificate of the architect shall be final and conclusive between the parties. 9. The builders shall be bound to appoint an engineer competent to receive instructions from the architect from time to time, on behalf of the builders at all reasonable hours and all directions given to him by the architect shall be deemed to have been given to the builders. 10. The owner or his representatives shall be entitled to inspect the progress of the construction work and materials used for the construction and they shall be entitled to point out to the architect any defects in the construction work, quality of workmanship or materials d used when such defective work is in progress or being executed or such material is brought on site. If the architect will be satisfied about the objections raised, the said architect shall certify the same in writing and direct the builders to rectify at their own cost the defect in the said construction work or remove such defective materials and the same shall be rectified or removed by the builders as directed. 11. All disputes or differences relating to the specifications, designs, drawings and as to quality of workmanship or material used in the work or as to any other question arising out of or relating to the contract, design, drawings, specifications, orders or otherwise in connection with the agreement or the carrying out of the works, whether during the progress of the work or after the completion or abandonment thereof shall be referred to the sole arbitration of two arbitrators, one to be appointed by each party. The arbitrators shall appoint an umpire before entering upon the reference. The parties would cooperate and lead evidence, etc. with the arbitrators and if one of the parties does not cooperate or remains absent at the reference, the arbitrators or the umpire would be at liberty to proceed with the reference ex-parte. The arbitrators or the umpire shall keep record of the oral evidence adduced by the parties and submit the same to the court at the time of filing of the award, along with documentary evidence produced before them or him by the parties or their witnesses. The proceeding of the arbitrators or the umpire shall be recorded in English and a carbon copy whereof shall be furnished to each party. The arbitrators or umpire shall be entitled to appoint stenographer, for recording proceedings of the arbitration, consult an expert, after previous notice to the parties to the reference, the cost whereof shall be borne equally by the parties. The fees of the arbitrator appointed by a party shall be borne by the party, so appointing and the fees of the umpire and the other arbitration expenses shall be borne equally by the parties. The arbitrators shall make their award, with reasons for the decision, within six months from the date of entering upon the reference. If the arbitrators have allowed their time to expire without making an award or have delivered to any party or to the umpire a notice in writing stating that they cannot agree, the umpire shall forthwith enter on the reference. The umpire shall make his award within tour months of entering on the reference or within such extended time, as the parties may agree. The award of the arbitrators, or umpire, as the case may be, shall be final, conclusive and binding on the parties and shall not be challenged on any ground except collusion, fraud or an error apparent on the face of the award. This reference to arbitration shall be deemed to be a reference within the meaning of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 or any statutory modification thereof. No action can be taken under this agreement for the enforcement of any right without resorting to arbitration under this clause. 12. This agreement shall be executed in duplicate, the original shall be retained by the owner and the duplicate by the builders. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties have signed these presents and a duplicate thereof, the day and year first hereinabove written. Signed and delivered by ……………….. the owner Signed and delivered by M/s ABC Builders and Contractors, the builders, by its partners WITNESSES; 1. 2.

Tamil

கட்டட ஒப்பந்தம் ஒப்பந்தம்

Last Update: 2015-01-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
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