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are you sure

parvai

Last Update: 2013-11-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Are you sure you want to trust this issuer?

நிச்சயமாக இந்த வழங்குநரை நம்ப விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

there is an issue not sure when it wil be solved

பத்தி

Last Update: 2014-11-20
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Are you sure you want to end this Opera session?

நிச்சயமாக இந்த Opera அமர்வை முடிக்க விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Are you sure you want to unsubscribe from this newsgroup?

நிச்சயமாக இந்த செய்திக்குழுவிலிருந்து விலக விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Are you sure you want to unsubscribe from this IMAP folder?

நிச்சயமாக இந்த IMAP கோப்புறையிலிருந்து விலக விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Are you sure you want to delete the folder from the server?

நிச்சயமாக இந்த கோப்புறையை சர்வரிலிருந்து நீக்க விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Are you sure you wish to delete %1 %2?

நிச்சயமாக %1 %2 ஐ நீக்க விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

It is not known whether this file is safe. Are you sure you want to download it?

இந்த கோப்பு பாதுகாப்பானதா என்று தெரியவில்லை. நிச்சயமாக இதை பதிவிறக்க விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Make sure your Internet connection is active and check whether other applications that rely on the same connection are working.

இணைய இணைப்பு செயல்படுகிறதா என்பதையும் இதே இணைப்பைப் பயன்படுத்தும் பிற பயன்பாடுகள் இயங்குகிறதா எனவும் உறுதிப்படுத்திக் கொள்ளவும்.

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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If you are on a dialup connection, check the dialup properties for your connection and under Server types, make sure it is set to log on to the network.

நீங்கள் டயல்அப் இணைப்பைப் பயன்படுத்தினால், உங்கள் இணைப்பின் டயல்அப் பண்புகளை சர்வர் வகைகள் என்பதன் கீழ் சரிபார்க்கவும், மேலும் அது நெட்வொர்க்கில் உள்நுழையுமாறு அமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளதா என்பதையும் சோதிக்கவும்.

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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You have active downloads that will be terminated if you close Opera.\nAre you sure you want to close Opera?

நீங்கள் பதிவிறக்கங்களை செய்துகொண்டிருக்கிறீர்கள், அவை நீங்கள் Opera -ஐ மூடினால் நின்றுவிடும்.\nநிச்சயமாக Opera -ஐ மூட விரும்புகிறீர்களா?

Last Update: 2015-08-04
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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My mother is the most important person in my life. I have been mentioning her in almost all of the essays I write. The problem is, I cannot really express how I feel about her in just words. My mother is not my whole life, but she is a really big part of it. My whole world does not only revolve around her, but she is the most influential person who inspires me. My mother is not just another woman. She is extraordinary. I have known her for sixteen years, three months, one day and nineteen hours. I know her very well, and I had learned to love her since the day we first met. Relatives always tell me stories about my birth. They tell me how important I was to my mom. I was the foundation of her joy, strength, peace and love. She has never lied to me about my father. I do not remember asking about him. Ever since, I already knew he was in a better place. I do not remember my mom having a hard time explaining to me my situation – having no father. She was always straightforward. She explained things very simply, like she knew everything. I thank her for being simple. I thank her for telling me the truth, so that I did not need to believe a lie that would have made things ‘easier’ for me. When in fact, not knowing the truth would have made things complicated. She has taught me all I need to know to live life as a sixteen-year old teenage girl. She taught me how to feel. Well, she did not only do that. She showed me how to handle these feelings of anger, fear, guilt, joy, sadness, excitement, hate and anxiety. She also showed me how to give and take. I learned from her that giving is a lot harder than taking, but the former is much more satisfying when it is done. She told me that giving makes one happy. I am sure she is right because half of her life, she has been giving me what I need, and in spite of all that years of giving, she is happy. Though very slowly, I am learning how to give freely. Little by little

தமிழ் கட்டுரை சுற்றுச்சூழல்

Last Update: 2015-06-25
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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time is gold essaTime what is it. Is it that thing that we are always try to beat where ever we go. There are times when you wish that time did not exsist. You wish that you could just go through life at your own pase and do what ever you want when you want. If there was no time life would be a whole lot easier, people would be nicer, and there would be a lot less accidants. So then the big question is why do we have time. Why are you always looking at your clock to make sure that you have the right time and to make sure that you are on time. The answer is being on time to places shows your charecter. If you are going to meet somebody specail and you are late that shows them that you don't really care about them. Or if you are trying to get a job and you are late to the interview chances are you won't get that job. So take my advice and always be on time every where, it shows good character.y

நேரம் தங்க ஓய்ந்தது

Last Update: 2015-06-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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time is gTime what is it. Is it that thing that we are always try to beat where ever we go. There are times when you wish that time did not exsist. You wish that you could just go through life at your own pase and do what ever you want when you want. If there was no time life would be a whole lot easier, people would be nicer, and there would be a lot less accidants. So then the big question is why do we have time. Why are you always looking at your clock to make sure that you have the right time and to make sure that you are on time. The answer is being on time to places shows your charecter. If you are going to meet somebody specail and you are late that shows them that you don't really care about them. Or if you are trying to get a job and you are late to the interview chances are you won't get that job. So take my advice and always be on time every where, it shows good character.old essay

time isTime what is it. Is it that thing that we are always try to beat where ever we go. There are times when you wish that time did not exsist. You wish that you could just go through life at your own pase and do what ever you want when you want. If there was no time life would be a whole lot easier, people would be nicer, and there would be a lot less accidants. So then the big question is why do we have time. Why are you always looking at your clock to make sure that you have the right time and to make sure that you are on time. The answer is being on time to places shows your charecter. If you are going to meet somebody specail and you are late that shows them that you don't really care about them. Or if you are trying to get a job and you are late to the interview chances are you won't get that job. So take my advice and always be on time every where, it shows good character. gold essay

Last Update: 2015-06-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

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Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

sutru suzhal pathukappu கட்டுரை என்னை சொல்ல

Last Update: 2015-04-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 3
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

John Helliwell, the well-known University of British Columbia economist, is often accused of being an apologist for marriage. He denies it. He says he just analyzes the research. And most of the research (sorry, singles!) says that married people, over all, are happier than unmarried ones. “We have found in Canadian, British and American data, when you include demographic variables like ‘married,’ marriage typically turns out to have a significant positive effect,” he told me over the phone. Among other benefits, “marriage is good for people because it is a vehicle and a place where good friends are made and cherished.” But does marriage really make you happier in the long run? Or are happier people simply more likely to get married in the first place? Prof. Helliwell thinks he’s found the answer. In a new research paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, he and colleague Shawn Grover conclude not only that marriage does make people happier, but that being married to your best friend makes you extra happy. The same goes for people who live together. “Those who are best friends with their partners have the largest well-being benefits from marriage and cohabitation, even when controlling for premarital well-being levels,” they write. Prof. Helliwell is an old hand in the field of “happiness studies,” which attempt to measure the factors that influence people’s sense of well-being. He has found that, overwhelmingly, it’s the social context of life that determines whether people are happy. Both marriage and friendship are known to improve well-being. So when he came across a comprehensive survey that included the question “Who is your best friend?”, he knew he’d struck gold. “We were able to break down the marriage effect between people who had another best friend and the people whose best friend happened to be their spouse,” he told me. What they found was that the happiness effect of being married to your best friend is twice as big. In other words, a best friend who’s always by your side is the best kind of friend of all. People who are married to their best friends don’t need as many friends as other people to get the same benefit. About half the married and cohabiting people surveyed named their spouse as their best friend. The happiness effect was stronger for women than for men, especially in middle age, when happiness typically dips for everyone. It seems marital friendship is a great buffer against the ravages of midlife. I think I have a clue why. The world may not think you’re sexy any more – but he still does. The very subject of marriage is highly charged these days. Conservatives say we should promote it because married people (and their kids) are better off. Liberals say the decline of marriage is a consequence, not a cause, of growing inequality. Singles say Prof. Helliwell and his ilk unfairly demonize them. But he denies having an agenda. And he says this study, in particular, is free of policy implications. “Some people say this study means you should marry your best friend,” he says. “But we don’t say that. The lesson for those who are thinking of marriage is not to marry your best friend, but to make sure you treat your spouse as if he or she were.” As for those irate singles, he says, “The major benefits of marriage can be achieved outside marriage. Single people shouldn’t feel that marriage is either a threat or a requirement.” They just need to make sure they have a bunch of great friends. Interestingly, these findings on marital happiness are not global. In some regions (Latin America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia), singles are actually happier than marrieds. however, made him blissfully happy.

John Helliwell, the well-known University of British Columbia economist, is often accused of being an apologist for marriage. He denies it. He says he just analyzes the research. And most of the research (sorry, singles!) says that married people, over all, are happier than unmarried ones.

Last Update: 2015-04-20
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Dear Richard, First of all I want to take this opportunity to wish you all the best for this New Year 2015 that is just around the corner, bringing with it an atmosphere of joy and happiness, but not only! As in what concerns you, Richard, the year 2015 will also mark an important period of change and transformation, a fresh start that will push you towards a path of happiness and stability in different areas of your life, and more precisely in your love life, career, financial success, family relations and all the areas of your life that you are concerned about at the moment. Richard, in many aspects the year 2015 will be a lot busier then several last years, and especially in the areas where talent and creative abilities are important. A lot of changes of the prior importance are going to happen in your life during the next coming months, which is due to powerful planetary movement happening in your natal chart and which is going to have numerous important repercussions, making 2015 unforgettable for you. Richard, of course I am going to explain to you in details everything that is going to happen and I have also worked on an outline of the sequence of the astrological events that are going to lead to these changes, however I would like to start with the explanation on how exactly I have been able to find out all these details. I have started with the in depth analysis of your personal astral configuration using your details, such as your date of birth 3rd January 1994, your astrological sign Capricorn and your place of birth tuticorin. This has allowed me to draw a picture of your natal chart and then to see what exactly is going to happen in your life, like for example the Mercury Retrograde happening at the very beginning of 2015. You should also be aware of Uranus being in Opposition to the Lunar Node, as this is going to bring some particular sensitive aspects into your everyday life. But I do not want to be too technique, Richard, as what is the most important for you is to know what repercussions all these planetary movements and shifts are going to have on your everyday life, and we are going to come to this point shortly. Richard, as you know I am used to be precise in my work and I always double check each and every statement and prediction I give you about your future in order to be sure you get the best out of all the opportunities that are waiting for you, and of course while working on this reading and to give you a broader picture of this important year 2015, Richard, I have completed the analysis of your natal chart with a numerological reading based on your name Richard, and also based on different other personal details you have provided me with. According to my analysis this year 2015 will be marked by an important peak point, that is going to be a start of a new period in different areas of your life, and this peak date is going to be particularly important in what concerns your love life, as the way you act and also the timing are going to define not only the short-term atmosphere in your romantic sphere , but also this period is going to have important repercussions for the next years to come and in the long-term period. This event is going to happen at the same time when Mercury is going to be in retrograde motion which coincides with the peak period according to your numerological analysis. Richard, it means that at this time in 2015 (I will need to look into it in more details later on), you will need to be in the right time and in the right place and also act in a very precise manner in order to seize this unique opportunity in your love life. Let me be direct with you Richard, this is your time! And you will need to take an important decision in regards to your love life during this crucial peak date that will define all the future course of your romantic relationships; the importance of this decision cannot be underestimated and it is completely unthinkable that you take it without being properly guided and informed. Richard, you should be aware of all the pitfalls and misunderstandings to choose what is the best for you and the stars can show you the way to how make the best choices, as yes, Richard, the planets will open the doors to happy and flourishing love life for you but it is up to you to pass through. Richard, but this is just the beginning of all the important changes that are going to happen in your life during the year 2015! Another area of your life where the influence of planetary shifts is going to have a huge impact will be your career path and professional environment, and this both according to you natal chart and also from the numerological point of view. This year 2015 will be very busy for you, Richard, as Jupiter is going through your 6th house, which is a promise of an important encounter with the person who is going to play a very important role in your professional life in the future. The next point which is important to emphasize for you, Richard, is that due to the very strong interaction between Jupiter going through your natal chart and taking into account the position of Mercury there is a strong link between your professional and career sector with the friendship, mutual understanding. It seems like success in one of them will nourish success in the other one. During 2015 you will meet a person (I cannot tell for now if you already know this person or not, this point needs to be explored in a more detailed report) that will push you towards an important opportunity in your career sector, and thus giving you the chance to find more friends in your professional environment, who in their turn will open more and more chances for further professional development. The crucial thing here is not to miss out this encounter with the person who will actually start this so-called "chain reaction" and for this you will need to be in the right place at the right time and act in a very precise manner, so that you can benefit from this chance to get your professional success to the next level! As you already know Richard, this encounter is going to happen during the peak period (which I have discovered for you according to the numerological analysis of your personal details) and I was so astonished to see that this peak period coincides with Mars entering your sign Capricorn, so you should absolutely not let this chance go by and benefit from positive influence of the planets to boost your life in different spheres! Moreover, I have clearly sensed that you have some kind of project on your mind, which you have been thinking about for some time already, and this year (let me mention, Richard, that it is going to be the year of Wooden Goat according to the Chinese astrology) will also be beneficial in terms of the realization of this project, as additional success and financial independence gained through career development, which I have just talked about, will give you a possibility to put more time and money into this particular project, so important for you. The negative aspect between Saturn and Uranus present in your astral sky since 2012 and which was blocking you to the certain degree, is going to shift, opening you the way towards new achievements. However you should be aware, that 2015 will set the basis for the future, as during this time you will absolutely need to start moving forward in order to get the results you are hoping to see some time later. Generally, this year will be very beneficial and lucky for you in all the areas of your life you are concerned about at the moment, including financial success. Richard, I can see that at the moment you are particularly worried about your financial situation and this point stands out clearly in your natal chart, and also it makes your worried not only about yourself, but also about some people that are very close to you and who are important to you, Richard. Let me reassure you, that during the peak period you will be able to completely change this situation. On one hand it will be due to the career progress we have talked about before, but on the other hand during the year 2015 you will have an important financial opportunity that you need to seize. However I cannot tell you more about this point simply because a more detailed study of your natal chart is necessary in order to identify all the lucky dates during this year, so that you do not pass by this unique chance to achieve prosperity. Richard, as you can see all the areas of your life are going to be touched by the important and crucial positive changes waiting for you in 2015, starting from your love life, your professional success, financial situation, family relations, friends, home and a lot more. On the page below that I have set up for you Richard you can discover more about what the next year has ins tore for you: https://www.the-astrology.com/orderforecast/Richard To summarize the most important changes that are going to happen in your life will be: -IN TERMS OF YOUR LOVE LIFE: you will need to take an important decision in your love life in regards to the situation you find yourself in at the moment, and this decision absolutely needs to be the right one for you, Richard, as it will define not only your immediate future in this area of your life, but it will also have important repercussions for the years to come. This decision needs to be taken having all the information at hand in order to avoid all the hidden pitfalls and to be sure you will be completely satisfied with your love life in the future. -IN WHAT CONCERNS YOUR PROFESSIONAL AREA: During 2015 you will have an opportunity to meet a person, who is going to play an important role in your professional and financial success in the future, as this person will open you the doors to the new professional opportunity. Besides this person will allow you to meet more people, who will become your friends and who will contribute to your career in different however always positive ways. -AS FOR YOUR FINANCIAL SITUATION: Richard, your financial situation is also going to changes, and there will be two main factors leading to important step forward and helping you to resolve your current issues, which are you professional success but also an important financial opportunity that is going to be presented to you during the next year. -AND MUCH MORE...: You will also make numerous positive changes in other areas of your life, like for example: you will have a chance to put into life a project you have on your mind, also it will be a period for your personal development and self-realization. Richard, I can clearly sense that you are very excited about all these changes and I know that you really need and deserve them, but at the same time you also know that the astrological influences can only open the doors and you and only you will be responsible for going through them! Yes, Richard, you will need to be alert and active and act in a very precise moment in order to make your dreams come true. I want to warn (as I am here for you and everything I am writing now is only in your best interest, dear friend), that if you just count on stars to do everything at your place, you risk missing out your chances and all the opportunities. I want you to understand, Richard, that you are the master of your destiny and astrological events only give you opportunities to make changes, they give you a choice now during the coming year 2015 to change your life for the better on different levels, but at the end what counts is your free will and you will decide if you grab this chance or just let it go. Richard, you need to start getting ready for this incredible year right now, you need to be ready to act and also you should have all the information in your disposition in order to know how, when and in which way to act to have all the chances on your side. So I am offering you my help and I will put all my experience and professionalism at your service, Richard, and on the link below you can find out how exactly I can help you:

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1. Working together…work safely if everyone is moving forward together and taking responsibility for their safe work environment then our safety takes care of itself. 2. Visualize, Internalize and Realize that safety depends on you so focus on safety every day and you’ll find that you’re Safe actions will bring lasting satisfaction. 3. There are no guarantees when it comes to safety unless you are doing your part so turn your attention to accident prevention and stay alert to the possible hazards in your work environment so that you can take steps to correct or guard against them. 4. We all find ourselves in situations that at times seem hopeless. And, we all have the choice to do nothing or take action. Your actions could save lives, so don’t be a bystander when it comes to safety. 5. A Great Work Practice is To Concentrate on the task(s) at hand. Distractions, boredom or fatigue can lead to accidents and other safety hazards. Always remember a danger foreseen is half avoided 6. The lesson for the day is time runs out on luck; obeying safety rules will save us from having to learn this lesson the hard way. 7. No project, no matter how critical, is worth a lost finger, a blinded eye, or tragic loss of life. When safety becomes the primary guideline for progress, all parties reap the rewards of a job well done and done safely. 8. Lead your teams by example in following all established safety procedures for alone we can do so little, but together we can do so much. 9. Prevent the worst and Put safety first, because being Safe today will keep you Alive tomorrow. 10. How do you spell Safety? Safety Means Always Remember Teamwork 11. Safety a culture to live by; Communication Urge Leadership Teamwork Understanding RecognitionEmpowerment 12. OUR STRENGTH IS THE SUM OF THE INDIVIDUALS WHO WORK HERE PRACTICE SAFETY ALWAYS 13. Safety is about doing the right thing, even if no one is looking, because safety starts with me! 14. People, helping people all lending hands for our safety. 15. The difference between a safe act and an unsafe act depends on the level of importance one places on doing what is right. 16. The safety of our team members should always come before the production of our parts. 17. “Winning at safety is like winning in sports. It’s not the effort of one person, but the focus and determination of the entire team working towards a common goal. You have to get out and give it your best, every single day” 18. If you put good people in bad systems you get bad results so let us always remember to promote safety in all we do as to ensure our system works so our Team members will always be safe! 19. When it comes to safety lets us never leave a team member behind for it is the responsibility of all that everyone goes home safe to their families. 20. Although hope maybe a pleasant acquaintance, it is better to have Safety as your best friend. 21. THINK SAFETY! Watch your THOUGHTS; they become WORDS. 22. TALK ABOUT SAFETY! Watch your WORDS; they become ACTIONS. 23. TEACH SAFETY! Watch your ACTIONS; they become HABITS. 24. WORK SAFELY! Watch your HABBITS; they become CHARACTER. 25. LIVE SAFELY Watch your CHARACTER; it becomes your DESTINY. 26. Take the extra step when it comes to safety, because if you just tell me, I may forget, If show you me, I might remember, but if you involve me I’m committed. 27. Plan ahead, always put safety first. 28. Because when it comes to accidents, 29. Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, 30. But anyone can start today and make a new ending. 31. Each and every one of us shares the responsibility of making sure everyone goes home to their family’s safe daily. We can achieve this by following the safety procedures that are in place, our families count on us, let’s not let them down. 32. If You Know Your Eyes are Priceless then protecting them at work should always be your number onepriority so make the right choice and use Eye protection always after all Your Personal Safety Depends on You! 33. Living with your mistakes is harder than you think….Always remember that no matter what profession you are in, workplace safety is a concept, which should be taken seriously and followed meticulously Your Family Depends on It! 34. The nice thing about teamwork is that you always have others on your side. So remember Courtesy and common sense promotes safety. 35. We live in a world full of uncertainties most of which we have little or no control over. Our Safety does not have to be one of those uncertainties if we work together and follow the rules. 36. Take responsibility for your safe work environment. Have the strength to do the right thing every time even when it’s seems easier not to. 37. Stop to think before you act. Accidents are not always the result of bad luck. They occur when someone decides – consciously or not – to take a chance. Be smart and avoid taking unnecessary risks The 10 commandments of workplace safety 1. Always be responsible for the safety of yourself and others. 2. Always remember all accidents are preventable. 3. Always follow company rules, regulations and procedures. 4. Always assess the risks, Stop and think. 5. Always be proactive about safety. 6. Always deter from situations you’re not trained to handle. 7. Always manage the lift. 8. Always Be prepared. 9. Always practice good housekeeping. 10. Always take the safest path, never take shortcuts.

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One of the biggest issues facing employers today is the safety of their employees. Workplace accidents are increasingly common. In 2003, for instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported a total of 4.4 million nonfatal workplace injuries in private industries. Organizations have a moral responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of their members. Organizational practices that promote safety can also help a company establish competitive advantage by reducing costs and complying with safety laws. Workplace safety can be quite expensive. Unintentional injuries alone cost more than $146.6 billion per year for medical and insurance costs, workers' compensation, survivor benefits, lost wages, damaged equipment and materials, production delays, other workers' time losses, selection and training costs for replacement workers, and accident reporting. State and federal governments strictly regulate organizational safety practices. The government views safety violations very seriously, and the penalties for violating safety laws can be quite severe. In addition to being issued large fines, employers who violate safety regulations can be held liable for criminal charges. The following examples illustrate the types of penalties associated with such violations: In November of 2004, OSHA fined General Motors (GM) Powertrain plant in Massena, NY for six serious safety violations, including an obstructed exit route, inadequate guarding of moving machine parts, and the failure to assess the need for personal protective equipment for workers. There were additional fines for recordkeeping violations, specifically underreporting injuries and illnesses. The penalty was $160,000. In September of 2004, a Weyerhaeuser plant in West Virginia was cited for improper reporting of injuries and illnesses to OSHA. The fine was $77,000 and the company had nine months to undergo an independent audit of their recordkeeping practices. In July of 2004, OSHA issued a proposed fine against Fru-Con Construction Corp in the amount of $280,000 for the company's negligence which resulted in the deaths of four employees. An improperly secured 2 million pound, 315 foot long launching truss collapsed, killing the four employees. GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF SAFETY PRACTICES AT THE WORKPLACE Federal laws regulate the safety practices of most organizations. We limit our discussion to laws that affect a majority of organizations, but note that several additional laws exist which cover particular segments of the workforce. For instance, numerous laws pertain to government contractors, to specific states, and to specific industries (e.g., transportation, nuclear power, food, and drug). The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is probably the most comprehensive and wide-ranging legislation in this area. It applies to nearly all U.S. workplaces. The act aims to ensure safe working conditions for every American worker by: Setting and enforcing workplace safety standards; Promoting employer-sponsored educational programs that foster safety and health; and Requiring employers to keep records regarding job-related safety and health matters. Three separate agencies were created by the act: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) develop and enforce health and safety standards. The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission hear appeals from employers who wish to contest OSHA rulings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducts health and safety research to suggest new standards and update previous ones. The following discussion focuses on the safety standards imposed by OSHA and how they are enforced. OSHA has issued literally thousands of safety and health standards. Areas of basic concern include fire safety, personal protection equipment, electrical safety, basic housekeeping, and machine guards. Each standard specifies such things as permissible exposure limit, monitoring requirements, methods of compliance, personal protective equipment, hygiene facilities, training, and record-keeping. To comply with these standards, most mid- to large-sized organizations employ safety professionals to keep up with them and ensure that each is being met. These professionals face too many specific issues to mention here, but some of the most important issues they must address appear in Figure 1. Figure 1 OSHAEmployee Responsibilities Figure 1 OSHA–Employee Responsibilities Companies with more than ten employees are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Companies with fewer than ten employees are exempt from such inspections, but can be investigated if a safety-related problem is brought to the attention of OSHA. High-hazard industries, such as manufacturing firms, chemical companies, and construction companies, are subject to inspections regardless of the number of employees. OSHA conducts inspections based on the following priority classifications, which are listed in order of importance: Imminent danger. OSHA gives top priority to workplace situations that present an "imminent danger" of death or serious injury to employees. The company must take immediate corrective action. Fatality or catastrophe investigations. The second highest priority is given to sites that have experienced an accident that has caused at least one employee to die or three or more to be hospitalized. Employers must report these events within 8 hours. The inspection aims to determine the cause of the accident and whether any violation of OSHA standards contributed to it. Employee complaint investigations. OSHA responds third to employee complaints about hazards or violations. The speed with which OSHA responds depends on the seriousness of the complaint. Employees may request to remain anonymous. Referrals from other sources. Consideration is given to referrals of hazard information from federal, state and local agencies, individuals, organizations, and the media. Follow-ups. OSHA sometimes will return to verify that violations have been corrected. General programmed inspections. OSHA will also inspect an organization if it is a high-hazard industry or has a lost workday injury rate that is above the national norm for that industry. When an OSHA inspection reveals that an employer has violated one of its standards, it issues a citation. The citation, posted near the site of the violation, lists the nature of the violation, the abatement period (i.e., the time frame within which the company must rectify the problem), and any penalty levied against the employer. Willful violations (i.e., those that an employer intentionally and knowingly commits) carry a penalty of up to $70,000 for each offense. If a death occurs because of a willful violation, the employer may be both fined and imprisoned. Congress enacted the Hazard Communication Standard (more commonly referred to as the Employee Right-to-Know Law) in 1984. This law gives workers the right to know what hazardous substances they are dealing with on the job. A substance is considered hazardous if exposure to it can lead to acute or chronic health problems. Federal and state agencies have compiled lists of more than 1,000 substances deemed hazardous under this law. The law requires all organizations to (1) develop a system for inventorying hazardous substances, (2) label the containers of these substances, and (3) provide employees with needed information and training to handle and store these substances safely. Employers typically violate the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard more frequently than any other OSHA standard. The majority of companies are cited for failing to have: written hazard communication programs an up-to-date hazardous chemical inventory list properly labeled chemical containers material safety data at the work site, in the form of material safety data sheets (MSDS) training programs for teaching employees about the chemicals they work with Government fines for right-to-know violations may be as high as $1000 per chemical for first violations and $10,000 per chemical for second violations. Additional penalties for environmental crimes include fines up to $75,000 per day and imprisonment. Another law affecting organizational safety and health practices is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). An individual is protected by the ADA if he or she is disabled, that is, if the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the individual's major life activities. According to the ADA regulations, temporary, non-chronic impairments that are short in duration and have little or no long-term impact are usually not considered disabilities under the act. For example, broken limbs, sprains, concussions, appendicitis, or influenza are not disabilities. However, if a broken leg did not heal properly and resulted in permanent impairment that significantly restricted walking or other major life activities, it could then be considered a disability. In 2004, there were 15,376 total charges filed as ADA violations with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). From July 1992 (when the law first took effect) through the end of September 2004, employees filed 204,997 complaints with the EEOC. Employees who became disabled as the result of workplace conditions or injuries filed about half of these charges. Individuals with back impairments have lodged the greatest number of charges. People also frequently claimed emotional, neurological, and extremity impairments. Penalties for ADA violations may be as high as $50,000 for initial violations and up to $100,000 for each subsequent violation. In addition, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 allows claimants to collect up to $300,000 in punitive damages for "willful" violations. ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION Despite laws designed to ensure safety at the workplace, U.S. companies' accident rates are alarmingly high. According to one estimate, employees lost eighty million workdays in 2002 from workplace injuries, and more than 3.7 million people suffered disabling injuries on the job that year. What causes all of these industrial injuries? These causes can be divided into three categories: employee error, equipment insufficiency, and procedure insufficiency. Examples of causes falling within each category are listed here: Employee error—misjudged situations; distractions by others; neuromuscular malfunctions; inappropriate working positions; and knowingly using defective equipment; Equipment insufficiency—use of inappropriate equipment; safety devices being removed or inoperative; and the lack of such things as engineering controls, respiratory protection, and protective clothing; Procedure insufficiency—failure of procedure for eliciting warning of hazard; inappropriate procedure for handling materials; failure to lock out or tag out; and a lack of written work procedures. Workplace accidents pose serious problems for employees and for a firm's competitive advantage, but employers can prevent most of them. Many preventive strategies work. Some people just seem to be accident prone. If some people do have inherent tendencies toward accidents, then organizations should be able to lower their accident rates by screening out accident-prone applicants. Research studies have discovered that individuals with certain personality characteristics are more likely than others to be involved in industrial accidents. For instance, one study found that people with higher accident rates tend to be impulsive and rebellious, and they tend to blame outside forces, rather than themselves, for their mishaps. Another study identified the following four "high-risk" personality characteristics: Risk taking: high risk-takers actually seek out danger rather than trying to minimize or avoid it. Impulsiveness: impulsive individuals fail to think through the consequences of their actions. Rebelliousness: rebellious individuals tend to break established rules, including safety rules. Hostility: hostile individuals tend to lose their tempers easily and thus engage in aggressive acts, such as kicking a jammed machine. Many organizations now use personality tests to screen out individuals with accident-prone tendencies. For example, some companies use a test (called the Personnel Selection Inventory-Form 3S) to assess applicants' safety consciousness. One part of the test measures the degree to which individuals perceive a connection between their own behavior and its consequences. As noted earlier, individuals unable to see this connection are at greater risk for accidents. Employers who provide all new employees with training on safe and proper job procedures experience fewer accidents. Employees should learn how to perform each of their tasks as safely as possible. Training should be very specific, as illustrated in the example that follows. This example covers the procedures to be followed by employees working at a large food manufacturing plant: When picking up pans from the conveyor belt, pick up no more than two pans before you place them on the pan rack. Stack roll pans no higher than the rear rail of the pan rack. When you lift or lower the dough, keep both hands on the dump chain. When you pull the dough trough away from the dough mixer, hold both hands on the front rail and not on the rail sides. While safety training is essential, employees do not always apply what they have learned. Just as many automobile drivers know it is wrong to exceed legal speed limits, but do it anyway, workers may choose to ignore instructions and carry out procedures in their own, unsafe way. One way to mitigate this problem is to implement a safety incentive program. Such programs aim to motivate safe behavior by providing workers with incentives for avoiding accidents. The organization formulates safety goals (usually on a department-wide basis) and rewards employees if these goals are met. For example, a particular department may establish the goal of reducing lost-time accidents by 50 percent over the next three months. If this goal were to be met, all employees within that department would receive an incentive reward, usually in the form of a cash bonus or merchandise. Safety incentive programs often work quite well. For example, Willamette Industries implemented a program because it was experiencing an average of thirty accidents per year that caused people to miss work. As a result of the program, the company went 450 days without a lost-time accident. Two problems often arise with safety incentive programs, however. In some cases, workers get so caught up in trying to win incentive rewards that they conceal their injuries and do not report them. When injuries go unreported, injured workers relinquish their rights to workers' compensation and firms remain unaware of safety problems. Second, workers may continue to perform in an unsafe manner (e.g., take risky shortcuts) because they remain unconvinced that such behavior is likely to result in accidents. Unfortunately, these employees are grievously mistaken; unsafe behaviors are a leading cause of accidents. According to one estimate, for every 100,000 unsafe behaviors there are 10,000 near-miss accidents, 1,000 recordable accidents, 100 lost-time accidents, and 1 fatality. SAFETY AUDITS Because employees who "know better" often continue to engage in accident-causing behavior, many employers have redirected their focus from accident prevention to the prevention of unsafe acts that could lead to an accident. To do so, firms conduct safety audits. A safety committee or supervisors who observe employees on the job and correct unsafe behaviors generally conduct such audits. Each employee should be monitored according to a planned schedule, generally on a weekly basis, as follows: STEP 1: OBSERVATION. Stop in the work area for a few moments and observe worker's activities, looking for both safe and unsafe practices. Use the following guide: Be alert to unsafe practices that the employee corrects immediately upon seeing you enter the area (putting on protective equipment, such as gloves or goggles). Note whether appropriate protective clothing is being worn. Observe how employees use tools. Scrutinize the safety of the work area. For instance, is the floor slippery? Determine whether rules, procedures, and operating instructions are being followed. STEP 2: EMPLOYEE DISCUSSION. These discussions should help employees recognize and correct their unsafe acts. When engaging in them, adhere to the following advice: If you spot an unsafe act, be non-confrontational. Point out the violation and ask the worker to state what he or she was doing and what safety-related consequences may arise if such behavior continues. Your goal is to help, not blame. Audits should not result in disciplinary actions unless an individual consistently violates safety rules. As you observe your employees, encourage them to discuss any safety concerns they may have and ask them to offer any ideas for safety improvement. Commend any good performance that you observe. STEP 3: RECORDING AND FOLLOW-UP. Findings should be recorded in writing. Pursue any item discussed during the audit that requires follow-up. Accident investigations determine accident causes so that changes can be made to prevent the future occurrence of similar accidents. "Near misses" should also be investigated so that problems can be corrected before serious accidents occur. Supervisors always play a key role in accident investigations. For minor accidents, investigation may be limited to the supervisor meeting with the injured worker and filing a report. In large-scale investigations, the supervisor is usually part of a team of experts, which may also include an engineer, maintenance supervisor, upper-level manager, and/or safety professional. Accident investigations should be performed in the following manner. When an accident occurs, the investigator's first responsibility is to ensure the safety of all employees by: making sure the injured are cared for and receive medical attention, if necessary; guarding against a more dangerous secondary event by removing danger sources and evacuating other personnel from the area if necessary; and restricting access to the area so no one else will be harmed, and so the scene will not be disturbed. You should then begin an investigation to identify both the immediate and underlying causes of the accident. The immediate cause is the event that directly led to the accident, such as a slippery floor, failure to wear safety gear, or failure to follow proper procedures. Immediate causes, while easily found, are not always very helpful in suggesting how future incidents of this nature can be avoided. To accomplish this aim, the investigator must discover the underlying cause of the accident. For example, suppose a worker slips and falls on spilled oil. The oil on the floor is the immediate cause of the accident, but you need to know why it was not cleaned up and why a machine was leaking oil in the first place. Poor training, lack of rule enforcement, low safety awareness, poor maintenance, or crowded work areas commonly underlie accidents. The investigator should ensure the accident scene is kept intact until the investigation is finished, as this will be the only chance to view the scene exactly as it was at the time of the accident. If a camera is available, photographs of the scene should be taken. Nothing related to the incident should be destroyed or discarded. The investigator should inspect the location (e.g., check for chemicals, broken pieces of machinery) and interview injured or affected workers, eyewitnesses, and anyone else who may be familiar with the accident area. Interviews should be conducted immediately, while the incident is still fresh in everyone's mind. Individuals should give their own account of the incident; by letting them tell their stories wi

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