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sri lanka official language translator contains

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viththikaruvan

Last Update: 2015-07-21
Subject: Legal and Notarial
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Sinhala

sri lanka official language translator contains

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සිංහල

Last Update: 2014-10-25
Subject: General
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sri lanka telecom

English

when Lila went out on the beach it was so early in the morning there was no one else there

Last Update: 2014-07-11
Subject: General
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City in Sri Lanka

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Zaragoza

Last Update: 2011-10-23
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Sinhala

niyamaiSri Lanka in 1H2013 underwent a real economic growth of 6.5% outpacing most regional economies amidst a general slowdown in world economic activity and becoming one of the fastest growing economies in Asia. The post-war growth in real output since 2010 averaged 7.5% indicating the rapid pace of expansion in real activity levels. In this backdrop, Sri Lanka emerged as a haven for foreign investors providing investment prospects even during times of general global uncertainty. However, these foreign investments were predominantly portfolio investments (government securities and equity) and not FDIs. The FDIs were mainly of a rentier nature (casinos, hotels, etc.,) and do not promote commodity production or transfer of technology to the host economy. In this light, the ability of local producers to benefit from growth in Asian and world markets demands evaluation given that Sri Lanka’s production structure remains to advance technologically and organisationally, to be able to supply world demand for advanced products. A higher level of technical sophistication and application of science in production provides access to world markets that are constantly expanding in contrast to primary product exports. This is so given that technologically intensive production constantly invents entirely new product categories and hence forms new spheres of investment, permeating a self-expanding and an integrated character to economic growth in general. This is in contrast to technologically neutral production processes that characterise Sri Lanka’s exports and investments in general (garments, tea, trade, tourism, construction, etc.) which do not cause multiplication of new product categories over time. Source: Compiled with CBSL data Apart from the self-expansive effect of advanced technology oriented production, the latter further generates positive externalities in the home economy by raising the productivity of resources, which is in contrast to the neutrality of the technological impact on the economy of primary goods and services which dominate Sri Lanka’s exports and investments. The fact that in Sri Lanka services sector labour productivity is significantly higher than that of the industrial sector (by 17% in 2012) is empirically reflective of the necessity for transforming the economy’s backward industrial sector. Hence, it can be said that although growth has been high during the post-war years, the growth composition of the economy has led to a technological and organisational lag, which is more critical than the trade and fiscal deficits continuously highlighted by economists. The former, though of long term or medium term in nature are of fundamental concern. They involve questions of employment creation (qualitatively and quantitatively), income distribution, wage rates, poverty indices, aggregate profits and sustainability of whatever has been achieved. The overall capability to effect improvements in the economy qualitatively and quantitatively in the face of the structural changes that are taking place at the world level should be enhanced by redirecting resources from consumption, infrastructure and trade to manufacturing industry availing of the existing domestic demand. Doing so would at the outset enhance the local knowledge base and transform the structure of investment matrix qualitatively to suit the requirements of world markets for advanced materials. The process will provide the economy with the means to penetrate the world markets for industrial goods and productively benefit from the growth in world economy. Such a turnaround should initially seek to alter the arrangement of the production factors in the economy in a way which enable the domestic economy to integrate with semi advanced and advanced supply chains abroad. The greater multiplier effect of a better integrated and interconnected investment process which is a critical characteristic of industrial advancement as opposed to services or agriculture would yield greater degree of scale advantage to the economy. This in turn tends to multiply the avenues through which locally produced commodities could penetrate world markets indicating the importance of the domestic market in preparing an economy to integrate industrially with world markets. Rise in the Importance of National Economies at the World Level and Positioning Sri Lanka in the General Scenario In the face of failure of conventional monetary and fiscal policy measures to assist economies from making their escape from the world recession now in its fourth consecutive year, key industrial economies have resorted to trade protectionism for boosting the demand for local industries and preventing a further increase in factory closures and unemployment. According to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) the ratio of growth of world trade to world GDP growth which stood at 2:1 historically has currently fallen to 1:1. This indicates that the world output growth is basing itself less on world trade than on domestic demand; growth within home markets doubled in terms of the world’s output growth compared to its historical average. Source: WTO In this backdrop, it is in the interest of Sri Lanka to explore possibilities of greater utilisation of more freely available home demand ahead of attempting to penetrate world markets especially considering the relatively moderate industrial base and competitive power which the local exporters rely on. In the case of several commodities the home market has now grown to sufficient proportions that negate the indivisibilities arising from insufficient market demand. This shifts the comparative advantage in supply price from imports towards domestic production creating a transformation in market conditions that would assist the development of local industrial capabilities. This indicates that potential of the economy to restructure its productive base in response to continuously expanding home demand is yet to be explored through market forces. It would also tend to further expand the space for profitable investments and private capital formation given the self expansive propensities of manufacturing industry compared to other forms of investments. Hence, it would be comparatively advantageous for Sri Lanka to seize initially the opportunities that domestic demand offers where competitive forces are much more manageable as compared to the fierce competition in world markets. Furthermore, currently global demand is being captured by key export economies and entry into it is not entirely free. The more productive utilisation of the home market that is available at the doorstep of local investors should be availed of with the aim of improving the spread and depth of the industrial structure. This was the general development strategy pursued by the newly industrialised economies in East Asia such as Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. The home market was used as a launching pad to improve the industrial capabilities of the economy before gradually advancing to integrate with world supply chains. However in Sri Lanka currently, investments seem to be absorbed by trade and services led undertakings which affects the rate of productivity change in the economy and may not be ideal given that Sri Lanka is in need of investments that are capable of transforming the economy in line with investment patterns of East Asian NICs. A Discussion on the Academics’ Perspective on Sources of Growth and Export Performance In this connection, the view held by the academics concerning the need to expand exports rests on the belief that the deficits in the trade account and the current account of balance of payments have been high following independence and hence there has to be a shift from borrowing to earning more non-debt driven foreign inflows. The academics are of the view that despite Sri Lanka’s economic growth being one of the highest in Asia the sources of growth have been predominantly nontradables led by construction, trade and government services. The over-reliance of growth on nontradables prevents the generation of foreign exchange required to support the inputs and consumption in real GDP expansion, given that growth dependent on nontradables involves increased imports. It also points to the fact that growth has been foreign exchange consuming rather than foreign exchange generating. Source: CBSL Hence, in order to offset the investments/savings gap created in the growth process, the economy tends to accumulate foreign liabilities exceeding the pace of nominal GNP growth, which leads to short term boom and bust conditions when growth grounded on external debt faces sustainability issues characterised by periodical foreign exchange shortages. This is empirically reflected by contractionary monetary and fiscal policy measures adopted in 1Q2012 and in 2008 which curbed the rate of real growth to 5.6% in 2H2012 and 3.4% in 2009. The growth in foreign debt both in public and private sector relative to growth in nominal GNP is indicated by Net Foreign Assets of the economy recording LKR -126.8 billion in 1H2013 from a five year average of LKR 169.4 billion. In this light, the academics explain that Sri Lanka now considered a middle income economy by international donor agencies has limited access to concessional foreign financing. This has led to expensive foreign commercial borrowings which increase external debt financing costs, intensifying the frequency of foreign exchange shortages. In this light, they point out that it is not possible to attain 8% growth on a sustainable basis without export expansion; hence it is imperative for Sri Lanka to expand exports to achieve growth sustainability in the long run. This general conceptual position on the Sri Lankan economy held by the academics implies that the current need to revive the export sector of the economy spans from the need to earn foreign exchange and thereby offset the deficit in the trade account of the balance of payments. In contrast, concepts on international trade resting on Smith’s conceptual dictums are closely interwoven with the theory of domestic economic development and do not depend on its utility in offsetting balance of trade deficits. This is so because the trade account can be balanced by many means other than raising exports receipts, such as the growth in inward labour remittances, tourism, foreign inflows to capital markets or else a reduction in imports of which the direct impact on factor productivity of the domestic economy is neutral. In contrast, the theory of international trade studies the long run mutual interaction between foreign trade and domestic economic development essentially involving a rise in the productivity of domestic economic resources (capital and human) (see for example Myint, H. (Aug., 1977) ‘Adam Smith’s Theory of International Trade in the Perspective of Economic Development’, Economica). Trade theory is not based on the belief that the purpose of international trade is to offset the trade gap of an economy. If trade account deficit is taken as a yard stick of development, it would mean that in the colonial period Sri Lanka had well balanced trade accounts and was economically developed than most advanced economies in the world. Source: World Bank It is further pointed out that export receipts have declined from 33% of GDP in 2000 to 16% in 2012 and that Sri Lanka’s share of global exports has also dipped sharply. This is to say that the exports sector of Sri Lanka performed better in 2000 given the fact that its share of the GDP in 2000 was over twice the current figure. In the same line of argument, it could further point out that export performance of Sri Lanka during the colonial period was even better given that the share of exports to GDP would have been higher than the 33% in 2000 (Professor S. B. D. De Silva). In fact Sri Lanka during the period of colonialism was an export economy par excellence while currently the growth in the economy has been mainly led by infrastructure and construction activity coupled with the continuous growth in inward labour remittances. The problem in gauging export performance as a share of the GDP is that it’s not reflective of the technological composition of exports which has remained unchanged over the years and export volumes have increased without a qualitative effect on its production structure (i.e capital to labour ratio and depth of industrial linkages) and on the economy in general. International trade theory incorporates into its analysis the impact of international trade on capital accumulation, division of labour, long run factor supply and factor productivity of the domestic economy. Further, Smith’s theory of international trade rests on the dictum that ‘the division of labour is limited by the extent of the market’. That is to say that the extent of the division of labour in the economy determines the extent of specialisation of knowledge employed in the process of production. Increasing complexity of division of labour and hence specialisation is availed by access to wider markets. Therefore, one of the key objectives of entering international trade is to improve the general level of specialisation and technological complexity of the economy rather than as a means of offsetting the deficit in the trade account. The transformative effect of international trade on the domestic economy pointed out by Smith however, would not materialise if the economy continues to supply primary goods to world market which do not depend for their success on scale economies and specialisation. The Real Exchange Rate Model and Growth in Industrial Output The drop in exports income as a share of the GDP over time in Sri Lanka is attributed to the current incentive structure in the economy, which is such that resources are being directed to nontradable sectors. It is held that though growth has been buoyant the source of growth has been nontradables: construction, mining and quarrying, retail/wholesale trade and public administration. This has been attributed mainly to the overvalued real exchange rate and the tariff regime. Source: World Bank However, it should be mentioned in this regard that the resources in the economy are utilised within a framework of primary technique. The framework is not disturbed by an improvement of relative prices of production factors in favour of capital against labour nor the improvement of relative prices of the output of advanced product categories by the depreciation of the real effective exchange rate (REER). The REER determines the sectoral relative price of nontradables and tradables and hence governs the flow of resources within the two sectors with other conditions remaining the same. However, the effect of REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors within the tradable sector; i.e., the flow of resources from primary products to semi advanced and advanced industrial products. Also the REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors from nontradables to advanced industrial investments. This is evident from the depreciation of the domestic currency by as much as 225% over the past 23 years (from LKR 40.00/USD to circa LKR 133.00/USD since 1990) but exports continuing to preserve its primary goods character and is a decreasing share of the GDP. Further, the REER shows a depreciation of circa 32% over the past ten years as shown in the accompanying graph, indicating that there is little connection between the REER and growth in nontradables and other more critical factors are at work. In spite of the depreciation of the REER the growth in nontradables has been phenomenal and is continuing. The preceding discussion points out that rather than the overvaluation of the REER, it is the regional disparity in factor productivity and factor organisation which prevents the flow of resources from nonindustrial to industrial products; an advanced production structure is required from the outset for industrial investments to expand. The technological and organisational gap at the regional level prevents the allocation of resources in the domestic economy from responding to favourable relative prices in industrial products (excluding construction, mining & quarrying, infrastructure and power generation). Relative prices determine the flow of resources only within the low technological and nonindustrial framework, i.e., from one sphere of investment to another within the nonindustrial structure. This is to say the production factors are not developed sufficiently to exploit the full range of investment spheres offered by relative prices and comparative costs in the economy. Hence, although relative prices of industrial production being favourable, investments may not breach its traditional organisational structure for the reason that production factors are insufficiently developed and organised to exploit the full range of avenues offered by relative prices. Therefore, the problem in the economy does not lie with the flow of resources from tradables to nontradables as suggested by academics but the absence of resource flow from primary product categories to semi advanced and advanced industrial investments, and this is not a function of the REER as shown earlier. The state in this regard has a crucial role in designing a proper stream of nonmarket interventions replicating the experience of East Asian NICs to restructure the economy in favour of industrial development from its current over reliance on construction, leisure and labour remittances led development.

English

Sri Lanka in 1H2013 underwent a real economic growth of 6.5% outpacing most regional economies amidst a general slowdown in world economic activity and becoming one of the fastest growing economies in Asia. The post-war growth in real output since 2010 averaged 7.5% indicating the rapid pace of expansion in real activity levels. In this backdrop, Sri Lanka emerged as a haven for foreign investors providing investment prospects even during times of general global uncertainty. However, these foreign investments were predominantly portfolio investments (government securities and equity) and not FDIs. The FDIs were mainly of a rentier nature (casinos, hotels, etc.,) and do not promote commodity production or transfer of technology to the host economy. In this light, the ability of local producers to benefit from growth in Asian and world markets demands evaluation given that Sri Lanka’s production structure remains to advance technologically and organisationally, to be able to supply world demand for advanced products. A higher level of technical sophistication and application of science in production provides access to world markets that are constantly expanding in contrast to primary product exports. This is so given that technologically intensive production constantly invents entirely new product categories and hence forms new spheres of investment, permeating a self-expanding and an integrated character to economic growth in general. This is in contrast to technologically neutral production processes that characterise Sri Lanka’s exports and investments in general (garments, tea, trade, tourism, construction, etc.) which do not cause multiplication of new product categories over time. Source: Compiled with CBSL data Apart from the self-expansive effect of advanced technology oriented production, the latter further generates positive externalities in the home economy by raising the productivity of resources, which is in contrast to the neutrality of the technological impact on the economy of primary goods and services which dominate Sri Lanka’s exports and investments. The fact that in Sri Lanka services sector labour productivity is significantly higher than that of the industrial sector (by 17% in 2012) is empirically reflective of the necessity for transforming the economy’s backward industrial sector. Hence, it can be said that although growth has been high during the post-war years, the growth composition of the economy has led to a technological and organisational lag, which is more critical than the trade and fiscal deficits continuously highlighted by economists. The former, though of long term or medium term in nature are of fundamental concern. They involve questions of employment creation (qualitatively and quantitatively), income distribution, wage rates, poverty indices, aggregate profits and sustainability of whatever has been achieved. The overall capability to effect improvements in the economy qualitatively and quantitatively in the face of the structural changes that are taking place at the world level should be enhanced by redirecting resources from consumption, infrastructure and trade to manufacturing industry availing of the existing domestic demand. Doing so would at the outset enhance the local knowledge base and transform the structure of investment matrix qualitatively to suit the requirements of world markets for advanced materials. The process will provide the economy with the means to penetrate the world markets for industrial goods and productively benefit from the growth in world economy. Such a turnaround should initially seek to alter the arrangement of the production factors in the economy in a way which enable the domestic economy to integrate with semi advanced and advanced supply chains abroad. The greater multiplier effect of a better integrated and interconnected investment process which is a critical characteristic of industrial advancement as opposed to services or agriculture would yield greater degree of scale advantage to the economy. This in turn tends to multiply the avenues through which locally produced commodities could penetrate world markets indicating the importance of the domestic market in preparing an economy to integrate industrially with world markets. Rise in the Importance of National Economies at the World Level and Positioning Sri Lanka in the General Scenario In the face of failure of conventional monetary and fiscal policy measures to assist economies from making their escape from the world recession now in its fourth consecutive year, key industrial economies have resorted to trade protectionism for boosting the demand for local industries and preventing a further increase in factory closures and unemployment. According to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) the ratio of growth of world trade to world GDP growth which stood at 2:1 historically has currently fallen to 1:1. This indicates that the world output growth is basing itself less on world trade than on domestic demand; growth within home markets doubled in terms of the world’s output growth compared to its historical average. Source: WTO In this backdrop, it is in the interest of Sri Lanka to explore possibilities of greater utilisation of more freely available home demand ahead of attempting to penetrate world markets especially considering the relatively moderate industrial base and competitive power which the local exporters rely on. In the case of several commodities the home market has now grown to sufficient proportions that negate the indivisibilities arising from insufficient market demand. This shifts the comparative advantage in supply price from imports towards domestic production creating a transformation in market conditions that would assist the development of local industrial capabilities. This indicates that potential of the economy to restructure its productive base in response to continuously expanding home demand is yet to be explored through market forces. It would also tend to further expand the space for profitable investments and private capital formation given the self expansive propensities of manufacturing industry compared to other forms of investments. Hence, it would be comparatively advantageous for Sri Lanka to seize initially the opportunities that domestic demand offers where competitive forces are much more manageable as compared to the fierce competition in world markets. Furthermore, currently global demand is being captured by key export economies and entry into it is not entirely free. The more productive utilisation of the home market that is available at the doorstep of local investors should be availed of with the aim of improving the spread and depth of the industrial structure. This was the general development strategy pursued by the newly industrialised economies in East Asia such as Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. The home market was used as a launching pad to improve the industrial capabilities of the economy before gradually advancing to integrate with world supply chains. However in Sri Lanka currently, investments seem to be absorbed by trade and services led undertakings which affects the rate of productivity change in the economy and may not be ideal given that Sri Lanka is in need of investments that are capable of transforming the economy in line with investment patterns of East Asian NICs. A Discussion on the Academics’ Perspective on Sources of Growth and Export Performance In this connection, the view held by the academics concerning the need to expand exports rests on the belief that the deficits in the trade account and the current account of balance of payments have been high following independence and hence there has to be a shift from borrowing to earning more non-debt driven foreign inflows. The academics are of the view that despite Sri Lanka’s economic growth being one of the highest in Asia the sources of growth have been predominantly nontradables led by construction, trade and government services. The over-reliance of growth on nontradables prevents the generation of foreign exchange required to support the inputs and consumption in real GDP expansion, given that growth dependent on nontradables involves increased imports. It also points to the fact that growth has been foreign exchange consuming rather than foreign exchange generating. Source: CBSL Hence, in order to offset the investments/savings gap created in the growth process, the economy tends to accumulate foreign liabilities exceeding the pace of nominal GNP growth, which leads to short term boom and bust conditions when growth grounded on external debt faces sustainability issues characterised by periodical foreign exchange shortages. This is empirically reflected by contractionary monetary and fiscal policy measures adopted in 1Q2012 and in 2008 which curbed the rate of real growth to 5.6% in 2H2012 and 3.4% in 2009. The growth in foreign debt both in public and private sector relative to growth in nominal GNP is indicated by Net Foreign Assets of the economy recording LKR -126.8 billion in 1H2013 from a five year average of LKR 169.4 billion. In this light, the academics explain that Sri Lanka now considered a middle income economy by international donor agencies has limited access to concessional foreign financing. This has led to expensive foreign commercial borrowings which increase external debt financing costs, intensifying the frequency of foreign exchange shortages. In this light, they point out that it is not possible to attain 8% growth on a sustainable basis without export expansion; hence it is imperative for Sri Lanka to expand exports to achieve growth sustainability in the long run. This general conceptual position on the Sri Lankan economy held by the academics implies that the current need to revive the export sector of the economy spans from the need to earn foreign exchange and thereby offset the deficit in the trade account of the balance of payments. In contrast, concepts on international trade resting on Smith’s conceptual dictums are closely interwoven with the theory of domestic economic development and do not depend on its utility in offsetting balance of trade deficits. This is so because the trade account can be balanced by many means other than raising exports receipts, such as the growth in inward labour remittances, tourism, foreign inflows to capital markets or else a reduction in imports of which the direct impact on factor productivity of the domestic economy is neutral. In contrast, the theory of international trade studies the long run mutual interaction between foreign trade and domestic economic development essentially involving a rise in the productivity of domestic economic resources (capital and human) (see for example Myint, H. (Aug., 1977) ‘Adam Smith’s Theory of International Trade in the Perspective of Economic Development’, Economica). Trade theory is not based on the belief that the purpose of international trade is to offset the trade gap of an economy. If trade account deficit is taken as a yard stick of development, it would mean that in the colonial period Sri Lanka had well balanced trade accounts and was economically developed than most advanced economies in the world. Source: World Bank It is further pointed out that export receipts have declined from 33% of GDP in 2000 to 16% in 2012 and that Sri Lanka’s share of global exports has also dipped sharply. This is to say that the exports sector of Sri Lanka performed better in 2000 given the fact that its share of the GDP in 2000 was over twice the current figure. In the same line of argument, it could further point out that export performance of Sri Lanka during the colonial period was even better given that the share of exports to GDP would have been higher than the 33% in 2000 (Professor S. B. D. De Silva). In fact Sri Lanka during the period of colonialism was an export economy par excellence while currently the growth in the economy has been mainly led by infrastructure and construction activity coupled with the continuous growth in inward labour remittances. The problem in gauging export performance as a share of the GDP is that it’s not reflective of the technological composition of exports which has remained unchanged over the years and export volumes have increased without a qualitative effect on its production structure (i.e capital to labour ratio and depth of industrial linkages) and on the economy in general. International trade theory incorporates into its analysis the impact of international trade on capital accumulation, division of labour, long run factor supply and factor productivity of the domestic economy. Further, Smith’s theory of international trade rests on the dictum that ‘the division of labour is limited by the extent of the market’. That is to say that the extent of the division of labour in the economy determines the extent of specialisation of knowledge employed in the process of production. Increasing complexity of division of labour and hence specialisation is availed by access to wider markets. Therefore, one of the key objectives of entering international trade is to improve the general level of specialisation and technological complexity of the economy rather than as a means of offsetting the deficit in the trade account. The transformative effect of international trade on the domestic economy pointed out by Smith however, would not materialise if the economy continues to supply primary goods to world market which do not depend for their success on scale economies and specialisation. The Real Exchange Rate Model and Growth in Industrial Output The drop in exports income as a share of the GDP over time in Sri Lanka is attributed to the current incentive structure in the economy, which is such that resources are being directed to nontradable sectors. It is held that though growth has been buoyant the source of growth has been nontradables: construction, mining and quarrying, retail/wholesale trade and public administration. This has been attributed mainly to the overvalued real exchange rate and the tariff regime. Source: World Bank However, it should be mentioned in this regard that the resources in the economy are utilised within a framework of primary technique. The framework is not disturbed by an improvement of relative prices of production factors in favour of capital against labour nor the improvement of relative prices of the output of advanced product categories by the depreciation of the real effective exchange rate (REER). The REER determines the sectoral relative price of nontradables and tradables and hence governs the flow of resources within the two sectors with other conditions remaining the same. However, the effect of REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors within the tradable sector; i.e., the flow of resources from primary products to semi advanced and advanced industrial products. Also the REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors from nontradables to advanced industrial investments. This is evident from the depreciation of the domestic currency by as much as 225% over the past 23 years (from LKR 40.00/USD to circa LKR 133.00/USD since 1990) but exports continuing to preserve its primary goods character and is a decreasing share of the GDP. Further, the REER shows a depreciation of circa 32% over the past ten years as shown in the accompanying graph, indicating that there is little connection between the REER and growth in nontradables and other more critical factors are at work. In spite of the depreciation of the REER the growth in nontradables has been phenomenal and is continuing. The preceding discussion points out that rather than the overvaluation of the REER, it is the regional disparity in factor productivity and factor organisation which prevents the flow of resources from nonindustrial to industrial products; an advanced production structure is required from the outset for industrial investments to expand. The technological and organisational gap at the regional level prevents the allocation of resources in the domestic economy from responding to favourable relative prices in industrial products (excluding construction, mining & quarrying, infrastructure and power generation). Relative prices determine the flow of resources only within the low technological and nonindustrial framework, i.e., from one sphere of investment to another within the nonindustrial structure. This is to say the production factors are not developed sufficiently to exploit the full range of investment spheres offered by relative prices and comparative costs in the economy. Hence, although relative prices of industrial production being favourable, investments may not breach its traditional organisational structure for the reason that production factors are insufficiently developed and organised to exploit the full range of avenues offered by relative prices. Therefore, the problem in the economy does not lie with the flow of resources from tradables to nontradables as suggested by academics but the absence of resource flow from primary product categories to semi advanced and advanced industrial investments, and this is not a function of the REER as shown earlier. The state in this regard has a crucial role in designing a proper stream of nonmarket interventions replicating the experience of East Asian NICs to restructure the economy in favour of industrial development from its current over reliance on construction, leisure and labour remittances led development.

Last Update: 2017-08-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

Sinhala

For a faster result, only "The, Sri, Lankan, Junglefowl, (Gallus, lafayetii), also, known, during, the, colonial, era, as, the, Ceylon, Junglefowl, is, a, member, of, the, Galliformes, bird, order, which, is, endemic, to, Sri, Lanka, where, it, is, the, national, bird., It, is, closely, related, to, the, Red, Junglefowl, (G., gallus), the, wild, junglefowl, from, which, the, chicken, was, domesticated., The, specific, name, of, the, Sri, Lankan, Junglefowl, commemorates, the, French, aristocrat, Gilbert, du, Motier, marquis, de, La, Fayette., In, Sinhala, it, is, known, as, වළි, කුකුළා, (Wali, Kukula)[2], and, in, Tamil, it, is, known, as, இலங்கைக், காட்டுக்கோழ��" have been included in the human results.

English

The Sri Lankan Junglefowl (Gallus lafayetii), also known during the colonial era as the Ceylon Junglefowl, is a member of the Galliformes bird order which is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is the national bird. It is closely related to the Red Junglefowl (G. gallus), the wild junglefowl from which the chicken was domesticated. The specific name of the Sri Lankan Junglefowl commemorates the French aristocrat Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette. In Sinhala it is known as වළි කුකුළා (Wali Kukula)[2] and in Tamil it is known as இலங்கைக் காட்டுக்கோழி.

Last Update: 2016-10-09
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

Sinhala

This species nests in damp evergreen woodlands in the central highlands, building a stick nest in a tree and laying a single white egg. Its flight is quick, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. Most of its food is vegetable. Normally silent it utters an owl-like hoo call in the breeding season. The Sri Lanka wood pigeon is 36 cm in length. Its upperparts and tail are dark grey, and the head and underparts are lilac, becoming paler on the belly. There is a black-and-white chessboard pattern on the nape

English

This species nests in damp evergreen woodlands in the central highlands, building a stick nest in a tree and laying a single white egg. Its flight is quick, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. Most of its food is vegetable. Normally silent it utters an owl-like hoo call in the breeding season. The Sri Lanka wood pigeon is 36 cm in length. Its upperparts and tail are dark grey, and the head and underparts are lilac, becoming paler on the belly. There is a black-and-white chessboard pattern on the nape. This pigeon can be quite easily seen in the woods of the Horton Plains National Park

Last Update: 2016-03-16
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference:

Sinhala

For a faster result, only "Thai, Pongal, is, a, harvest, festival, celebrated, by, Tamils, in, the, Indian, state, of, Tamil, Nadu, Indian, Union, Territory, of, Pondicherry, Sri, Lanka, Malyasia, Singapore, and, other, parts, of, Southeast, Asia., Unusually, for, South, Indian, Hindu, festivals, Thai, Pongal, is, timed, by, an, astronomical, event, , , the, winter, solstice., Pongal, is, traditionally, dedicated, to, the, Sun, God, Surya, and, marks, the, beginning, of, the, northward, journey, of, the, Sun, from, its, southernmost, limit, a, movement, traditionally, referred, to, as, uttarayana., It, coincides, with, the, festival, Makara, Sankranthi, celebrated, throughout, India, as, the, winter, harvest, and, is, usually, held, from, January, 13–15, in, the, Gregorian, calendar, , from, the, last, day, of, the, Tamil, month, Maargazhi, to, the, third, day, of, Thai., This, also, represents, the, Indic, solstice, when, the, sun, purportedly, enters, the, 10th, house, of, the, Indian, zodiac., Makaram, or, Capricor" have been included in the human results.

English

Thai Pongal is a harvest festival celebrated by Tamils in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Indian Union Territory of Pondicherry, Sri Lanka Malyasia, Singapore and other parts of Southeast Asia. Unusually for South Indian Hindu festivals, Thai Pongal is timed by an astronomical event the winter solstice. Pongal is traditionally dedicated to the Sun God Surya, and marks the beginning of the northward journey of the Sun from its southernmost limit, a movement traditionally referred to as uttarayana. It coincides with the festival Makara Sankranthi celebrated throughout India as the winter harvest, and is usually held from January 13–15 in the Gregorian calendar from the last day of the Tamil month Maargazhi to the third day of Thai. This also represents the Indic solstice when the sun purportedly enters the 10th house of the Indian zodiac. Makaram or Capricorn.

Last Update: 2016-03-16
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Sinhala

Sri Lanka has more than 51 Acts and some 40 agencies dealing with water, often resulting in duplication, confusion and inaction — fertile grounds for corruption. Though a Comprehensive Water Resources Policy was approved more than a decade ago, the policy is in limbo — and no all-encompassing legislation was adopted due to lack of political will.

English

paragrapSagittarius Given below is the generalized description of your birth chart / horoscope as per Indian Vedic Astrology and your Vedic ascendant. You should not misinterpret this with your zodiac Sun/Moon signs since they are mostly different from this sign: Sagittarius is the ninth sign of the zodiac and is governed by the planet Jupiter. People born with Sagittarius ascendant have a well-proportioned and well-developed body. They are generally tall in height with comparatively broad forehead, brownish hair, bushy eyebrows, long nose, bright eyes, graceful looks and clear complexion and possess handsome figure. The good placement and strength of Jupiter in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, long lifespan, good amount of knowledge and satisfactory financial status. In addition to this it blesses them with good qualities such as organized lifestyle, contentment along with sincerity, sobriety, generous, progressive and ambitious nature. Following are the positive & negative effects as per the strength/affliction of different planets in the nativity. People born with Sagittarius ascendant are fortunate since only three planets i.e. Moon, Rahu and Ketu act as malefic planets in their chart / horoscope. Rest of planets i.e. Sun, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and the Saturn act as benefic ones for them. Sun is one of the most benefic planets for Sagittarians. Its good placement and strength in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, vitality, strong will power, paternal bliss and favourable fortune. In addition to this the strong strength of Sun blesses them with fame, excellent managerial abilities, satisfaction from social standing as well as opportunities to visit distant places. On the contrary its inherent weakness results in occasional health problems, upheavals in attaining aims, differences with father/higher ups, dissatisfaction from social standing, loss of respect or difficulties in enjoying desired favours from the person in authority. From the viewpoint of health the weakness of Sun results in diseases of head, weakness of bones, weak digestive power, heart problem or erratic circulation of blood. The good placement and strength of Moon in their birth chart / horoscope blesses them with sound and imaginative mind, maternal bliss, sufficient inheritance, unearned wealth (sufficient inheritance), long lifespan, trouble free life or interest in occult science as well as strong financial status. However its inherent weakness results in sick and troubled mind, problem to or from mother/wife, short/medium life span, lack of marital bliss, financial status, ups and downs in life coupled with mental stress. On health ground the weakness of Moon results in sinusitis, upper respiratory tract troubles, sinusitis, hypertension and sleeplessness or Gynaecological problems in females. Mars is a favourable planet in their birth chart / horoscope. Its good placement and strength blesses them with good health, aggressive nature, strong grasping power as well as capacities to take decisions boldly even in serious crisis. In addition to this its good placement and strength is favourable for enjoying happiness on account of children, younger siblings, gains through speculation, generating interest in higher studies as well as tendency to take part actively in sports. In case Mars is weak in strength in the nativity, it causes lack of patience/power of concentration, short temperament, indecisiveness, losses through speculation, emotional setbacks and problem to/ from children/younger siblings or difficulties in pursuing higher studies. In human body the weakness of Mars results in muscular problems, blood infections, high/low Blood pressure, slow physical growth, muscle cramps, diabetes and frequent stomach disorders. Mercury is another benefic planet in the birth chart / horoscope of people born with Sagittarius ascendant. Its good placement and strength blesses them with excellent assessment, analytical and decisive powers. Their intellect is quite sharp and they possess excellent communication as well as professional skills. In addition to this its good placement is favourable for achieving professional success of a high order. However the natal weakness of Mercury results in indecisiveness, uncertainties, confusions or lack of communication skills. In addition to this they may suffer losses in speculative ventures as well as ups and downs on the professional front. Medically they are prone to neurological disorders, sleeplessness, skin or intestinal problems or pains in cervical portion. Jupiter is also one of the most benefic planets for them. Its good placement and strength blesses them with sobriety, sincerity, good health and good amount of knowledge, innovative nature as well as with satisfactory financial status. In addition to this the strength of Jupiter is favourable for enjoying happiness on account of children, elder siblings as well as generating interest in religious activities. However its natal weakness results in health problems, financial constraints, short/medium lifespan and loss of respect, shrewd nature or some kind of problems to/from father/husband/children. From the viewpoint of health its weakness results in poor liver functioning, anaemia, diabetes, weakness in right eye or dark circles under eyes. The good placement and strength of Venus in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, personal life, romantic pleasures as well as luxurious lifestyle. In addition to this its good placement and strength is conducive for enjoying friendly relationships, adequate marital bliss, fulfilling desires as well as earning satisfactory income. On the contrary its inherent weakness results in health problems, lack of charm, problem to/ from wife, difficulties in fulfilling desires, dissatisfaction from income or some kind of problem to from elder brother/friends. On ground of health its weakness results in renal problems, diabetes, weakness of lens of eye or reproductive organs. Saturn is also a benefic planet for them. Its good placement and strength makes the native wise, clever and practical in approach. They are determined in approach i.e. their efforts are of a high order and have interest in technical fields. They may earn gains through servants/employees/contract work and enjoy harmonious relationship with the younger siblings. The natal weakness of Saturn usually results in slow physical growth, weak expression power, lack or loss of efforts, lack of confidence, losses through new ventures/employees or problem to/ from younger siblings. From the medical viewpoint they may suffer from breathing trouble, glandular problems and painful conditions especially in the lower portion of legs. Rahu is a malefic planet and does not owe any particular house. Whenever Rahu is placed in good house and not afflicting any area in a birth chart / horoscope it promotes good results of the house in which it is placed. However, if Rahu is afflicting any particular planet or area in the chart / horoscope, it deteriorates the significations of the planet or the houses that are under its close influence. Simultaneously it creates illusions, obstructions, denial, manipulative tendencies, indecisiveness, greed, over ambitiousness, addiction etc. Notwithstanding the above the exaltation of Rahu that too away from the most effective point also enhances materialistic results. Similarly Ketu does not owe any particular house. Whenever Ketu is placed in a benefic house and is not afflicting any particular planet or area in the birth chart / horoscope, it promotes good results of that house in which it is placed. If Ketu is placed near the midpoint of any house, it causes miseries and deteriorates the traits of all the houses that are under its influence. Notwithstanding the above if it is in the sign of exaltation and not close to the mid point then it gives develops spiritual interests. Unfavourable Colours White, Dull brown and Steel Grey. Unfavourable Gems Pearl, Cat's eye (lasonia) and Gomedh (hessonite).< It is important to mention that the above mentioned results are general in nature according to the Indian Vedic ascendant only. You may get the precise and accurate predictions only after getting a birth chart / horoscope analysed since every birth chart / horoscope is specific and its interpretation depends on blending of various principals as well as experience of the Astrologer who is handling the job. Senior Astrologer Mr. Narinder Juneja In case you are interested to get any birth chart / horoscope analysed manually to solve your problems or get Astral Remedies then you may login at www.mywebastrologer.com or email us at njuneja@mywebastrologer.com Energise/Strengthen Your weak Benefic Planets By Wearing Kavach Appease your Malefic Planets By Performing Astral Remedies/Propitiation Sagittarius Given below is the generalized description of your birth chart / horoscope as per Indian Vedic Astrology and your Vedic ascendant. You should not misinterpret this with your zodiac Sun/Moon signs since they are mostly different from this sign: Sagittarius is the ninth sign of the zodiac and is governed by the planet Jupiter. People born with Sagittarius ascendant have a well-proportioned and well-developed body. They are generally tall in height with comparatively broad forehead, brownish hair, bushy eyebrows, long nose, bright eyes, graceful looks and clear complexion and possess handsome figure. The good placement and strength of Jupiter in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, long lifespan, good amount of knowledge and satisfactory financial status. In addition to this it blesses them with good qualities such as organized lifestyle, contentment along with sincerity, sobriety, generous, progressive and ambitious nature. Following are the positive & negative effects as per the strength/affliction of different planets in the nativity. People born with Sagittarius ascendant are fortunate since only three planets i.e. Moon, Rahu and Ketu act as malefic planets in their chart / horoscope. Rest of planets i.e. Sun, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and the Saturn act as benefic ones for them. Sun is one of the most benefic planets for Sagittarians. Its good placement and strength in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, vitality, strong will power, paternal bliss and favourable fortune. In addition to this the strong strength of Sun blesses them with fame, excellent managerial abilities, satisfaction from social standing as well as opportunities to visit distant places. On the contrary its inherent weakness results in occasional health problems, upheavals in attaining aims, differences with father/higher ups, dissatisfaction from social standing, loss of respect or difficulties in enjoying desired favours from the person in authority. From the viewpoint of health the weakness of Sun results in diseases of head, weakness of bones, weak digestive power, heart problem or erratic circulation of blood. The good placement and strength of Moon in their birth chart / horoscope blesses them with sound and imaginative mind, maternal bliss, sufficient inheritance, unearned wealth (sufficient inheritance), long lifespan, trouble free life or interest in occult science as well as strong financial status. However its inherent weakness results in sick and troubled mind, problem to or from mother/wife, short/medium life span, lack of marital bliss, financial status, ups and downs in life coupled with mental stress. On health ground the weakness of Moon results in sinusitis, upper respiratory tract troubles, sinusitis, hypertension and sleeplessness or Gynaecological problems in females. Mars is a favourable planet in their birth chart / horoscope. Its good placement and strength blesses them with good health, aggressive nature, strong grasping power as well as capacities to take decisions boldly even in serious crisis. In addition to this its good placement and strength is favourable for enjoying happiness on account of children, younger siblings, gains through speculation, generating interest in higher studies as well as tendency to take part actively in sports. In case Mars is weak in strength in the nativity, it causes lack of patience/power of concentration, short temperament, indecisiveness, losses through speculation, emotional setbacks and problem to/ from children/younger siblings or difficulties in pursuing higher studies. In human body the weakness of Mars results in muscular problems, blood infections, high/low Blood pressure, slow physical growth, muscle cramps, diabetes and frequent stomach disorders. Mercury is another benefic planet in the birth chart / horoscope of people born with Sagittarius ascendant. Its good placement and strength blesses them with excellent assessment, analytical and decisive powers. Their intellect is quite sharp and they possess excellent communication as well as professional skills. In addition to this its good placement is favourable for achieving professional success of a high order. However the natal weakness of Mercury results in indecisiveness, uncertainties, confusions or lack of communication skills. In addition to this they may suffer losses in speculative ventures as well as ups and downs on the professional front. Medically they are prone to neurological disorders, sleeplessness, skin or intestinal problems or pains in cervical portion. Jupiter is also one of the most benefic planets for them. Its good placement and strength blesses them with sobriety, sincerity, good health and good amount of knowledge, innovative nature as well as with satisfactory financial status. In addition to this the strength of Jupiter is favourable for enjoying happiness on account of children, elder siblings as well as generating interest in religious activities. However its natal weakness results in health problems, financial constraints, short/medium lifespan and loss of respect, shrewd nature or some kind of problems to/from father/husband/children. From the viewpoint of health its weakness results in poor liver functioning, anaemia, diabetes, weakness in right eye or dark circles under eyes. The good placement and strength of Venus in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, personal life, romantic pleasures as well as luxurious lifestyle. In addition to this its good placement and strength is conducive for enjoying friendly relationships, adequate marital bliss, fulfilling desires as well as earning satisfactory income. On the contrary its inherent weakness results in health problems, lack of charm, problem to/ from wife, difficulties in fulfilling desires, dissatisfaction from income or some kind of problem to from elder brother/friends. On ground of health its weakness results in renal problems, diabetes, weakness of lens of eye or reproductive organs. Saturn is also a benefic planet for them. Its good placement and strength makes the native wise, clever and practical in approach. They are determined in approach i.e. their efforts are of a high order and have interest in technical fields. They may earn gains through servants/employees/contract work and enjoy harmonious relationship with the younger siblings. The natal weakness of Saturn usually results in slow physical growth, weak expression power, lack or loss of efforts, lack of confidence, losses through new ventures/employees or problem to/ from younger siblings. From the medical viewpoint they may suffer from breathing trouble, glandular problems and painful conditions especially in the lower portion of legs. Rahu is a malefic planet and does not owe any particular house. Whenever Rahu is placed in good house and not afflicting any area in a birth chart / horoscope it promotes good results of the house in which it is placed. However, if Rahu is afflicting any particular planet or area in the chart / horoscope, it deteriorates the significations of the planet or the houses that are under its close influence. Simultaneously it creates illusions, obstructions, denial, manipulative tendencies, indecisiveness, greed, over ambitiousness, addiction etc. Notwithstanding the above the exaltation of Rahu that too away from the most effective point also enhances materialistic results. Similarly Ketu does not owe any particular house. Whenever Ketu is placed in a benefic house and is not afflicting any particular planet or area in the birth chart / horoscope, it promotes good results of that house in which it is placed. If Ketu is placed near the midpoint of any house, it causes miseries and deteriorates the traits of all the houses that are under its influence. Notwithstanding the above if it is in the sign of exaltation and not close to the mid point then it gives develops spiritual interests. Unfavourable Colours White, Dull brown and Steel Grey. Unfavourable Gems Pearl, Cat's eye (lasonia) and Gomedh (hessonite).< It is important to mention that the above mentioned results are general in nature according to the Indian Vedic ascendant only. You may get the precise and accurate predictions only after getting a birth chart / horoscope analysed since every birth chart / horoscope is specific and its interpretation depends on blending of various principals as well as experience of the Astrologer who is handling the job. Senior Astrologer Mr. Narinder Juneja In case you are interested to get any birth chart / horoscope analysed manually to solve your problems or get Astral Remedies then you may login at www.mywebastrologer.com or email us at njuneja@mywebastrologer.com Energise/Strengthen Your weak Benefic Planets By Wearing Kavach Appease your Malefic Planets By Performing Astral Remedies/Propitiation Given below is the generalized description of your birth chart / horoscope as per Indian Vedic Astrology and your Vedic ascendant. You should not misinterpret this with your zodiac Sun/Moon signs since they are mostly different from this sign: Sagittarius is the ninth sign of the zodiac and is governed by the planet Jupiter. People born with Sagittarius ascendant have a well-proportioned and well-developed body. They are generally tall in height with comparatively broad forehead, brownish hair, bushy eyebrows, long nose, bright eyes, graceful looks and clear complexion and possess handsome figure. The good placement and strength of Jupiter in their birth chart / horoscope is favourable for enjoying good health, long lifespan, good amount of knowledge and satisfactory financial status. In addition to this it blesses them with good qualities such as organized lifestyle, contentment along with sincerity, sobriety, generous, progressive and ambitious nature

Last Update: 2015-12-26
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Sinhala

The Scouts & Girl Guides of Sri Lanka is one of the largest and most prominent values-based youth development organization. The SLSA & SlGGA provides a program for young people that builds character, trains them in the responsibilities of participating citizenship, and develops personal fitness. For over a century, the SLSA & SlGGA has helped build the future leaders of this country by combining educational activities and lifelong values with fun. The Scouts & Girl Guides of Sri Lanka believes — and, through over a century of experience, knows — that helping youth is a key to building a more conscientious, responsible, and productive society. - See more at: http://lkscout.maccreationsltd.com/#sthash.oZ1uEwJq.dpuf

English

test

Last Update: 2015-02-08
Subject: General
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Sinhala

TO BE THE PREMIER INSTITUTE THAT MOULD OFFICERS AND OTHER RANKS OF SRI LANKA ARMY PRIOR TO THEIR RETIREMENT, TO TAKE UP A SECONDARY CARRIER, IN LINE WITH THEIR INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND PREFERENCES IN ORDER TO MAKE THEM COMPETENT MIDDLE RUNG CONTRIBUTORS OF NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY AND INTEGRATE THEM TO THE CIVIL SOCIETY AS ECONOMICALLY INDEPENDENT DIGNIFIED CITIZENS OF THE COUNTRY

English

TO BE THE PREMIER INSTITUTE THAT MOULD OFFICERS AND OTHER RANKS OF SRI LANKA ARMY PRIOR TO THEIR RETIREMENT, TO TAKE UP A SECONDARY CARRIER, IN LINE WITH THEIR INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND PREFERENCES IN ORDER TO MAKE THEM COMPETENT MIDDLE RUNG CONTRIBUTORS OF NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY AND INTEGRATE THEM TO THE CIVIL SOCIETY AS ECONOMICALLY INDEPENDENT DIGNIFIED CITIZENS OF THE COUNTRY

Last Update: 2014-12-22
Subject: General
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Sinhala

The Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka(VTA) was established on 16th August 1995 under the provisions of the Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka Act No.12 of 1995.It was a concept of His Excellency the President Mahinda Rajapaksa when he was the Hon. Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training. The VTA was established with the intent of skilling you for employment Manpower Division-the training arm of Labor Department that was running Technical and Vocational Education and training programs in many parts of Sri Lanka, Was converted to the newly constitute Vocational Training Authority making vocational training more accessible to rural youth and depressed segments of the country.

English

The Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka(VTA) was established on 16th August 1995 under the provisions of the Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka Act No.12 of 1995.It was a concept of His Excellency the President Mahinda Rajapaksa when he was the Hon. Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training. The VTA was established with the intent of skilling you for employment Manpower Division-the training arm of Labor Department that was running Technical and Vocational Education and training programs in many parts of Sri Lanka, Was converted to the newly constitute Vocational Training Authority making vocational training more accessible to rural youth and depressed segments of the country.paragraph

Last Update: 2014-11-25
Subject: General
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