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Malay

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Malay

objektif

English

the motive for the investment the motive for a foreign investment is crucial in determining how linkages and externalities develop. there are four main motives for investment: 1) seek natural resources; 2) seek new markets; 3) restructure existing foreign production; and 4) seek new strategic assets [narula and dunning, 2000]. these can be placed into two categories. the first category includes the first three motives: asset-exploiting, to generate economic rent by using existing firm-specific assets. the second category is the fourth motive: asset-augmenting, to acquire new assets that protect or enhance existing assets. in general, developing countries are unlikely to attract the second category of fdi; they primarily attract the first category. the relative importance of each motive partly reflects the stage of economic development [narula and dunning, 2000; narula, 1996, 2004]. least developed countries would tend to have mainly resource-seeking fdi and countries at the catching-up stage mostly market-seeking fdi. efficiency-seeking investments, with the most stringent capability needs, will tend to focus on the more industrialised developing economies (though three or four decades ago they went to countries with relatively low capabilities, e.g. the electronics industry in southeast asia in the 1970s). not all affiliates offer the same spillovers to host economies. a sales office, for instance, may have a high turnover and employ many people, but its technological spillovers will be limited relative to a manufacturing facility. likewise, resource-seeking activities like mining tend to be capital intensive and provide fewer spillovers compared to market-seeking manufacturing fdi. during import substitution, most mnes set up miniature replicas of their facilities at home, though many functions were not reproduced (they were ‘truncated’). the extent of truncation, however, varied by host country. the most important determinants of truncation – and thus the scope of activities and competence of the subsidiary – were market size and local industrial capabilities [dunning and narula, 2004]. countries with small markets and weak local industries had the most truncated subsidiaries, often only single-activity subsidiaries (sales and marketing or natural resource extraction). larger countries with domestic technological capacity (such as brazil and india) had the least truncated subsidiaries, often with research and development departments. with liberalisation, mne strategies on affiliate competence and scope have changed in four ways [dunning and narula, 2004]. first, there has been investment in new affiliates. second, there has been sequential investment in upgrading existing subsidiaries. third, there has been some downgrading of subsidiaries, whereby mnes have divested in response to location advantages elsewhere or reduced the level of competence and scope of subsidiaries. do we need a new agenda? 451 fourth, there has been some redistribution of ownership as the result of privatisation or acquisitions of local private firms. in many, but certainly not all, cases this also led to a downgrading of activities. mnes are taking advantage of liberalisation to concentrate production capacity in a few locations, exploiting scale and agglomeration economies, favourable location and strong capabilities. some miniature replicas have been downgraded to sales and marketing affiliates, with fewer opportunities for spillovers. countries that receive fdi with the highest potential for capability development are, ironically, those with strong domestic absorptive capacities. the article by lorentzen and barnes on south africa shows that domestic capacity – in the form of infrastructure or an efficient domestic industrial sector – is a primary determinant of high competence affiliates. they base their analysis on eight case studies in the south african automotive sector, and show that indigenous firms can compete with mnes, and – given the appropriate domestic capabilities and infrastructure – can maintain and improve their competitive advantages through indigenous innovation. like south africa, other countries have succeeded in attracting such fdi, notably mexico and the caribbean basin [eclac, 2000, 2001; mortimore, 2000]. in addition to providing a threshold level of domestic capabilities and infrastructure, these countries have invested in developing their knowledge base (although to a lesser extent in the case of mexico). mortimore [2000] argues that much of this fdi has created export platforms for mnes with limited benefits for the host countries [eclac, 2001]. this is a point reiterated by mytelka and barclay here in the case of trinidad, where fdi has not been leveraged to develop the skills and capabilities of local downstream and supporting firms. the state has largely failed to act as a facilitator to stimulate and support domestic absorptive capacities and linkages with mne affiliates. mne linkages fdi transfers technology to local firms in four ways: backward linkages, labour turnover, horizontal linkages and international technology spillovers. studies of backward linkages have identified various determinants, including those internal to mnes and those associated with host economies. the ability of the host economy to benefit from mne linkages has been found to depend crucially on the relative technological capabilities of recipient and transmitter: the greater the distance between them, the lower the intensity of linkages. again, mne motives and strategies matter. domestic market oriented affiliates generally purchase more locally than export-oriented firms because of lower quality requirements and technical specifications [reuber et al., 1973; altenburg, 2000]. mne affiliates are more likely to be integrated with host countries where they source relatively simple inputs [ganiatsos, 2000; carillo

Last Update: 2014-10-10
Usage Frequency: 13
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

Malay

visi dan misi tnb

English

vision and mission tnb

Last Update: 2016-01-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

objektif kajian

English

oxford dictionary

Last Update: 2014-11-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

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Malay

misi

English

mission

Last Update: 2014-12-24
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

objektif,visi dan misi syarikat vitagen

English

objectives, vision and mission vitagen

Last Update: 2016-01-30
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

misi kemanusiaan

English

human

Last Update: 2014-09-08
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

kenyataan misi

English

mission statement

Last Update: 2016-03-30
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

pemasaran visi sejamas

English

visi sejamas marketing

Last Update: 2015-11-10
Subject: Marketing
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

misi menawan hati penghuni pulau

English

captivates the residents mission

Last Update: 2015-10-30
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

nilai-nilai teras visi

English

core values

Last Update: 2016-02-17
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

tugas jururawat masyarakat menjayakan misi kkm

English

service mission of community nurses kkm

Last Update: 2015-02-18
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

misi saya sudah selesai.kerja yang bagus

English

construct sentences in english

Last Update: 2013-10-24
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Malay

kemudian saya berkenalan dengan pegawai-pegawai di jas cawangan kemaman. beliau turut memberi tugasan pertama iaitu mengenalpasti objektif, matlamat serta carta organisasi untuk jas ibupejabat di putrajaya, jas terengganu dan jas cawangan kemaman. saya turut mempelajari cara pengurusan pentadbiran di pejabat seperti membuka dan menutup fail

English

then i met with officials in kemaman branch offices. he also gave the first assignment which is to identify the objectives, goals and organization chart for doe doe headquarters in putrajaya, terengganu and kemaman branch offices. i also learn how management administration management at the office such as open and close the file

Last Update: 2016-09-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference:

Malay

teks ucapan aluan yang berhormat hj rasman bin hj ithnain majlis perasmian program asimilasi desa 2015 dan karnival pelancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian 10 september 2015(sabtu) wetland, kampung belukar durian, sedili, johor bismillahirahmanirrahim.. assalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh, salam sejahtera dan salam 1malaysia, terima kasih saudari pengerusi majlis, yang berbahagia en norazman bin othman , gm kejora yang berusaha dr roshanida binti a. rahman, pengetua kolej tun fatimah, universiti teknologi malaysia yang berusaha abdul kamal bin abdul rahman, pengerusi gdw kampung belukar durian tuan-tuan dan puan-puan sekalian. alhamdulilah syukur kita kehadrat allah swt, atas limpah kurnia-nya yang mengizinkan kite berhimpun di majlis perasmian program asimilasi desa dan karnival perlancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian pada petang yang berbahagia ini. saya dimaklumkan bahawa objektif program asimilasi desa dan karnival pelancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian ini diadakan untuk mahasiswa universiti teknologi malaysia membuka minda untuk sentiasa menyumbang tenaga dalam komuniti, mengeratkan silaturahim antara mahasiswa dan penduduk kampung belukar durian dan memberi pengalaman baru kepada mahasiswa sepanjang keberadaan mereka disini. terima kasih atas jemputan ke program dan karnival pada petang ini dan saya ingin mengucapkan setinggi-tinggi penghargaan dan terima kasih kepada semua yang terlibat dalam memberi sokongan dan bekerja keras untuk melaksanakan program asimilasi desa 2015 dan karnival pelancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian. hadirin yang saya hormati sekalian. program seumpama ini sudah tentu akan memberi manfaat kepada rakyat dalam membantu meringankan beban mereka. inilah bukti jelas usaha-usaha masyarakat yang sentiasa komited dalam menyumbang tenaga dalam komuniti yang meliputi keseluruhan masyarakat tanpa mengira kaum. pada masa yang sama, pelbagai usaha telahpun dilaksanakan untuk mengorientasikan masyarakat kepada kerja-kerja kesukarelawan dalam bidang kebajikan dan khidmat masyarakat. lanjutan dari itu, program khidmat bantu di rumah dan komuniti merupakan inisiatif kerajaan dibawah pimpinan y.a.b perdana menteri melalui strategi lautan biru kebangsaan (national blue ocean strategy) yang diperkenalkan untuk kesejahteraan komuniti melalui dimensi perkhidmatan. program ini dizahirkan untuk kepentingan rakyat berlandaskan kepada gagasan janji di tepati melalui government transformation programmes (gtp). hadirin sekalian. sudah tentu program seumpama ini secara tidak langsung akan dapat membantu masyarakat dalam pelbagai aspek khidmat sokongan sosial seperti program gotong royong serta perkhidmatan kerajaan secara out reach dalam komuniti yang bertujuan untuk membantu masyarakat yang kurang bernasib baik seperti warga emas dan oku yang tinggal bersendirian atau bersama keluarga. program ini juga lagi mengeratkan silaturahim antara pelajar dan penduduk kampung. say dimaklumkan terdapat aktiviti yang ditawarkan disamping beberapa hadiah kemenangan khas yang akan disampaikan kepada pemenang pada majlis ini. saya percaya bahawa semua pemenang telah dipilih atas keupayaan mereka menggambarkan kecemerlangan dan iltizam pemenang. di sini saya ingin mengucapkan tahniah dan terima kasih kepada semua pemenang serta hadiah penghargaan khas pada petang ini. hadirin yang saya hormati sekalian. akhir kata, tahniah sekali lagi diucapkan kepada pihak universiti teknologi malaysia, kejora dan penduduk kampung belukar durian atas penganjuran program asimilasi desa 2015 dan karnival perlancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian. saya berharap ia akan diperluaskan lagi agar semua golongan sasar akan mendapat manfaat yang dibawakan oleh pihak universiti, kejora dan penduduk kampung belukar durian dalam program asimilasi desa 2015 dan karnival perlancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian. dengan lafaz bismillahirrahmanirrahim saya dengan sukacitanya melancarkan program asimilasi desa 2015 dan karnival perlancongan desa gdw kampung belukar durian sekian, wabillahi taufiq walhidayah wassalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabaraktuh

English

opening speech

Last Update: 2016-09-07
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

pengurusan sumber manusia (hrm, atau simplyhr) adalah fungsi dalam organisasi yang direka bentuk untuk perkhidmatan performancein maximizeemployee objektif-objektif strategik sebagai majikan

English

human resource management(hrm, or simplyhr) is a function in organizations designed to maximize employee performancein service of an employer's strategic objectives

Last Update: 2016-04-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

dalam tanah, terdapat satu julat saiz zarah yang dapat dikenal pasti secara objektif melalui lengkungan agihan siaz zarah. lengkungan saiz zarah pula diplot berasaskan data ujian ayak dan pengedapan

English

in the soil, there is a range of particle sizes that apat identified objectively through the arch distribution siaz particles. the arch of the particle sizes in turn plotted based on test data sieve and pengedapan

Last Update: 2016-02-03
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

untuk menjelaskan bagaimana alat perakaunan pengurusan dan teknik-teknik menyumbang kepada pencapaian objektif organisasi

English

to explain how management accounting tools and techniques contribute to the attainment of organizational objectives

Last Update: 2015-11-23
Subject: Accounting
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

setiap penerbitan yang dikeluarkan oleh pts akan dapat menyampaikan maklumat pembangunan dan perancangan ekonomi negara kepada masyarakat untuk turut serta dan menjayakan misi negara untuk pembangunan ekonomi

English

each publication produced by pts will be able to deliver information development and economic planning to the community to participate in and complete the mission for the country's economic development

Last Update: 2015-11-22
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

dalam bab ini, menerangkan tentang latar belakang organisasi, carta organisasi, aktiviti organisasi dan juga halatuju organisasi, objektif dan visi dan misi azman taib agency. melalui bab ini juga, kita akan dapat mengetahui lebih mendalam tentang azman taib agency. semua maklumat yang berkaitan dalam bab ini diperolehi daripada bekas kakitangan di organisasi ini

English

in addition, business forms of agency is andi taib takaful and insurance. it to carry out family takaful and also general takaful. azman taib agency run by mr. azman bin taib and also an employee ms. atiqah nabilah binti norhaizan

Last Update: 2015-08-20
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Malay

rephraspembangunan kebudayaan kebangsaan bagi negara-negara yang baru merdeka amatlah penting untuk mewujudkan sebuah negara yang stabil dan bersatupadu. dengan yang demikian usaha-usaha pembentukan kebudayaan kebangsaan malaysia adalah bertujuan untuk mencapai tiga objektif penting iaitu:e

English

rephrase

Last Update: 2015-07-30
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

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