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Tagalog

The determination of serum blood urea nitrogen currently is the most widely used screening test for the evaluation of kidney function. The test is frequently requested along with the serum creatinine test since simultaneous determination of these 2 compounds appears to aid in the differential diagnosis of prerenal, renal and postrenal hyperuremia. Clinical Information Urea is the final degradation product of protein and amino acid metabolism. In protein catabolism the proteins are broken down to amino acids and deaminated. The ammonia formed in this process is synthesized to urea in the liver. This is the most important catabolic pathway for eliminating excess nitrogen in the human body. Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) may be due to prerenal causes (cardiac decompensation, water depletion due to decreased intake and excessive loss, increased protein catabolism, and high protein diet), renal causes (acute glomerulonephritis, chronic nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, nephrosclerosis, and tubular necrosis) and postrenal causes (eg, all types of obstruction of the urinary tract, such as stones, enlarged prostate gland, tumors). Reference Values Males 1-17 years: 7-20 mg/dL > or =18 years: 8-24 mg/dL Reference values have not been established for patients who are or =18 years: 6-21 mg/dL Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age. Interpretation Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determinations are considerably less sensitive than BUN clearance (and creatinine clearance) tests, and levels may not be abnormal until the BUN clearance has diminished to <50%. Clinicians frequently calculate a convenient relationship, the urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio: serum bun in mg/dL/serum creatinine in mg/dL. For a normal individual on a normal diet, the reference interval for the ratio ranges between 12 and 20, with most individuals being between 12 and 16. Significantly lower ratios denote acute tubular necrosis, low protein intake, starvation or severe liver disease. High ratios with normal creatinine levels may be noted with catabolic states of tissue breakdown, prerenal azotemia, high protein intake, etc. High ratios associated with high creatinine concentrations may denote either postrenal obstruction or prerenal azotemia superimposed on renal disease. Because of the variability of both the BUN and creatinine assays, the ratio is only a rough guide to the nature of the underlying abnormality. Its magnitude is not tightly regulated in health or disease and should not be considered an exact quantity.

English

a bun

Last Update: 2016-09-01
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Tagalog

Base sa sariling emosyon, paniniwala, interpretation at opinion.

English

subjective questions

Last Update: 2016-08-01
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

Tagalog

VOikonomia (also spelled oikonomeia, economia or economy) literally means "household management," the "law of the house," or "house building," and refers primarily to two related concepts in the Orthodox Church—the divine plan for man's salvation and the specific episcopal application of the canons in the life of the Church. The latter usage is a derivation of the former. Oikonomia is one of two ways of observing the Canons of the Church, the other is Akriveia or strict adherence (precision, exactness). Whereas the application of Oikonomia is generally regarded as being a more flexible application or interpretation of the Canons, the application of Akriveia is regarded as being a more precise and strict one. Pastoral Discretion is of key importance in either application.

English

oikonomia

Last Update: 2015-01-01
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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