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English

shah jeera

Tamil

ஷா jeera

Last Update: 2015-11-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

jeera seeds

Tamil

jeera in history

Last Update: 2015-07-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

jeera powder

Tamil

சீரகம் தூள்

Last Update: 2014-11-07
Subject: General
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English

shahi jeera

Tamil

ஷாஹி சீரகம்

Last Update: 2014-08-04
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English

jeera seeds

Tamil

சீரகம் விதைகள்

Last Update: 2015-01-14
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English

Cumin Seeds- Jeera

Tamil

dftgyrty

Last Update: 2014-06-03
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English

jeera meaning in tamil

Tamil

தமிழ் jeera பொருள்

Last Update: 2015-10-19
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English

shahi jeera meaning in tamil

Tamil

தமிழ் பொருள் ஷாஹி jeera

Last Update: 2016-06-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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English

Cumin Seeds- Jeera

Tamil

சீரகம்

Last Update: 2014-10-22
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English

caraway seeds(shah zeera)

Tamil

caraway விதைகள் (SHAHzeera)

Last Update: 2016-05-15
Subject: General
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English

RESISTANCE TO BORER COMPLEX INFESTATION IN SUGARCANE CLONES V. Baskaran, M. Shanmuganathan, K. Annadurai, R. Chandrasekaran and R. Nageswari Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani 639 115 Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India E mail: varadharajbhaskaran@gmail.co.in INTRODUCTION Sugarcane is an important cash crop of India being grown in an area of 5.12 mha. With annual production of 341 m mt, with the productivity of 69.84 t/ha (Sugar India, 2015). In Tamil Nadu the area under sugarcane is about 3.36 mha. with a production of 5.12 million tonnes. The average yield of the promising cane in Tamil Nadu is 106 million t/ha. Sugarcane borers are the major pests and consequently reduce quality and quantity of cane and cane sugar. Most of the high sugar content sugarcane varieties are susceptible for borers viz., early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus (Snellen) and internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur) which cause 20 % crop loss in field and 15% in sugar recovery (Sardana and Amerika singh, 2002). Among various technologies involved for increasing the yield and qualitative attributes, the inherited characters play a vital role. A need for more number of early maturing sugarcane varieties with high sugar content having high yield potential with resistant or moderately resistant to major borer pests. At present, no sugarcane variety is completely resistant to any of the sugarcane borer pests. Adoption of high yielding varieties with better quality attributes is the cheapest technology (Mukunda Rao et al. 2003). The sugarcane varieites Co 86032, CoSi (Sc) 6, CoC 24, CoV 94101, CoV 92102, Co 94008 and Co 94012 are the popularly grown varieties, often succumbs to pest and diseases, of which the borers cause a major loss in cane yield and loss of sugar per cent (Thirumurugan et al. 2004). Koenar (1976) stated that selection of resistant varieties against borers was an effective and economical control measure. The present study was conducted to find out the resistance level in different sugarcane clones against borer infestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS An experiments were conducted in randomized block design with three replications at Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India during 2014-15. Fourty three sugarcane clones were planted in 5m x 5m row with 0.8 m spacing. All the recommended cultural practices were adopted uniformly except plant protection. Observations on early shoot borer and internode borer incidence were recorded at 15 days intervals. The infestation levels in clones of sugarcane were assessed and graded. Sugarcane clones were categorized based on the degree of resistance/susceptibility according to resistance scale given by Rao and Krishnamurthy (1973). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Sugarcane clones The first set of field experiments revealed that early shoot borer infestation and per cent of dead heart was minimum in Si 2011-355 (4.17 %) and maximum in Si 2011-349, Si 2011-415, Si 2011-598 and Si 2011-631 (8.70 %). The internode borer damage was recorded minimum in Si 2011-359 (8.0 %) and maximum (37.5%) in Si 2011-371. Table 1. Borer complex infestation on dead heart basis and internode damage basis in early maturing sugarcane clones Clones Dead heart (%) Reaction Internode borer damage (%) Reaction Si 2011-349 8.70 LS 26.09 MS Si 2011-355 4.17 LS 12.50 LS Si 2011-359 4.00 LS 8.00 LS Si 2011-371 8.33 LS 37.50 MS Si 2011-415 8.70 LS 13.04 LS Si 2011-417 8.00 LS 32.00 MS Si 2011-423 4.00 LS 28.00 MS Si 2011-426 4.35 LS 13.04 LS Si 2011-513 8.33 LS 20.83 MS Si 2011-589 7.41 LS 18.52 MS Si 2011-597 4.17 LS 25.00 MS Si 2011-598 8.70 LS 30.43 MS Si 2011-617 8.00 LS 32.00 MS Si 2011-621 4.55 LS 22.73 MS Si 2011-631 8.70 LS 17.39 MS Si 2011-633 4.35 LS 34.78 MS TNAU Si 7 8.00 LS 28.00 MS Co 86032 8.33 LS 29.17 MS Average 6.71 23.83 In the second set of experiment among the twenty six clones, Si 2012-329 (6.00 %) and Si 2012-38 (39.40 %) recorded the minimum and maximum dead heart damage due to early shoot borer respectively. The internode borer damage was 3.80 per cent in Si 2012-329 which was the minimum among the clones of sugarcane. Table 2. Borer complex infestation on dead heart basis and internode damage basis in early maturing sugarcane clones Clones Dead heart (%) Reaction Internode borer damage (%) Reaction Si 2012-03 24.37 MS 46.69 MS Si 2012-04 24.07 MS 40.00 MS Si 2012-07 23.17 MS 36.03 MS Si 2012-09 19.60 MS 24.18 MS Si 2012-16 19.03 MS 51.85 S Si 2012-20 18.67 MS 26.60 MS Si 2012-31 16.70 LS 24.70 MS Si 2012-32 16.63 MS 24.20 MS Si 2012-34 11.47 LS 22.00 MS Si 2012-38 39.40 MS 17.20 MS Si 2012-62 23.23 MS 16.10 MS Si 2012-39 11.20 LS 38.89 MS Si 2012-40 11.63 LS 34.07 MS Si 2012-47 12.07 LS 27.78 MS Si 2012-64 6.60 LS 37.14 MS Si 2012-70 14.80 LS 28.89 MS Si 2012-72 11.50 LS 42.13 MS Si 2012-76 13.07 LS 57.50 MS Si 2012-78 8.40 LS 7.60 LS Si 2012-83 24.67 MS 25.30 MS Si 2012-512 11.27 LS 11.40 LS Si 2012-523 7.70 LS 6.20 LS Si 2012-328 10.60 LS 10.00 LS Si 2012-329 6.00 LS 3.80 LS Si 2012-339 16.87 MS 14.80 LS Si 2012-346 12.77 LS 10.40 LS SED 1.90 6.14 CD (0.05 %) 4.07 10.80 CD (0.01 %) 5.65 16.63 The maximum sugar yield recorded 14.75 t/ha in Si 2011-355 and minimum 10.36 in Si 2011-415. The clone Si 2011-359 recorded higher cane yield of 131.40 t/ha and minimum 93.67 t/ha in Si 2011-631 (Table 3). Table 3. Effect of sugarcane clones on plant growth characters, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield and cane yield. S.l. No. Early and mid late maturing clones Cane yield t/ha CCS % Sugar yield (t/ha) 1. Si 2011-349 112.4 12.65 10.87 2. Si 2011-355 123.5 10.98 14.75 3. Si 2011-359 131.4 12.46 12.17 4. Si 2011-371 121.8 9.84 12.18 5. Si 2011-415 105.2 12.71 10.36 6. Si 2011-417 110.8 10.77 16.70 7. Si 2011-423 107.6 10.53 11.59 8. Si 2011-426 104.4 12.16 11.00 9. Si 2011-513 120.2 13.69 13.62 10. Si 2011-589 128.3 11.81 11.56 11. Si 2011-597 99.4 11.89 11.74 12. Si 2011-598 123.3 12.84 14.66 13. Si 2011-617 136.3 12.39 13.50 14. Si 2011-621 95.5 11.21 11.84 15. Si 2011-631 93.6 12.22 10.50 16. Si 2011-633 120.7 12.73 12.62 17. TNAU Si 7 115.7 11.58 14.73 18. Co 86032 127.4 13.25 14.76 CD (P=0.05) 23.1 0.14 0.41 Table 4. Effect of maturing sugarcane clones on plant growth characters, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield and cane yield. S.l. No. Early and mid late maturing clones Cane yield t/ha CCS % Sugar yield (t/ha) 1. Si 2012-03 147.0 12.35 18.15 2. Si 2012-04 127.0 12.25 15.59 3. Si 2012-07 153.6 12.43 19.09 4. Si 2012-09 149.3 12.41 18.52 5. Si 2012-16 115.6 12.12 14.01 6. Si 2012-20 135.0 12.26 16.55 7. Si 2012-31 131.3 12.21 16.03 8. Si 2012-32 139.6 12.29 17.15 9. Si 2012-34 142.0 12.32 17.49 10. Si 2012-38 125.0 12.13 15.16 11. Si 2012-62 121.4 12.12 17.52 12. Si 2012-39 142.2 16.70 12.20 13. Si 2012-40 120.6 11.59 12.63 14. Si 2012-47 120.6 11.00 12.26 15. Si 2012-64 145.5 14.62 12.32 16. Si 2012-70 140.8 17.56 12.21 17. Si 2012-72 160.5 11.74 12.29 18. Si 2012-76 120.4 14.66 12.74 19. Si 2012-78 131.4 17.50 9.67 20. Si 2012-83 120.6 11.84 12.65 21. Si 2012-512 142.5 10.50 10.98 22. Si 2012-523 120.2 14.75 12.46 23. Si 2012-328 128.3 14.73 9.84 24. Si 2012-329 99.4 14.76 12.71 25. Si 2012-339 123.3 15.94 10.77 26. Si 2012-346 136.3 13.79 10.53 CD (0.05 %) 25.16 37.74 4.93 The maximum sugar yield of 19.09 t/ha was recorded in Si 2012-07 and minimum sugar yield of 14.01 t/ha was recorded in Si 2012-16. The clone Si 2012-07 recorded higher cane yield of 153.60 t/ha and minimum 9.67 in Si 2012-78. The clone Si 2012-72 recorded higher cane yield of 160.50 t/ha and minimum 99.4 t/ha in Si 2012-329 (Table 4). References Mukunda Rao, Ch. K.R. Tagore, M. Vijay kumar, M. Jayaprakash and R. Raghavaiah (2003). Relative behaviour of sugarcane clones under soil moisture / drought during formative stages. Co-operative sugar 34(8): 643-646. Rao and Krishnamoorthy Rao, 1973. Studies on loss in yield of sugarcane due to shoot borer , Indian Sugar, 22: 867-868. Sardana and Amerika singh, 2002. Integrated Pest Management in Sugarcane, Co-operative sugar, 33 (5): 393-407. Sugar India, 2015. Statewise yield of sugarcane in India, P.84. Thirumurugan, A, S.Inayathullah Shah abd S.R. Venkatachalam (2004). Relative performance of selected genotypes for early season and their response to the borers. SISSTA Sugar Journal 26, P.43-47.

Tamil

ஐஸ்வர்யா

Last Update: 2016-07-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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