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Key messages • Adverse perinatal conditions are associated with an increased risk of suicide by violent means for adult men • Giving opiates to the mother during delivery was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent suicide by violent means in offspring • Similar studies of accident proneness as well as suicides by violent means are required possibly to corroborate the findings • Obstetric procedures should be chosen that reduce perinatal trauma to minimise the possible risk for subsequent adult self destructive behaviour Introduction For decades millions of mothers in developed countries have been subjected to new obstetric procedures, but with limited knowledge of the long term effects from those interventions. It does seem that long term effects are possible as one case-control study showed that suicide as an adolescent was associated with adverse perinatal conditions, and another study showed that suicide by violent means was associated with mechanical birth trauma. 1 2 Neither of these studies, however, controlled for confounders. We tested whether traumatic birth could be associated with subsequent suicide by violent means in offspring, using a stringent study design. We also predicted that this association could be reduced by giving sedatives and analgesics to mothers during delivery, as the infants' perception of trauma would be reduced. We based our predictions on the hypothesis (presented to the ethics committee of the Karolinska Institute in advance) that, through a process of imprinting, certain individuals might subconsciously create a traumatic situation during the act of suicide that produces a sensation similar to that experienced during birth.2 Since such imprinting processes are facilitated by testosterone, we expected men to be affected more than women.3 We analysed cases matched with siblings by logistic regression. Variables constituting a trauma score were selected by one of us (MB) before any access to birth records. Subjects and methods Cases and controls Cases were included in the study if: (a) they were adults who had committed an unambiguous suicide by violent means—that is, using a firearm, jumping from a height, jumping in front of a train, laceration, hanging, and strangulation; (b) they were born at one of seven hospitals in Stockholm from 1945 to 1980; (c) they had been examined after death at the Department of Forensic Medicine, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Stockholm between January 1978 and June 1995; and (d) they were Swedish citizens at the time of death. Birth records could not be found for 22 (5.7%) of 383 adults who had committed suicide, and two (0.6%) of the adults had not been raised by their biological parents so were excluded from the study, leaving 359 cases for analysis. Of 436 siblings born during the same period at the same seven hospitals, birth records could not be found for 26 (6.0%), four (1.0%) had not been raised by their biological parents, and three (0.7%) had committed suicide, leaving 403 siblings for comparison with 242 cases of suicide with siblings. Blinded evaluation Copies of the birth records of adults who had committed suicide and their siblings were coded, and data were extracted by two experienced midwives. (In Sweden midwives assist most births and keep all birth records.) Trauma score and opiate treatment A trauma score was calculated for each subject by adding the number of instances when any of the following birth events occurred that were likely to cause pain to the infant: presentation other than vertex, meconium stained amniotic fluid and membranes, instrumental delivery or internal version, and resuscitation and other complications usually requiring ward care. The number of times opiates (50-100 mg pethidine hydrochloride or 15-20 mg morphine) were given within 24 hours before birth was recorded. Confounders Several potential confounders were taken into account. Categorical variables included: the hospital and year and season of birth; maternal age, socioeconomic level, and civil status; order of birth, duration of labour, birth weight, and administration of nitrous oxide, barbiturates, or chloroform. Indicator variables included: treatment with oxytocin, neonatal asphyxia, and sex. Duration of labour was determined in three ways: the difference between the time of delivery and, when available, time of onset of labour; the difference between the time of delivery and time of admission to the hospital plus two hours; and the difference between the time of delivery and the time the membranes ruptured. No missing values were substituted, and subjects with missing values were rejected during statistical analysis. The origin of missing data has been attributed to some midwives and was not likely to be due to systematic errors causing bias.4 Statistical methods We used the LOGREG procedure in EPILOG for the logistic regression of subjects with a variable number of siblings as matched controls. The relative risks for subsequent suicide were estimated by multivariate analysis after stepwise regression, using a significance level of P1). Results Obstetric practices changed during the study period. The mean duration of labour with offspring that subsequently committed suicide and their siblings was 10.1 (SD=6.0) and 9.5 (SD=5.8) hours respectively. Duration of labour decreased slightly during the study period (fig 1). The average of the differences between the years of birth of the offspring who committed suicide and their siblings was 0.08 years. Offspring who subsequently committed suicide were more frequently exposed to birth complications than their siblings (table). Instrumental delivery or internal version, resuscitation, and other complications during birth contributed to the mean trauma score more during 1966 to 1970 and 1971 to 1980 than before, and offspring who subsequently committed suicide were subjected to about twice as many interventions at birth than their siblings (fig 2). Fig 1 Mean duration of labour and regression lines during six periods for 237 adults who committed suicide (data missing in five cases) and 392 biological siblings (data missing in 11 cases) • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint Fig 2 Mean trauma score per subject during six periods for 242 adults who committed suicide and their 403 biological siblings. Values are numbers of suicides and siblings; the 1971-75 and 1976-80 periods are combined • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint During the birth of offspring who subsequently committed suicide the mothers were given on average fewer doses of opiates during five of the six periods: 1945-50, 1951-55, 1956-60, 1966-70, and 1971-80 (fig 3). Opiates were more commonly given at the ABB hospital (Allm£nna BB), where 52 of 115 (45%) mothers received opiates compared with 69 of 530 (13%) mothers at the other hospitals. Fig 3 Mean number of opiate doses given to mother per subject for three periods preceding birth during six periods for 242 adults who committed suicide and 403 biological siblings • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint During multivariate analysis, matching cases with their own siblings, the trauma score and treatment with opiates were tested by logistic regression in competition with potential confounders (see table A on the website). The following variables were significant: maternal age (P=0.009), sex (P=0.006), treatment with opiates (P=0.007), and the interaction between men and the trauma score (P=0.002) (see table B on the website). The estimated relative risks in men of a single and multiple trauma ≥2) were 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.6) and 4.9 (1.8 to 13) times higher than if no trauma had occurred respectively (fig 4). The corresponding risks in women were 1.02 (0.5 to 2.1) and 1.04 (0.2 to 4.6). Fig 4 Relative risks (odds ratios) for committing suicide as an adult male after a single or multiple perinatal trauma. Values are numbers of suicides and siblings • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint The estimated relative risks of opiate doses were equal for both sexes: single dose (0.51, 0.31 to 0.83) and multiple doses (0.26, 0.09 to 0.69) (fig 5). A logistic regression of opiate administration as the dependent variable showed that only maternal age and birth order were significant. More opiates were given to the youngest maternal age group (odds ratio 16.8, 1.8 to 153) (P=0.01) relative to the 25-29 category. The youngest maternal age group showed the lowest relative risk of infants committing suicide as an adult of 0.31 (0.09 to 1.04, P=0.06). Fig 5 Relative risks (odds ratios) for committing suicide as an adult when a single or a multiple dose of opiates had been given to the mother within 24 hours before birth. Values are numbers of suicides and siblings • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint When entered as indicator variables, perinatal trauma and absence of opiates to the mothers during delivery yielded relative risks of 2.70 (1.46 to 5.00) and 1.95 (1.1 to 3.4, P=0.02) respectively. If these risks are causal then they correspond to population attributable percentages of 17% and 43% respectively. Discussion Our prospective case-control study benefitted from no potential recall bias, since data were collected at the time of birth. The effectiveness of the study design using cases matched with biological siblings was confirmed by 13 of 15 considered potential confounders, particularly order of birth, being non-significant. This suggests that influences from unknown potential confounders are also effectively reduced. Moreover, the number of unrecorded potential confounders is limited because the obstetric procedures that were found significant only occurred during the initial few hours of the subject's life. The increase in the contribution of obstetric and neonatal measures to the trauma score after 1965 does not seem to be due to an increased accuracy in record keeping during recent years, since the number of recorded presentations other than vertex and meconium stained amniotic fluid and membranes has not correspondingly increased. We conclude that the observed increase is real and reflects more active obstetrical care for reducing perinatal complications. We cannot exclude the possibility that it may be the circumstances giving rise to the need for a traumatic intervention that are the cause of the increased suicide risk, rather than the intervention itself. Perhaps these individuals are at a high risk in some subtle way, for which the need for obstetric intervention is merely a marker. Yet this does not explain why other trauma, not related to obstetric procedures, are also associated with violent suicide. If opiates did not have any beneficial effects on the long term outcome, we would have expected that mothers had been given more opiates when giving birth to subjects who subsequently committed suicide, since those births were often the most complicated. But the opposite effect was observed, and we regard this as an indication that opiates might protect the infant from violent suicide as an adult. Irrespective of the explanation for the opiate effect, it seems important that an obstetric procedure, of only a couple of hours at birth, might have a long term protective effect in adulthood. If treatment with opiates does not confer protection there must be another closely associated factor present at or before birth that makes an infant less prone than its sibling to violent suicide as an adult. An alternative explanation could be that painful deliveries make women ambivalent towards their infants, and as a consequence they are less motivated to provide good child care, and that treatment with opiates might counteract such a mechanism. Obstetric procedures that alleviate pain are then equally important. It seems strange that maternal age was significant, particularly as the highest risk of subsequent violent suicide was associated with the 25-29 age group, and that the risk was considerably lower for very young mothers. It should be noted, however, that the youngest mothers received the most opiates, which might have reduced the effect of any perinatal trauma on their infants. The attributable fractions apply to the population studied only; because of familial factors (unpublished data) at least the opiate effect is not applicable to the general population. Yet the size of the fractions, 17% and 43%, respectively, indicates that the effects can be substantial. This study suggests that the risk for a subsequent violent suicide is approximately halved in those subjects of certain mothers who received one treatment with opiates. But treatment with opiates might lead to subsequent opiate drug addiction in the offspring.7 Hence, in spite of the results of our study it seems incorrect to recommend the use of opiates. In one study subjects addicted to opiates had a 63 times greater mortality than expected.8 The gain in preventing a violent suicide in favour of an opiate addiction is dubious. We have no suggestion for an alternative drug for protecting infants that has no unwanted effects. The incidence of adolescent suicide has increased in many developed countries during the past few decades. These are the cohorts that were born during the mid 40s and later when more active obstetric procedures were applied to reduce fetal asphyxia. We believe that obstetric procedures should be chosen to minimise pain and discomfort to the infant if an increased risk of suicide by violent means is to be avoided. Our findings could be further corroborated by studies of not just subjects who commit suicide but also of those of accident proneness. Then, because of familial factors, it is of fundamental importance to eliminate confounders by using siblings as controls. Acknowledgments This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Karolinska Institute. We thank Karin Nyberg, Gunnar Eklund, and Ole Olsen for valuable assistance, and Rovan Rajs and Kari Ormstad at the Department of Forensic Medicine for supplying forensic records. Contributors: BJ formulated the hypothesis, designed the protocol for the collection of forensic and birth record data, supervised data collection, analysed the results with assistance of expertise in statistics, and participated in interpreting the findings and in writing the paper. MB discussed core ideas, particularly regarding obstetric matters, and participated in analysing and interpreting the data and in writing the paper. Both authors will act as guarantors for the paper. Footnotes • Funding This study was supported by a grant from the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research. • Conflict of interest None. google translat

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goORMUS CHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES CONTINUED... [Back to first page] [Back to previous page] • Wet Method Procedure • How to Purify Your Precipitate -- Removing Mg(OH)2 1. Method 1 2. Method 2 3. Method 3 4. Method 4 • Dry Method 1. Extra Supplies 2. Holder For Filters 3. Starting Materials 4. Procedure • Boiling Gold Method [The BOILING GOLD METHOD has never worked for those who have tried it and we don't recommend its use.] 1. Extra Supplies 2. Procedure • Appendix 1. M-state Storage 2. Chemical Suppliers 3. Lab Supplies 4. Starting-Material Sources WET-METHOD PROCEDURE Please read CAUTION!! and WARNING!! before proceeding. First you need to prepare a dilute lye solution. Label an eyedropper bottle or squirt bottle "Lye-poison" so the bottle will not confused with something else. Work in a sink so that any spills will be contained. Lye gives off eye-stinging fumes when mixed with water. To avoid inhaling fumes, hold your breath and wear goggles while doing the following procedure. Working over a sink, put 8 teaspoons of distilled water in a sturdy glass then stir in 1 teaspoon of lye. Stir until the lye is dissolved. Heat will be generated as the lye dissolves and the glass may get fairly hot. You may want to close your eyes to avoid eye-stinging fumes, taking a peek periodically. Pour the lye solution into a labeled eyedropper bottle or squirt bottle. If you are using pH paper, tear off several 1/4" pieces and put them on a piece of white paper on a plate. For the best accuracy, recalibrate the pH paper throughout the day with changes in temperature and humidity, as well as day-to-day. Buffer solutions of pH 4, 7 and 10 will help with this. Sources of pH buffer solutions are listed near the end of this document under LAB SUPPLIES. If you are using dried sea minerals, mix 1/2 cup of dry material with 2 cups of distilled water. This makes sea water. Now proceed as described below: 1. First, you might want to pour the sea water through a coffee filter to remove any scum. 2. If the starting material does not contain magnesium hydroxide (sea water does contain magnesium hydroxide), add some, or add a teaspoon of Epsom salts per gallon of water. 3. Pour the sea water into a stainless steel pot. Slowly, drop-by-drop, add the lye solution WHILE STIRRING. Every ten drops or so, test the pH. You might want to take at least 3 to 5 samples from different regions of the liquid. If you are using pH paper, the goal is to bring the pH up to 9.5, then stop to be on the safe side. If you are using a pH meter, stop just before you get to pH 10.78. A white precipitate which includes m-state elements will form. CAUTION: You must proceed slowly and patiently so that you do not exceed pH 10.78 with a meter or pH 9.5 with pH paper. If you go higher than pH 10.78, you might get a "Gilcrest precipitate" of toxic heavy metals. It is alleged that the Dead Sea salt water does not produce any Gilcrest precipitate. This has not been proven and should not be assumed. 4. Once you are at the correct pH, stop. 5. Pour the solution into a clean glass jar or test tube. 6. The white precipitate (slurry) slowly settles on the bottom of the jar. Let the slurry settle overnight. If metals or other toxins have been ruled out by prior testing of your starting material, the slurry is probably mostly calcium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, lye, and a small amount of m-state. You can speed this settling process with a centrifuge, which forces the precipitate to settle rapidly. Inexpensive second-hand centrifuges may be found at American Science and Surplus, http://www.sciplus.com. 7. Using a large syringe (or siphon), remove the liquid above the slurry. 8. Add distilled water to the precipitate (filling the jar), stir thoroughly, and let it settle again for at least 4 to 5 hours, preferably overnight. 9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 at least three times to thoroughly wash the precipitate. This should remove almost all of the lye. The remaining lye can be neutralized with HCl or distilled white vinegar as well. Washing three times is intended to reduce the dissolved "impurities" (like salt, for example) by 87.5%. Four washes would provide a 93.75% reduction, five washes a 96.875% reduction, and so on. At this point, the precipitate is likely to contain some m-state, milk of magnesia Mg(OH)2, calcium, and perhaps some impurities. Pour the precipitate and water into a stainless steel pot on a stove burner. A gas burner is preferred over electric because any magnetic fields from the electric burner may drive off some of the m-state material. Cover the pot with a lid to contain the m-state, and boil the solution for 5 minutes to sterilize it. Be careful not to spill the hot solution! Let it cool back to room temperature and recheck the pH to make sure it hasn't exceeded pH 9. DISCUSSION: WHEN TO BOIL THE SOLUTION In this document, we suggested that you not boil the solution until you have made the washed precipitate. However, boiling can be done earlier in the procedure with certain advantages. Here are four times that boiling could be done, with a discussion of the pros and cons of each: 1. Boil before adding lye solution. PROS: Faster reaction, faster precipitation. CONS: You may spill the hot lye solution. You may inhale fumes. 2. Boil while adding lye solution. PROS: Faster reaction, faster precipitation. CONS: You may spill the hot lye solution. You may inhale fumes. Danger of lye spurting out of pot. Not recommended. 3. Boil and cool after adding lye solution. PROS: No danger of inhaling fumes. Little danger of spilling hot lye solution. CONS: Slower reaction, slower precipitation. 4. Boil the washed precipitate (recommended). PROS: No danger of inhaling fumes. No danger of spilling hot lye solution. pH is unlikely to change after boiling because the reaction has already taken place. CONS: Slower reaction, slower precipitation. If safety is the main issue, this seems to be the best method. Caution: If you boil the solution on an electric burner, the magnetic field in the burner may "blow off" some of the m-state materials, resulting in a small yield. This can be minimized by adding a source of sodium (such as sodium hydroxide or salt) to the solution before boiling. Since sea water contains sodium in salt, none of the boiling methods will be a problem with sea water. However, if you are starting with low-sodium fresh water, add a sodium source (such as table salt or lye solution) before boiling. Once the precipitate and water have been sterilized, the next step is required to concentrate the m-state. HOW TO PURIFY YOUR PRECIPITATE [Note - These methods were not well tested before being added to this document. More recent experimentation with these methods reveals that they do not work as suggested and may actually be detrimental to the final product. The "purification" step is not necessary to get good ORMUS precipitate for plant or animal use. Plant experiments suggest that if the precipitate is dried out it no longer has any measurable benefits for plants. These methods are still included in this document because they might be useful as a basis for some future method of assaying the ORMUS content of the precipitate. The second method seems to work best.] The precipitate made from sea water contains milk of magnesia (Mg(OH)2), which precipitates approximately around the same pH range that m-state does. Here are four methods to separate Mg(OH)2 from m-state: METHOD 1 1. Suppose you just made a precipitate by adding lye solution to sea water. The precipitate is m-state mixed with Mg(OH)2. 2. Use a syringe to remove the liquid over the precipitate, and discard the liquid. This leaves only the m-state/Mg(OH)2 precipitate. 3. To the wet precipitate, add hydrochloric acid (HCl) until you reduce the pH to 1.0 - 3.5. You can use muriatic acid (31% HCl) from a hardware store, but lab-grade HCl is less likely to be contaminated. A safe alternative to HCl is distilled white vinegar. 4. The white colloidal precipitate should dissolve, leaving a clear solution. 5. Add lye solution VERY SLOWLY drop-by-drop to bring the pH back up to 8.5 - 8.7. The precipitate that forms should be m-state mostly free of Mg(OH)2 (because m-state precipitates in this pH range, and Mg(OH)2 does not precipitate until pH 9.) Note that your total yield may be diminished because you are not going past pH 8.7. 6. Remove the liquid above the precipitate, and wash the precipitate. It should be mostly m-state. METHOD 2 This procedure removes the Mg(OH)2 by dissolving it below pH 9. First get some HCl (or muriatic acid) and coffee filters. A safer alternative to HCl is distilled white vinegar. 1. Dry the precipitate in a dark oven at about 275 degrees F for one or two hours. This forms a dry powder. 2. Take the dry powder and pulverize out any clumps. 3. In a glass container, cover the powder with some distilled water. For example, one liter of water for one cup of powder. 4. Add HCl or distilled white vinegar drop-by-drop to bring the pH to 5 or 6. 5. Shake the bottle and let it sit overnight. The dried m-state should not dissolve at that pH, but the Mg(OH)2 should dissolve. 6. The next day, after all the Mg(OH)2 has dissolved, pour everything into filter paper. 7. Wash the powder collected in the filter paper several times with distilled water to remove any residual traces of HCl or vinegar. 8. The washed powder may be oven-dried again at about 275 degrees F, and you should have m-state powder free of Mg(OH)2. METHOD 3 1. Dry the original precipitate at about 200 degrees F. 2. Mix the resulting powder with distilled white vinegar or 30% HCl. Everything which does not dissolve in m-state. This will be quite a small amount if you start with sea water. (If you mix pure HCl with distilled water, remember: ADD ACID TO WATER, NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID). 3. Measure the amount of HCl/m-state solution (or vinegar/m-state solution). 4. Add distilled water to the HCl/m-state solution. Add an amount of water that is at least ten times the amount of HCl/m-state solution. (You may substitute distilled white vinegar for HCl). 5. Filter the solution through 5 layers of coffee filters. 6. Wash the powder at least three times in a large amount of distilled water. METHOD 4 1. Starting with clean wet precipitate, add lye to bring the pH up to 12. The m-state precipitate will dissolve, but magnesium hydroxide and the Gilcrest precipitate will not. 2. Filter out the precipitate. 3. To the remaining liquid containing only m-state, add HCl or distilled white vinegar drop-by-drop until the pH reaches 8.5. 4. Add lye solution drop-by-drop to bring the pH back up to 10.78. The resulting precipitate should be only m-state. 5. Wash the precipitate as described earlier. 6. To be safe, check the pH of the precipitate slurry. It should be 9 or less before ingesting. DRY METHOD Please read CAUTION!! and WARNING!! before proceeding. This method takes longer than the WET method. In some cases, it involves boiling lye for several hours, which may spray some caustic solution around your work area. Please wear neoprene gloves, a PVC lab apron, and eye goggles when you use this method. Sources for this safety clothing are listed near the end of this document under LAB SUPPLIES. Some people have reported adverse reactions to the WET method precipitate or powder. This may be due to the Gilcrest precipitates which occur above pH 11.5. The DRY method removes the dangerous Gilcrest precipitates, so it results in safer material. EXTRA SUPPLIES NEEDED FOR THE DRY METHOD 12-cup coffee filters from a grocery store. Hydrochloric acid. You can use muriatic acid (31% HCl) from a hardware store, but lab-grade HCl is less likely to be contaminated. Other acids can be used, but HCl will not harm the body if accidentally ingested in weak solutions and in small amounts. You might prefer to use distilled white vinegar instead of HCl. Although distilled white vinegar (acetic acid) is weaker than HCl, is it safer to work with. Heavy plastic HDPE cottage cheese containers, 1 pint and 1 quart, to hold the coffee filters. MAKING A HOLDER FOR THE COFFEE FILTERS 1. Start with a pint and a quart container for cottage cheese. Make sure the pint container will fit into the quart container. The pint container should hang inside the lip of the quart container. 2. Across the bottom of the pint container, punch or drill several holes, 1/8" to 1/4" diameter, about 1/4" apart. 3. If the small container fits too tightly into the larger container, you may need to drill some air-pressure equalization holes around the outside of the large container near the level of the bottom of the small container. Otherwise the air pressure between the two containers will keep liquid from draining from the coffee filters. When you use this filter, place the cottage cheese containers in a stainless steel or glass container to catch any overflow. The lye water that you will be filtering may damage counter tops or cabinets if it contacts them. 4. The coffee filters should fit nicely into the smaller top cottage-cheese container. DRY METHOD STARTING MATERIALS Generally start with dry material such as sweepings from salt and alkali flats, rock powders, limestone, mineral salts, Isis or Etherium white gold powder, volcanic ash, plant cinders, etc. These are some materials that produce a lot of precipitate from the DRY method: ◦ Crushed, unheated limestone (Caution: agricultural grade powdered limestone from some sources contains sufficient lead and/or arsenic to be a potential hazard) ◦ Golden Nectar trace mineral formula ◦ Etherium/Isis Gold powder ◦ Ancient Secrets Dead Sea Mineral Salts ◦ Masada salts (unscented) DRY-METHOD PROCEDURE Please read CAUTION!! and WARNING!! before proceeding. First you need to prepare a dilute lye solution. Label an eyedropper bottle or squirt bottle "Lye-poison" so the bottle will not confused with something else. Work in a sink so that any spills will be contained. Lye gives off eye-stinging fumes when mixed with water. To avoid inhaling fumes, hold your breath and wear goggles while doing the following procedure. Working over a sink, put 8 teaspoons of distilled water in a sturdy glass then stir in 1 teaspoon of lye. Stir until the lye is dissolved. Heat will be generated as the lye dissolves and the glass may get fairly hot. You may want to close your eyes to avoid eye-stinging fumes, taking a peek periodically. Pour the lye solution into a labeled eyedropper bottle or squirt bottle. If you are using pH paper, tear off several 1/4" pieces and put them on a piece of white paper on a plate (as illustrated above). Now proceed as described below: 1. Grind the starting material to a fine powder. 2. Add 1:4 lye solution to cover the dry material with a thin layer. 3. Stir in some distilled water to cover the powder and lye by 2 inches. 4. Bring to a boil (this is best done outdoors or in an exhaust hood). The pH should be at or slightly above 12. The lye brings the m-state elements into solution while leaving the Gilcrest precipitates as solids. NOTE: If you start with sea salt, you can omit the boiling step with its noxious fumes, and simply let the solution sit for three days. Then go directly to Step 7. (Some other starting materials might also react without boiling). 5. If you are boiling the solution, replace water as needed to maintain sufficient reactant volume. 6. Boil for several hours -- the longer the better -- in a closed container. The container may be open if you add liquid as needed. Four hours should be sufficient for Etherium/Isis material. 7. Strain the slurry through 3 to 5 layers of coffee filters. You are removing the toxic elements (Gilcrest precipitate) that precipitate above pH 11.5. Save the liquid that passes through the filters. Most m-state present will be in solution in the liquid. 8. While stirring the liquid, slowly add HCl or distilled white vinegar to bring the pH down to 8.5. A white precipitate forms which is partly m-state. If you go too far, the pH will abruptly shift, and you will have to start over. If this happens you must add lye quickly and bring the pH back up to 12. 9. Let the precipitate settle overnight. 10. Using a large syringe (or a siphon), remove the liquid above the slurry. 11. Add distilled water to the precipitate (filling the jar), stir thoroughly, and let it settle again for at least 4 to 5 hours, preferably overnight. 12. Repeat steps 10 and 11 at least three times to thoroughly wash the precipitate. This removes most traces of lye and HCl (or vinegar). You'll get a wet, white precipitate (slurry) containing m-state elements. Check that the pH is 9 or less before ingesting. Some of the precipitate may be milk of magnesia or calcium. If you wish, you can remove them using the precipitate purification procedures described above. BOILING-GOLD METHOD [The BOILING GOLD METHOD has never worked for those who have tried it and we don't recommend its use.] Please read CAUTION!! and WARNING!! before proceeding. This method produces pure gold ORMUS. With this method, you must boil some lye solution for one to two weeks. This may spray some caustic solution around your working area. Please wear neoprene gloves, a PVC lab apron, and eye goggles when you use this method. Sources for this safety clothing are noted under LAB SUPPLIES near the end of this document. EXTRA SUPPLIES NEEDED FOR THE BOILING-GOLD METHOD Coffee filters from a grocery store. Hydrochloric acid (HCl). You can use muriatic acid (31% HCl) from a hardware store, but lab-grade HCl is less likely to be contaminated. Instead of HCl, you might prefer to use distilled white vinegar (acetic acid). Distilled white vinegar is weaker than HCl but is safer to use. A stainless steel pot or glass pot will work, but stainless steel and glass are attacked by NaOH. Glass is preferred over stainless steel. A preferred container is a sealed Teflon® or HDPE bottle in a water bath in a crock pot. Please note that a Teflon® bottle is NOT the same as a Teflon® coated aluminum container. Never use aluminum or Teflon® coated aluminum containers and utensils because aluminum will react with acids like HCl and alkalis like lye, and will poison you. If you use a sealed Teflon® or HDPE bottle in a water bath fill it only half full with your lye and gold then squeeze the bottle to eliminate most of the air above the liquid before you tighten the cap. This will allow the bottle to expand as the liquid is heated. PROCEDURE FOR THE BOILING-GOLD METHOD 1. Add 99.99% pure gold dust to a lye solution of pH 12 or more. 2. Boil the solution for two weeks in a CLOSED container. One week may be sufficient, but two weeks will likely have a higher yield. Add water as needed. CAUTION: Do not inhale the vapors! 3. Strain the solution using the coffee filter holder described above. Save any remaining gold for future use. 4. Add HCl or distilled white vinegar to bring the pH down to pH 8.5. An off-white precipitate will appear. Let it settle overnight. 5. Using a syringe, carefully suck out the liquid above the precipitate. 6. Add distilled water to the precipitate (filling the jar), stir thoroughly, and let it settle again for at least 4 to 5 hours, preferably overnight. 7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 at least three times to thoroughly wash the precipitate. APPENDIX M-STATE STORAGE Store m-state materials in * Glass mason jars with wire-clamped glass lids and rubber gaskets * Glass jars with plastic lids, or * HDPE containers, which are stable in acid and alkali Store m-state materials in the dark away from sunlight or ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet light seems to move some m-state

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