MyMemory, la memoria di traduzione più grande del mondo
Click to expand

Coppia linguistica: Click to swap content  Argomento   
Chiedi a Google

Hai cercato: between    [ Disattiva i colori ]

Contributi umani

Da traduttori professionisti, imprese, pagine web e archivi di traduzione disponibili gratuitamente al pubblico.

Aggiungi una traduzione

Indonesiano

Inglese

Informazioni

the olimpic games the olimpic games is a very popular sport even in the world. it is held every four years in different cities around the world. those who participate in the games are usually famous for the rest of their lives. about 100.000 people have competed in the games. these athletes are all amateurs. They play sport and they get no money for their play. They must qalify or win regional and national events and they often play on their countries' national teams. Athletes compete or play against each other in hopes of winning. That might mean crossing the finish line first or putting on a perfect performance. Throughout the the Games, the contestants are suppossed to play with a spirit of sportsmanship. This means that they must play with horor. Their goal is to do their very best in their sport, and not specifically to defeat the other players. unfortunately , some athletes and coaches have tried to cheat or use drugs. They used steroids so they could have stronger muscles and better stamina. In that way they could win the game but of course they won the game illegally. Wars between two countries or inharmonious relationship between two countries could also affect the Olympics. Sometimes atheletes refuse to compete against others with different ideologiy. In short, nationalism has sometimes become a problem in the olympics. Although the Olympics have the problems of cheating an doping, and sometimes nationalism, the Games are still popular. Perhaps it is beacouse we can learn a lot of things from the Games. The Games show us what we are capable of. We can also learn that we can actually compete with each other but we are still friends.

the olimpic games the olimpic games is a very popular sport even in the world. it is held every four years in different cities around the world. those who participate in the games are usually famous for the rest of their lives. about 100.000 people have competed in the games. these athletes are all amateurs. They play sport and they get no money for their play. They must qalify or win regional and national events and they often play on their countries' national teams. Athletes compete or play against each other in hopes of winning. That might mean crossing the finish line first or putting on a perfect performance. Throughout the the Games, the contestants are suppossed to play with a spirit of sportsmanship. This means that they must play with horor. Their goal is to do their very best in their sport, and not specifically to defeat the other players. unfortunately , some athletes and coaches have tried to cheat or use drugs. They used steroids so they could have stronger muscles and better stamina. In that way they could win the game but of course they won the game illegally. Wars between two countries or inharmonious relationship between two countries could also affect the Olympics. Sometimes atheletes refuse to compete against others with different ideologiy. In short, nationalism has sometimes become a problem in the olympics. Although the Olympics have the problems of cheating an doping, and sometimes nationalism, the Games are still popular. Perhaps it is beacouse we can learn a lot of things from the Games. The Games show us what we are capable of. We can also learn that we can actually compete with each other but we are still friends.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-06
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

If test materials were widely available, it would be easy for persons to review the tests, learn the answers, and respond according to the impression they would like to make. Thus, the materials would lose their validity. This means that psychologists should make all reasonable efforts to ensure that test materials are secure. Specifically, all tests should be kept locked in a secure place and no untrained persons should be allowed to review them. Any copyrighted material should not be duplicated. In addition, raw data from tests should not ordinarily be released to clients or other persons who may misinterpret them. However, clients have a right to the reports themselves should they request them. They also have the right to have the information released to a person they designate but such a request should be in writing (see Zuckerman, 1997, The Paper Office,for forms and guidelines). The security of assessment results should also be maintained. Ideally, this means that only designated persons (usually the referral source and client) should see the results unless the client provides a release of information. In reality, however, this ethical principal may sometimes be difficult to achieve. For example, many medical contexts expect most relevant treatment information (including psychological assessment results) to be kept in clients’ charts. Typically, all members of the treatment team have access to the charts (Claassen & Lovitt, 2001). On one level, this represents a conflict between psychological and medical guidelines. On another level, it represents a conflict between benefit to the patient (that may be enhanced by the treatment team having access to his or her records) and patient autonomy (patient control over who and where information should go). Security of assessment results can also be compromised when a large number of organizations (insurance company, interacting rehabilitation provider, referral source) all want access to patient records. This has become a particular issue in the managed health care environment. The security of client records also becomes more tenuous when large interconnected databases potentially have access to patient data (McMinn, Buchanan, et al., 1999; McMinn, Ellens, et al., 1999). Sometimes in legal contexts, the court or the opposing council may wish to see either raw data or the actual test materials. Under these conditions, the court should be informed that ethical guidelines as well as agreements made with the test distributor require that this information not be released to untrained persons. An acceptable alternative would be for the psychologist to designate a person with appropriate training to receive the information and explain the data or describe the test material (Tranel, 1994)

I

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-04
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Dynamic equilibrium two qualities. First, of conctans change. Change and evolution in the regional setting, derived among others from regional countries continued development, is inherent and inevitable. It does not and should not be seen as a problem, per se. Second, conditions of stability. Change, viewed as a natural and inevitable process, does not have to equate with instability. Thus, such conditions posit an absence of a preponderant power and are not derived from a destabilizing policy of balance of power and containment but rather by rendering irrelevant and redundant competitive dynamics. Instead, the notion of common security, common stability and common prosperity are propagated of mutual in the regions peace and stability : a virthous circle of confidence- building steps. Further,the interlinkages between issues are better regocnized. Political and secutiy issues are very much linked to economic and social issues. In such multifaceted settings, where issues are interlinked, desired result are best achieved through the buliding of bridges rather than by accentuating differences. The east Asia Summit, with ASEAN playing a central, driving seat –type role, certainly has the potential to make an important contribution to the regions peace, stability and prosperity. Within the EAS are sets of bilateral relationships whose present state and further development will have a profound impact on peace and stability in the region and indeed, beyond the US – China, China – India and India – us, For example. The EAS can help ensure that these sets of relationships, and plently more, are essently cooperative rtaher than competitive. In this connection, indonesia is keen to ensure that the EAS in Bali contributes in creating the habit of cooperation and dialogue among state hitherto more versed in working in isolation from one another. ASEAN collectively and indonesia as cuontry, of course, provide the constant : the enjoyment of close and friendly relations with all non – ASEAN EAS participans. Thus, ASEAN has the capacity to connect the other EAS participans in a cooperative regional setting- to develop a comfort level and the habit of cooperation by focusing first on issues of common interest to all EAS participans. Through such a practice and habit of consultation, there would gradually develop a sense of community, where emphasis is placed on the notions of common prosperity and common stability. Learning from ASEAN’s positive experience with shared norms under the TAC, Indonesia has initiated the identification of similiar shared norms and principles that would imbue the relationship among the EAS countries. These norms and principles are not dissimiliar to those enshrined an the UN Charte, TAC, The ASEAN Charter, ARF and various arrangements between countries participating in the EAS. The reaffirmation of such principle would also be instrumental in developing a sense of community, this time not only among ASEAN countries but also among non – ASEAN countries participating in the EAS. We wish to emanate thsese principles from the EAS in bali in november. Together with ASEAN, INDONESIA Has worked ceaselessly to develop the regions capacipty to foster a habit of dialogue and cooperation, to engage others, to create conditions conducive for development, to prevent and manage potential conflicts and in fact to resolve them. And in this regard, beyond it own region and, anchored by a strong ASAEAN community we are set to achieve by 2015, ASEAN continues to be driving force in the promotion of an Asia- Pasific regional architecture that is conducive for the maintenance of regional peace and stability. ASEAN’S certrality or place in the driving seat, is not a given. It is something that ASEAN must continue to earn. And ASEAN has earned that centrality through its intellectual leadership and capacity to engage and serve as equilibrium- maker. This is something that ASEAN must continue to hone, nurture and strengthen. If ASEAN continues to strengthen its capacity to transform challenges into opportunities, adjust with the dynamics of a chaning world, engage other and remain in the driving seat, it seems safe to conclude that in the years to come we can expect an even more enhanced role in a global community of natios – an ASEAN Community that serves as a net contributor to global peace and security, a net contibutor to global political development and a net contributor to global prosperity. Aggessively waging peace.

xxl-Indonesian english translation

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-29
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

Chapter I Political Science: The Discipline Robert E. Goodin Hans-Dieter Klingemann RETROSPECTIVES are, by their nature, inherently selective. Many fascinating observations are contained within the wide- ranging surveys which constitute the New Handbook of Political Science. Many more emerge from reading across all of its chapters, collectively. But, inevitably, the coverage is incomplete and, equally inevitably, somewhat idiosyncratic. All authors are forced to leave out much of merit, often simply because it does not fit their chosen narrative structure. The New Handbook's contributors tell a large part of the story of what has been happening in political science in the last two decades, but none would pretend to have told the whole story. It is the task of this introductory chapter to set those chapters in a larger disciplinary context and to pull out some of their more interesting common threads. Just as the coverage of each of the following chapters is inevitably selective, that of this overview of the overviews is, inevitably, all the more so. Of the several themes and subthemes which emerge, looking across these chapters as a whole, we shall focus upon one in particular. The New Handbook provides striking evidence of the professional maturation of political science as a discipline. This development has two sides to it. On the one side, there is increasing differentiation, with more and more sophisticated work being done within subdisciplines (and, indeed, within sub-specialities within subdisciplines). On the other side, there is increasing integration across all the separate subdisciplines. Of the two, increasing differentiation and specialization is the more familiar story, integration the more surprising one. But dearly it is the case that there is, nowadays, an increasing openness to and curiosity about what is happening in adjacent subdisciplines. An increasingly shared -3- overarching intellectual agenda across most all of the subdisciplines makes it possible for theoretical innovations to travel across subdisciplinary boundaries. An increasingly shared methodological tool-kit makes such interchange easy. All of this is facilitated, in turn, by an increasing band of synthesizers of the discipline, often intellectually firmly rooted in one particular subdiscipline but capable of speaking to many subdisciplines in terms which they find powerfully engaging. Among the many things which strike us, reading across the chapters of the New Handbook as a Whole, these are the ones that strike us most forcefully and which we will elaborate upon in this chapter. I Political science as a discipline A central claim of this chapter is that political science, as a discipline, has become increasingly mature and professionalized.1 As an important preliminary to that discussion, we must address, necessarily briefly, a few threshold questions. What is it for political science to constitute a discipline? What is politics? In what sense can the study of politics aspire to the status of a science? A The nature of a discipline Inured as we are to speaking of the subdivisions of academic learning as "disciplines" it pays to reflect upon the broader implications of that phrase. According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary a discipline is variously defined as: "a branch of instruction; mental and moral training, adversity as effecting this; military training, drill . . .; order maintained among schoolboys, soldiers, prisoners, etc.; system of rules for conduct; control exercised over members of church; chastisement; (Ecclesiastical) mortification by penance." The last dictionary definition would seem to have only marginal application to academic disciplines, but most of the others have clear counterparts. An academic "discipline" may enjoy minimal scope to "punish," at least in the most literal senses ( Foucault 1977). Still, the community of ____________________ 1 Once "professionalized" might have equated, readily and narrowly, to "Americanized." But as alluded to in our Preface and as is evident from New Handbook contributors' affiliations, the profession itself is becoming more internationalized, both in its personnel and in its professional concerns. -4- scholars which collectively constitutes a discipline does exercise a strict supervisory function--both over those working within it and, most especially, over those aspiring to do so. The "order maintained" is not quite the same as that over soldiers or schoolboys, nor is the training strictly akin to military drill. Nonetheless, there is a strong sense (shifting over time) of what is and what is not "good" work within the discipline, and there is a certain amount of almost rote learning involved in "mastering" a discipline. All the standard terms used to describe academic disciplines hark back to much the same imagery. Many, for example, prefer to think of political analysis as more of an "art" or "craft" than a "science," strictly speaking ( Wildavsky 1979). But on that analogy the craft of politics can then only be mastered in the same manner in which all craft knowledge is acquired, by apprenticing oneself (in academic craftwork, "studying under") a recognized "master" Others like to speak of politics, as well as the academic study thereof, as a "vocation" ( Weber 1919/1946) or a "calling".2 But, tellingly, it is a vocation rather than an avocation, a job rather than a hobby; and as in the core religious meaning so too in the academic one, the "calling'' in question is to service of some higher power (be it an academic community or the Lord). Most of us, finally, talk of academic disciplines as "professions." In Dwight Waldo ( 1975: 123) delightful phrase "sciences know, professions profess." What scientists profess, however, are articles of the collective faith. Any way we look at them, then, disciplines are construed at least in large part as stern taskmasters. But the same received disciplinary traditions and practices which so powerfully mould and constrain us are at one and the same time powerfully enabling. The framework provided by the structure of a discipline's traditions both focuses research and facilitates collaboration, unintentional as well as intentional. A shared disciplinary framework makes it possible for mere journeymen to stand, productively, on the shoulders of giants. It also makes it possible for giants to build, productively, on the contributions of legions of more ordinarily gifted practitioners.3 Discipline, academic or otherwise, is thus a classic instance of a useful self-binding mechanism. Subjecting oneself to the discipline of a discipline--or in the case of Dogan's (below: chap. 3) hybrid scholars, of several--is conducive to more and indisputably better work, both individually ____________________ 2 Both Berger Invitation to Sociology ( 1963) and Medawar Advice to a Young Scientist ( 1989: esp. chap. 2) verge on this. Much the finest work in this genre remains F. M. Cornford justly celebrated Microcosmographia Academia ( 1908). 3 For powerful evidence of the way that certain discoveries are "on the cards" at some point in time, consider the cases of "multiple discoveries" discussed in Merton ( 1973). -5- and collectively. That is as true for the "chiefs" as the "indians" of the discipline, as true for the "Young Turks" as the "greybeards." Branches of academic learning are "professions" as well as disciplines. "Professional" connotes, first of all, a relatively high-status occupational grade; and the organization of national and international "professional associations" doubtless has to do, in no small part, with securing the status and indeed salaries of academics thus organized. But the term "professional'' also, and more importantly, indicates a certain attitude toward one's work. A profession is a self-organizing community, oriented toward certain well-defined tasks or functions. A professional community is characterized by, and to a large extent defined in terms of, certain self-imposed standards and norms. Incoming members of the profession are socialized into those standards and norms, ongoing members are evaluated in terms of them. These professional standards and norms not only form the basis for evaluation of professionals by one another; they are "internalized," with professionals themselves taking a "critical reflective attitude" toward their own performances in light of them.4 The specific standards and norms vary from profession to profession, of course. But across all professions there is a sense of "minimal professional competence," captured by the ritual of "qualifying examinations" for intending political scientists in North American post-graduate training programs. And across all professions there is a notion of particular "role responsibilities" attaching to membership in a profession. The professional ethics of academics do not touch on issues of life and death in quite the same way as those of doctors or lawyers, perhaps. But virtually all academic professions have increasingly formal codes of ethics, touching largely on matters to do with integrity in the conduct and promulgation of research; and all professionals are expected to adhere to them faithfully ( APSA 1991). One of our themes in this chapter is the increasing "professionalism" within political science as a whole. By this we mean, firstly, that there is increasing agreement to a "common core" which can be taken to define "minimal professional competence" within the profession. Secondly, there is an increasing tendency to judge work, one's own even more than others', in terms of increasingly high standards of professional excellence. While the minimal standards are largely shared ones, the higher aspirations are many and varied. But as in medicine so too in political science, each sub-speciality within the larger profession has its own internal stan ____________________ 4 In much the same way Hart ( 1961) depicts the norms of legal systems, more generally, being internalized. On the nature of professions and members orientation toward them, see Hughes ( 1958) and Parsons ( 1968). -6- dards of excellence, by which each member of that fraction of the profession is properly judged. And in political science just as in medicine, there is some broad sense across the profession as a whole as to how all the subspecialities sit together to form a coherent larger whole. B What is politics? The foregoing observations, by and large, pertain to academic disciplines quite generally. Disciplines are differentiated one from another in many ways, principally among them by their substantive concerns and by the methodologies that they have made their own. Although there are, as we shall argue, a number of useful "tricks" in political science's tool-kit which are shared by most members of most of its subdisciplines, Alker (below: chap. 35) is undeniably correct in saying that political science does not have--much less define itself in terms of--a single big methodological device all its own, the way that many disciplines do. Rather, political science as a discipline is defined by its substantive concerns, by its fixation on "politics" in all its myriad forms. "Politics" might best be characterized as the constrained use of social power. Following on from that, the study of politics--whether by academics or practical politicians--might be characterized, in turn, as the study of the nature and source of those constraints and the techniques for the use of social power within those constraints.5 When defining politics in terms of power, we follow many before us.6 "Power" is, by now, well known to be a fraught conceptual field.7 Respectful though we are of its complexities, we decline to let ourselves get bogged down in them. Dahl ( 1957) old neo-Weberian definition still serves well enough. In those terms, X has power over Y insofar as: (i) X is able, in one way or another, to get Y to do something (ii) that is more to X's liking, and (iii) which Y would not otherwise have done. Where our analysis departs from tradition is in defining politics in terms of the constrained use of power. To our way of thinking, unconstrained power is force, pure and simple. It is not a political power play at all, except perhaps in some degenerate, limiting-case sense. Pure force, literally ____________________ 5 This in turn gives rise to the dual foci of the discipline, identified by Almond (below: chap. 2), on "the properties of political institutions and the criteria we use to evaluate them." 6 Notable among them: Weber ( 1922/ 1978); Lassweil ( 1950; Lasswell and Kaplan 1950), Dahl ( 1963) and Duverger ( 1964/ 1966). We, like them, focus specifically on "social" power, the power of people over other people. 7 To classic texts such as Russell ( 1938), Jouvenel ( 1945/ 1948) and Dahl ( 1957; 1961b; 1963) have recently been added Lukes ( 1974), Barry ( 1989: esp. chaps. 8-11) and Morriss ( 1987). -7- speaking, is more the province of physics (or its social analogues: military science and the martial arts) than of politics.8 It is the constraints under which political actors operate, and strategic maneuvering that they occasion and that occurs within them, that seems to us to constitute the essence of politics.9 It is the analysis of those constraints--where they come from, how they operate, how political agents might operate within them--that seems to us to lie at the heart of the study of politics.10 We talk, broadly, about the use of social power (rather than, more narrowly, about its "exercise") as a gesture toward the multitude of ways in which political agents might maneuver within such constraints. We mean the term to cover intentional acts as well as unintended consequences of purposeful action ( Merton 1936). We mean it to cover covert manipulatory politics as well as overt power plays ( Schattschneider 1960; Goodin 1980; Riker 1986). We mean it to cover passive as well as active workings of power, internalized norms as well as external threats ( Bachrach and Baratz 1963; Lukes 1974). The infamous "law of anticipated reactions" non-decisions and the hegemonic shaping of people's preferences ( Laclau and Mouffe 1985) must all be accommodated in any decently expansive sense of the political. One further comment on concepts. In defining politics (and the study of it) as we do, we explicitly depart from the purely distributional tradition of Lasswell ( 1950) classic formulation of "politics" as "who gets what, when and how''11 Perhaps it is true that all political acts ultimately have distributional consequences; and perhaps it is even true that therein lies most of our interest in the phenomenon. But in terms of the meaning of the act to the actor, many political acts are at least in the first instance distinctly non- distributional. And even in the final analysis, much of the social significance--objective as well as subjective--of certain political interactions might never be reducible to crass questions of dividing up the social pie. Distributive, regulative, redistributive ( Lowi 1964) and identity ( Sandel 1982) politics may all have their own distinctive styles. ____________________ 10 In saying this, we are following (loosely) Crick 1962. 11 Or Easton ( 1965) of politics as the authoritative allocation of values--at least insofar as that is construed, first and foremost, as a matter of the allocation of"valued things" in a society. 8 Thus, an absolute dictator in quest of complete, unconstrained power would rightly be said to be engaged in an (inevitably futile) attempt to transcend politics. 9 Consider the following analogy drawn from a cognate discipline. Philosophers talk in terms of "strong" considerations, "compelling" arguments, and such like ( Nozick 1981: 4-6). But consider an argument such that if we did believe it we would die: that is about as compelling as an argument can get; but winning a point by means of such an argument seems the antithesis of real philosophical disputation, the essence of which is give-and-take. By the same token, the very essence of politics is strategic maneuvering ( Riker 1986); and irresistible forces, insofar as they leave no scope for such maneuvering, are the antithesis of politics (however successful they are at getting others to do what you want). -8- Distributional struggles are characterized, in welfare economists' terms, as squabbles over where we sit on the Paretian frontier; but getting to the Paretian frontier is itself a tricky problem, involving a lot of politicking of quite a different sort which is often distinctively non-distributional, at least in the first instance. Important though it undeniably is that our understanding of politics should be attuned to distributive struggles, then, it is equally important that it not be committed in advance to analyzing all else exclusively in terms of them. C The several sciences of politics Much ink has been sprit over the question of whether, or in what sense, the study of politics is or is not truly a science. The answer largely depends upon how much one tries to load into the term "science." We prefer a minimalist definition of science as being just "systematic enquiry, building toward an ever more highly-differentiated set of ordered propositions about the empirical world.''12 In those deliberately spartan terms, there is little reason to think that the study of politics cannot aspire to be scientific. Many, of course, mean much more than that by the term. A logical positivist might cast the aspirations of science in terms of finding some set of "covering laws" so strong that even a single counter-example would suffice to falsify them. Clearly, that sets the aspirations of science much too high ever to be attained in the study of politics. The truths of political science, systematic though they may be, are and seem inevitably destined to remain essentially probabilistic in form. The "always" and "never" of the logical positivist's covering laws find no purchase in the political world, where things are only ever "more or less likely" to happen. The reason is not merely that our explanatory model is incomplete, not merely that there are other factors in play which we have not yet managed to factor in. That will inevitably be true, too, of course. But the deeper source of such errors in the positivist model of political science lies in a misconstrual of the nature of its subject. A covering law model may (or may not: that is another issue) work well enough for billiard balls subject to the sorts of forces presupposed by models of Newtonian mechanics: there all actions can be said to be caused, and the causes can be exhaustively traced to forces acting externally upon the "actors." But human beings, while they are undeniably subject to certain causal forces as well, are also in ____________________ 12 After the fashion o

pagi hari

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-29
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

scientevid learning Originally Posted by Ocelot Hi Radrook, Thanks once again for your response. Indeed I was just checking that I'd located the one article amongst many that you thought addressed my claim. As I detailed, it doesn't. Well actually some people do make that claim. I've seen much talk from various brands of creationist that claim that MacroEvolution (evolution of new taxa of the species level and above) is impossible. They use similar arguments as you do so please forgive me for my presumption. I do apologise. Of course the fact that new species have been observed to evolve both in the lab and in the wild, make this claim one of the more ridiculous creationist claims but it is nonetheless one that I have encountered. I asgee that speciation does and has occurred. It's interesting to me that you have raised the bar. You accept that not all individual species need to have been created. Presumably you accept that Lions, Tigers and the domestic Cat all have a common ancestor? Am I correct in my estimation of your beliefs. Yes. If so do you also accept the more controversial conclusion that Homo Sapiens has a common ancestor with Chimps, Bonobos, Gorillas and Orang Utans. It may be more controversial for it's broad implications to theology and philosophy but perhaps because of this added interest it is a conclusion backed by even greater quantities of genetic evidence. No, that's where we diverge. Of course the genetic evidence that all placental mammals share a common ancestor more recent than the one they share with marsupials is as compelling as the evidence for a common ancestor amongst other Genus, Family, Order or Classes. If your theory is true, it would be interesting to see if the genetic evidence could tell us what the original common ancestors were beyond which we can find no further link. For example lets take for want of a better choice a red kangaroo named Charles. You and I both agree that Charles shares a common ancestor with all other red kangaroos, the genetic evidence backs this up. I see no reason to object. According to the genetic evidence Charles also shares a more distant common ancestor with other species of kangaroo such as grey kangaroos, and antilopine kangaroos. Ok. The genetic evidence suggests that further back in time these kangaroos shared a common ancestor with a variety of other species of kangaroo, wallaby and walleroo of the macropus genus. Would you agree? Sure. If so then the genetic evidence further indicates that the macropus genus shares a common ancestor with all other members of the macropod family including various other Kangaroos and Wallabies, the quokka and pademelons. Would you agree that these are all of the same "kind" sharing a common ancestor. That might be acceptable. If so then the genetic evidence indicates that the macropod family share a more distant common ancestor with all members of the order diprodontia. This includes possums koalas and wombats. Is it conceivable to you that the genetic evidence is correct and that these creatures all share a common ancestor with one another? Could they all be of the same "kind"? If they are of the same kind. In fact could all the australidelphia super order of marsupials share a common ancestor as the genetic evidence would suggest, if so are they collectively a "kind" Or do they, as the empirical evidence would suggest, all share a common ancestor with all other marsupials. Are marsupials a kind? I presume that you do not accept that some time in the cretaceous there was an early mammal type reptile or therapsid from whom both you and Charles can claim lineage. However how do you explain why when the genetic evidence is so clear? Because I believe that the data is being interpreted to fit into a preconceived notion. It doesn’t matter where you place the bar, the genetic evidence is clear, there is only one "kind" currently on planet earth we are all descended from the same single common ancestor. I too have no problem when seriously considering a theory of intelligent design that the designer might choose to vary their techniques. What I have a problems with is why the techniques should so closely match a picture of common descent with particular variations being more closely clustered amongst species that appear to be more closely related. Creationists did not make this prediction. Evolutionary biologists did. The examination of the evidence continues to uphold the prediction of the evolutionary biologists. Unless Creationism can explain this remarkable coincidence it is deficient as a theory. I'm afraid your meaning here is not entirely clear to me. However the assumption that evolution is true is rather the point. If you make that assumption you make a prediction that turns out to be true. If you don't make that assumption you need an alternative explanation for the prediction. I offer the analogy once more. If you assume that I am related to my son you will expect a roughly 50% match between the various genes in highly variable alleles. If you do not make that assumption and otherwise find the 50% match you must find another explanation (perhaps we are brothers...) If you find more genetic matches amongst placental mammals than between placental mammals and marsupials this is explained by assuming that placental mammals sharing a more recent common ancestor amongst themselves than the one they might share with marsupials. If you reject that assumption then it would benefit your case to offer an alternative that fits the known facts at least as well. I agree that certain animals share more genetic material in common than other kinds. As I said previously, some of that sharing is due to a common ancestor called a kind in Genesis. What I don't agree with is the transformation of one kind into another or that all living things are ultimately related. Or that my ancestor was a one celled creature which slowly turned into a fish, and later into a reptile, and later into some type of piglike animal as the evolutionist interpretations of data say. Not simply because it is repulsive thought, but because it all depends on a mindless process which I and most human beings on this earth, including human beings who are scientists, find unbelievable due to its inherent improbability and based on the cause and effect phenomena we perceive which indicates that machinelike complex things do not make themselves but are the product of mind or else are programmed to replicate themselves by a mind. Hi again Radrook, It's good to hear back from you. This appears to be a derail from my original question of how do you account for the genetic evidence of common descent if not through common descent. Originally Posted by Radrook It's not the frequency it's the mutation process itself that is a dubious choice for the organization of complex organisms. Originally Posted by Radrook I never denied the occurrence of neutral or beneficial mutations. It is the unlikelyhood of a mindless process with its high probability of being harmful to an organism being said to ultimately lead to the intricate organization as is evident in the human eye with its iris, to adjust the entry of light, the lens to focus that light, on a screen called the retina which is connected to an optic nerve, which reacts to the radiation by coding it into neural impulses, which in turn arrives at a specialized part of the brain which can decode those impulses and turn them into the perception of images. Sorry but in the presence of such strong evidence to the contrary, I just can't buy into the mindless mutation explanation First let me congratulate you on your acceptance of the existence of small positive mutations. This is a major step towards your understanding of what evolution is truly about. It is a step that some creationists are not prepared to make even in the face of reproducible empirical evidence. It appears that you are not sufficiently aware of the intricate complexity that can be produced by undoubtedly mindless processes. Snowflakes, have complexity, a rock arch has irreducible complexity, the water cycle is a steam engine. There is nothing you have demonstrated to be beyond the reach of a mindless process. Are you familiar with John Conway's Game of Life. Draw a random pattern in this very simple purely mechanical 2D universe. The odds that within a few generations you'll see a small glider pattern. It looks designed but you know that you didn't design it. Genetic recipes for life allow new increases in complexity to build upon previous ones. This allows many small mutations to add up to a bigger one. As such it offers us the possibility for a pinnacle of "mindless design" It is in fact so good at design that genetic algorithms have been put to good use by human designers in computer simulations. For example a genetic algorithm produces a shape which is tested virtually for various structural properties. Those algorithms which produce the best designs are then used as the seeds for the next generation of designs. It is not uncommon for such a mindless process to produce "designs" superior in structural efficiency to any of intelligent origin. What evolutionary theory accepts can never evolve is a feature than cannot be broken down into many small neutral or positive stages. The discovery of such a feature would indeed be a problem for evolution. However it is difficult to demonstrate that a feature could not be the result of an appropriate evolutionary path. To do so would probably require examination of an infinite number of possible paths. Instead we get argument for incredulity: "I cannot see how this feature could have evolved, therefore it could not have evolved." I'm sure you don't need me to point out the flaw in this logic. In all cases that I'm aware of, biologists have made progress in discovering possible evolutionary paths for the formation of seemingly problematic features. You bring up the example of the eye as one candidate. This has of course been much discussed and I'm surprised that you do not acknowledge that the solution to this apparent conundrum has already been provided. In fact it was a topic discussed by Darwin himself, who also provided a solution. From here The gradual steps listed are briefly... • photosensitive cell • aggregates of pigment cells without a nerve • an optic nerve surrounded by pigment cells and covered by translucent skin • pigment cells forming a small depression • pigment cells forming a deeper depression • the skin over the depression taking a lens shape • muscles allowing the lens to adjust From the same page you can find links detailing how each stage has been observed in the natural world. Since you accept that small positive mutation can occur and be subject to natural selection it should now be clear to you that the evolution of the eye can be broken down into a series of such steps.

english translation into Indonesian

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-27
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

An average cost curvecaptures the relationship between average costs and output. Economists often depict average cost curves as U-shaped, as shown in Figure 2.1, so that average costs decline over low levels of output, but increase at higher levels of output. A combination of factors may cause a firm to have U-shaped costs. A firm’s average costs may decline initially as it spreads fixed costsover increasing output. Fixed costs are insensitive to volume; they must be expended regardless of the total output. Examples of such volume-insensitive costs are manufacturing overhead expenses, such as insurance, maintenance, and property taxes. Firms may eventually see an upturn in average costs if they bump up against capacity constraints, or if they encounter coordination or other and agency problems. We will develop most of these ideas in this chapter. Coordination and agency problems are addressed in Chapters 3 and 4.

Title

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-16
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

INTRODUCTION Given the obsession we have with slimness in the United States and the fact that millions of Americans are overweight it is no wonder that a multibillion dollar weight control industry has developed. Weight loss centers and health and fitness spas cater to this obsession and promise us a new body just in time for the swimsuit season. Phamaceutical companies produce drugs, both prescription and over the counter types to help us lose fat the easy way. Food manufacturers market convenient, low calorie, prepackaged but expensive meals. Each year at least one diet book on the best seller list is advertised as the last diet we will ever need. A variety of techniques, some useful and some not are used in attempt to stimulate weight loss. Drugs are used to depress the appetite or increase metabolism. Creams are applied to specific body parts to srink local fat deposits. Surgical techniques include intestinal bypasses, removal or stapling part of the stomach, excising or suction removal of subcutaneous fat tissue, and wiring the jaw shut. Weight loss diets involve almost every possible manipulation, including the high fat diet, the high protein diet, the grapefruit diet, the starvation diet, and even the "no diet" diet. Exercising programs in specially designed clothing are advertised as helping you lose inches of fat in hours. Psychological techniques such as hypnosis or behavior modification are designed to change your eating habits. In severe cases of clinical obesity, treatment usually is administered under medical supervision and may involve a combination of many of these techniques including surgery, hormone therapy, drugs and starvation type diets. An individualized, medically supervised weight control program is very important for the clinically obese because so many health risks are related obesity is very resistant to treatment and over 95 percent of those individuals who lose weight regain it within one to five years and may di this repeatedly.As noted at chapter 10 these fluctuations in body weight, known as weight cycling may not exert deleterious effects on metabolism and health and should not deter obese individuals from attempts to lose weight. The National Institute of Health notes that other group may need medically supervised weight loss programs, including children, pregnant women, persons over the age of 65, and individuals with medical conditions that could be exacerbated by weight loos. Weight control programs have greater chances for success in individuals who have accumulated excess body fat throught environmental conditions, such as excessive eating and decreased physical activity, and who do not have a strong genetic predisposition to obesity. Such a treatmentprogram may be beneficial to the typical adult, for substantial amounts of body fat appear to accumulate between the age of 25 and 35. The prevalence of overweight individuals in the United States has increased in the past quarter century in both children and adults. It is interesting to note that the average American male age 25-50, increased his BMI from 22 to 25 between the 1980 and 1989 RDA, the average female went from about 21 to 24. Moreover prevention of excess weight gain should be a life long life style, beginning in childhood and continuing through adulthood, as suggested by the data presented above. Maintenance of a healthy body weight through prevention techniques may be especially helpfull during the first to years of college when young females typically gain 10-15 pounds. Additionally prevention may also curtail the weight gain in those genetically predisposed, as supported by the recent twin study of Newman and others.

Indonesian translation google english

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-09-21
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Ceramic materials were discussed briefly in Chapter 1, which noted that they are inorganic and nonmetallic materials.Most ceramics are compounds between metal- lic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. The term “ceramic” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff,” in- dicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing. Up until the past 60 or so years, the most important materials in this class were termed the “traditional ceramics,” those for which the primary raw material is clay; products considered to be traditional ceramics are china,porcelain,bricks,tiles,and, in addition, glasses and high-temperature ceramics. Of late, significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental character of these materials and of the phenomena that occur in them that are responsible for their unique properties. Consequently, a new generation of these materials has evolved, and the term “ceramic” has taken on a much broader meaning.To one degree or another, these new materials have a rather dramatic effect on our lives;electronic,computer,com- munication, aerospace, and a host of other industries rely on their use. This chapter discusses the types of crystal structure and atomic point defect that are found in ceramic materials and, in addition, some of their mechanical char- acteristics. Applications and fabrication techniques for this class of materials are treated in the next chapter.

Ceramic materials were discussed briefly in Chapter 1, which noted that they are inorganic and nonmetallic materials.Most ceramics are compounds between metal- lic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. The term “ceramic” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff,” in- dicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing. Up until the past 60 or so years, the most important materials in this class were termed the “traditional ceramics,” those for which the primary raw material is clay; products considered to be traditional ceramics are china,porcelain,bricks,tiles,and, in addition, glasses and high-temperature ceramics. Of late, significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental character of these materials and of the phenomena that occur in them that are responsible for their unique properties. Consequently, a new generation of these materials has evolved, and the term “ceramic” has taken on a much broader meaning.To one degree or another, these new materials have a rather dramatic effect on our lives;electronic,computer,com- munication, aerospace, and a host of other industries rely on their use. This chapter discusses the types of crystal structure and atomic point defect that are found in ceramic materials and, in addition, some of their mechanical char- acteristics. Applications and fabrication techniques for this class of materials are treated in the next chapter.Engineering

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-07-16
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Wikipedia

The compound cup stack carbon nanotub coating reduces friction between the main ,d cross strings and combines sith the thin 0.66mm gauge high-Intensity multifilament nylon provider effortless power. The next generation of string producing improved power and feel for enhanced flight performance

male

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-07-07
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

This statement is one I do not agree with. Furthermore I cannot give it any credibility. For one thing, it is gathering all peoples into one group. To say that theists and athiests are both victims, in my mind, is comparing apples to oranges. There is a distinct and comprehensive difference between the two. A theists has faith in a Higher Power. The atheist has no faith in anything. As he relates to the theist, there is faith in a Higher Power, and it is the Bible, Quran, or the Bhagavad Gita that teaches and guides the person in faith as it relates to the person’s Higher Power. The atheist has no such teachings, faith, teachings, or Holy Book that does what the Theists believes and is the foundation which the Theist draws from. As Christians, we believe in God the Father, His Son Christ, and the Holy Spirit. They are the One God from whom all of us are created, exist and draws its strength from. We believe our total existence comes from the Bible, which is the foundation from where is The One God’s Holy, Final, and Written Word. I do not understand how or why His Holiness comes to such conclusions. Even Wiccans and Pagans have faith and belief in something. To say that, “He can say yes to whatsoever life brings to him; he is a yea-sayer”, is not in accordance to Christian belief. Actually, if one thinks about it, this is a statement that no believer whatever his religion is can take as having any merit or credence what so ever. There is such a things as provocative, critical, and reasoning thinking. This statement from His Holiness does not, in my estimation, provides none of these. This is just off the top of my head, it is early, and not had my coffee yet. I look at this, and find it ludicrous.

Indonesian cuisine

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-05-09
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Wikipedia

9.5 Determination of Electrostatic Forces from Energy We saw that we can find electric forces between charged bodies only if we know the charge distribution on them, which is rarely the case. Moreover, the previously discussed method cannot be used to determine forces on polarized bodies except in a few simple cases. For example, suppose that a parallel-plate capacitor is partially dipped in a liq- uid dielectric, as in Fig. 9.3a. If the capacitor is charged, polarization charges exist only on the two vertical sides of the dielectric inside the capacitor. The electric force acting on them has only a horizontal component, if any. Yet experiment tells us that when we charge the capacitor, there is a small but noticeable rise in the dielectric level between the plates. How can we explain this phenomenon? The answer lies in what happens not at the top of the dielectric but near the bottom edge of the capacitor. In that region, the dipoles in the dielectric orient them- selves as shown in Fig. 9.3b. The net force on the dipoles points essentially upward and pushes the dielectric up between the plates. Although we can explain the nature of this force, based on what we have learned so far we have no idea how to calculate it. The method described next enables us to determine the electric forces in this and many other cases where the direct method fails. In addition, conceptually the same method is used for the more important determination of magnetic forces in practical applications. Figure 9.3 (a) When a parallel-plate capacitor dipped in a liquid dielectric is charged, the level between the plates rises due to electric forces acting on dipoles in the dielectric in the region around the edge of the capacitor, where the field is not uniform. (b) Enlarged domain of the capacitor fringing field in the dielectric, indicating the force on a dipole in a nonuniform field. ENERGY, FORCES, AND PRESSURE IN THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD 129 Figure 9.4 A body in an electrostatic system moved a small distance dx by the electric force Consider an arbitrary electrostatic system consisting of a number of charged conducting and polarized dielectric bodies. We know that there are forces acting on all these bodies. Let us concentrate on one of the bodies, for example the one in Fig. 9.4, that may be either a conductor or a dielectric. Let the unknown electric force on the body be F, as indicated in the figure. Suppose we let the electric force move the body by a small distance dx in the direction of the x axis indicated in the figure. The electric force would in this case do work equal to where F, is the projection of the force F on the x axis. At first glance we seem to have gained nothing by this discussion: we do not know the force F, so we do not know the work dAel,fo,c, either. However, we will now show that if we know how the electric energy of the system depends on the coordi- nate x, we can determine the work dAel,f,,,,, and then from Eq. (9.10), the component F, of the force F. In this process, either (1) the charges on all the bodies of the system can remain unchanged or (2) the potentials of all the conducting bodies can remain unchanged. Let us consider case (1) first. The charges can remain unchanged in spite of the change in the system geometry only if none of the conducting bodies is connected to a source that could change its charge (for example, a battery). Therefore, by conservation of energy, the work in moving the body can be done only at the expense of the electric energy contained in the system. Let the system energy as a function of the coordinate x of the body, We(x), be known. The increment in energy after the displacement, dW,(x), is negative because some of the energy has been used for doing the work. Since work has to be a positive number, we have in this case dA,l,fo,,, = -dW,(x). Combining this expression with Eq. (9.10), the component F, of the electric force on the body is F - -.------- x - We (charges kept constant). dx Figure 9.5 Determination of the force on the electrodes of a parallel-plate capacitor using Eq. (9.11) Example 9.4-Force acting on one plate of a parallel-plate capacitor. In this example, we will find the electric force acting on one plate of a parallel-plate capacitor. The dielectric is homogel~eous, of permittivity E, the area of the plates is S, and the distance between them is x. One plate is charged with Q and the other with -Q (Fig. 9.5). Let the electric force move the right plate by a small distance dx. The energy in the capacitor is given by W,(x) = Q2 /2C(x) = Q2x/(2cS), SO the force that tends to irlcrease the distance between the plates is This is the same result as in Example 9.2, except for the sign. The minus sign tells us that the force tends to decrease the coordinate x, i.e., that it is attractive. Example 9.5-Force per unit length acting on a conductor of a two-wire line. The wires of a two-wire line of radii a are x apart, and are charged with charges Q' and -Q'. The energy per unit length of the line is using C' as calculated in problem P8.13. From Eq. (9.11) we obtain the force per unit length on the right conductor, tending to increase the distance between them, as This is the same as in Example 9.3, except for the minus sign. We know that this means only that the force tends to decrease the distance x between the wires, i.e., that it is attractive. Example 9.6-Force acting on a dielectric partly inserted into a parallel-plate capacitor. Let us find the electric force acting on the dielectric in Fig. 9.6. Equation (9.11) allows us to do this in a simple way. The capacitance of a capacitor such as this one is given by ENERGY, FORCES, AND PRESSURE IN THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD 131 Figure 9.6 Determination of the force on the dielectric partly inserted between the electrodes of a parallel-plate capacitor using Eq. (9.11) (see problem P8.8). The energy in the capacitor is Q 2 We(x) = - = Q2 - Q2d 2C 2(C1+ C2) 2b[cx + to(a - x)] ' The derivative dW,(x)/dx in this case is a bit more complicated to calculate, and it is left as an exercise. The force is found to be Note that this force is always positive because t > to. This means that the forces tend to pull the dielectric further in between the plates. Example 9.7-Rise of level of liquid dielectric partly filling a parallel-plate capacitor. As a final example of the application of Eq. (9.11), let us determine the force that raises the level of the liquid dielectric between the plates of the capacitor in Fig. 9.3. Assume the dielectric is distilled water with t-, = 81, the width of the plates is b, their distance is d = 1 cm, and the capacitor was charged by being connected to V = 1000 V. The electric forces will raise the level of the water between the plates until the weight of the water between the plates becomes equal to this force. The weight is equal to where p,, is the mass density of water and g = 9.81 m/s2 . By equating this force to the force that we found in Example 9.6, we get So far, we have discussed examples of case (I), where the charges in a system were kept constant. Case (2) is finding forces from energy when the voltage, not the charge, of the n conducting bodies of the system is kept constant (for example, we connect the system to a battery). When a body is moved by electric forces again by dx, some changes must occur in the charges on the conducting bodies, due to electro- static induction. These changes are made at the expense of the energy in the sources (battery). So we would expect the energy contained in the electric field to increase in this case. It can be shown in a relatively straightforward way that the expression for the component F, of the electric force on the body in this case is Fs = +--- We(x) (potentials kept constant). dx (9.12) Of course, this formula in all cases leads to the same result for the force as Eq. (9.11), but in some cases it is easier to calculate dW,/dx for constant potentials than for constant charges, and conversely. Example 9.8-Example 9.6 revisited. Let us compute the force from Example 9.6 using Eq. (9.12) instead of Eq. (9.11), which we used in Example 9.6. Now we assume the potential of the two plates to be constant, and therefore express the system energy in the form so that The result is easier to obtain than in Example 9.6. Questions and puoblems: P9.17 to P9.20

The buttons on my phone are worn thin I don't think that I knew the chaos I was getting in. But I've broken all my promises to you I've broken all my promises to you.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-04-12
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Bridges”, and “The City of Light”. The city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot. You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorised waterbuses (“vaporetti”) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city’s islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. You can see the amusing city’s landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Saint Mark’s Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside. They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.

Indonesian english translation google

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-03-11
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

1 Predicting Australian Takeover Targets: A Logit Analysis Maurice Peat* Maxwell Stevenson* * Discipline of Finance, School of Finance, The University of Sydney Abstract Positive announcement-day adjusted returns to target shareholders in the event of a takeover are well documented. Investors who are able to accurately predict firms that will be the subject of a takeover attempt should be able to earn these excess returns. In this paper a series of probabilistic regression models were developed that use financial statement variables suggested by prior research as explanatory variables. The models, applied to in-sample and out-of-sample data, led to predictions of takeover targets that were better than chance in all cases. The economic outcome resulting from holding a portfolio of the predicted targets over the prediction period are also analysed. Keywords: takeovers, targets, prediction, classification, logit analysis JEL Codes: G11, G17, G23, G34 This is a draft copy and not to be quoted. 2 1. Introduction In this paper our aim is to accurately predict companies that will become takeover targets. Theoretically, if it is possible to predict takeovers with accuracy greater than chance, it should be possible to generate abnormal returns from holding a portfolio of the predicted targets. Evidence of abnormal returns of 20% to 30% made by shareholders of firms on announcement of a takeover bid is why prediction of these events is of interest to academics and practitioners alike. The modelling approach adopted in this study was based on the discrete choice approach used by Palepu (1986) and Barnes (1999). The models were based on financial statement information, using variables suggested by the numerous theories that have been put forward to explain takeover activity. The performance of the models was evaluated using statistical criteria. Further, the predictions from the models were rated against chance and economic criteria through the formation and tracking of a portfolio of predicted targets. Positive results were found under both evaluation criteria. Takeover prediction studies are a logical extension of the work of Altman (1968) who used financial statement information to explain corporate events. Early studies by Simkowitz and Monroe (1971) and Stevens (1973) were based on the Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) technique. Stevens (1973) coupled MDA with factor analysis to eliminate potential multicollinearity problems and reported a predictive accuracy of 67.5%, suggesting that takeover prediction was viable. Belkaoui (1978) and Rege (1984) conducted similar analyses in Canada with Belkaoui (1978) confirming the results of these earlier researchers and reporting a predictive accuracy of 85% . Concerns were raised by Rege (1984) who was unable to predict with similar accuracy. These concerns were also raised in research by others such as Singh (1971) and Fogelberg, Laurent, and McCorkindale (1975). Reacting to the wide criticism of the MDA method, researchers began to use discrete choice models as the basis of their research. Harris et al. (1984) used probit analysis to develop a model and found that it had extremely high explanatory power, but were unable to discriminate between target and non-target firms with any degree of accuracy. Dietrich and Sorensen (1984) continued this work using a logit model and achieved a classification accuracy rate of 90%. Palepu (1986) addressed a number of methodological problems in takeover prediction. He suggested the use of statebased prediction samples where a number of targets were matched with non-targets 3 for the same sample period. While this approach was appropriate for the estimation sample, it exaggerated accuracies within the predictive samples because the estimated error rates in these samples were not indicative of error rates within the population of firms. He also proposed the use of an optimal cut-off point derivation which considered the decision problem at hand. On the basis of this rectified methodology, along with the application of a logit model to a large sample of US firms, Palepu (1986) provided evidence that the ability of the model was no better than a chance selection of target and non-target firms. Barnes (1999) also used the logit model and a modified version of the optimal cut-off rule on UK data. His results indicated that a portfolio of predicted targets may have been consistent with Palepu’s finding, but he was unable to document this in the UK context due to model inaccuracy. In the following section the economic explanations underlying takeover activity are discussed. Section 3 outlines our takeover hypotheses and describes the explanatory variables that are used in the modelling procedure. The modelling framework and data used in the study is contained in Section 4, while the results of our model estimation, predictions, classification accuracy and portfolio economic outcomes are found in Section 5. We conclude in Section 6. 2. Economic explanations of takeover activity Economic explanations of takeover activity have suggested the explanatory variables that were included in this discrete choice model development study. Jensen and Meckling (1976) posited that agency problems occurred when decision making and risk bearing were separated between management and stakeholders1, leading to management inefficiencies. Manne (1965) and Fama (1980) theorised that a mechanism existed that ensured management acted in the interests of the vast number of small non-controlling shareholders2. They suggested that a market for corporate control existed in which alternative management teams competed for the rights to control corporate assets. The threat of acquisition aligned management objectives with those of stakeholders as managers are terminated in the event of an acquisition in order to rectify inefficient management of the firm’s assets. Jensen and Ruback (1983) suggested that both capital gains and increased dividends are available to an 1 Stakeholders are generally considered to be both stock and bond holders of a corporation. 2 We take the interests of shareholders to be in the maximization of the present value of the firm. 4 acquirer who could eliminate the inefficiencies created by target management, with the attractiveness of the firm for takeover increasing with the level of inefficiency. Jensen (1986) looked at the agency costs of free cash flow, another form of management inefficiency. In this case, free cash flow referred to cash flows in excess of positive net present value (NPV) investment opportunities and normal levels of financial slack (retained earnings). The agency cost of free cash flow is the negative NPV value that arises from investing in negative NPV projects rather than returning funds to investors. Jensen (1986) suggested that the market value of the firm should be discounted by the expected agency costs of free cash flow. These, he argued, were the costs that could be eliminated either by issuing debt to fund an acquisition of stock, or through merger with, or acquisition of a growing firm that had positive NPV investments and required the use of these excess funds. Smith and Kim (1994) combined the financial pecking order argument of Myers and Majluf (1984) with the free cash flow argument of Jensen (1986) to create another motivational hypothesis that postulated inefficient firms forgo profitable investment opportunities because of informational asymmetries. Further, Jensen (1986) argued that, due to information asymmetries that left shareholders less informed, management was more likely to undertake negative NPV projects rather than returning funds to investors. Smith and Kim (1994) suggested that some combination of these firms, like an inefficient firm and an efficient acquirer, would be the optimal solution to the two respective resource allocation problems. This, they hypothesised, would result in a market value for the combined entity that exceeded the sum of the individual values of the firms. This is one form of financial synergy that can arise in merger situations. Another form of financial synergy is that which results from a combination of characteristics of the target and bidding firms. Jensen (1986) suggested that an optimal capital structure exists, whereby the marginal benefits and marginal costs of debt are equal. At this point, the cost of capital for a firm is minimised. This suggested that increases in leverage will only be viable for those firms who have free cash flow excesses, and not for those which have an already high level of debt. Lewellen (1971) proposed that in certain situations, financial efficiencies may be realized without the realization of operational efficiencies. These efficiencies relied on a simple Miller and Modigliani (1964) model. It proposed that, in the absence of corporate taxes, an increase in a firm’s leverage to reasonable levels would increase the value of the equity share of the company due to a lower cost of capital. By a 5 merger of two firms, where either one or both had not utilised their borrowing capacity, would result in a financial gain. This financial gain would represent a valuation gain above that of the sum of the equity values of the individual firms. However, this result is predicated on the assumption that the firms need to either merge or be acquired in order to achieve this result. Merger waves are well documented in the literature. Gort (1969) suggested that industry disturbances are the source of these merger waves, his argument being that they occurred in response to discrepancies between the valuation of a firm by shareholders and potential acquirers. As a consequence of economic shocks (such as deregulation, changes in input or output prices, etc.), expectations concerning future cash flow became more variable. This results in an increased probability that the value the acquirer places on a potential target is greater than its current owner’s valuation. The result is a possible offer and subsequent takeover. Mitchell and Mulherin (1996), in their analysis of mergers and acquisitions in the US during the 1980s, provided evidence that mergers and acquisitions cluster by industries and time. Their analysis confirmed the theoretical and empirical evidence provided by Gort (1969) and provided a different view suggesting that mergers, acquisitions, and leveraged buyouts were the least cost method of adjusting to the economic shocks borne by an industry. These theories suggested a clear theoretical base on which to build takeover prediction models. As a result, eight main hypotheses for the motivation of a merger or acquisition have been formulated, along with twenty three possible explanatory variables to be incorporated predictive models. 3. Takeover hypotheses and explanatory variables The most commonly accepted motivation for takeovers is the inefficient management hypothesis.3 The hypothesis states that inefficiently managed firms will be acquired by more efficiently managed firms. Accordingly, H1: Inefficient management will lead to an increased likelihood of acquisition. Explanatory variables suggested by this hypothesis as candidates to be included in the specifications of predictive models included: 1. ROA (EBIT/Total Assets – Outside Equity Interests) 3 It is also known as the disciplinary motivation for takeovers. 6 2. ROE (Net Profit After Tax / Shareholders Equity – Outside Equity Interests) 3. Earnings Before Interest and Tax Margin (EBIT/Operating Revenue) 4. EBIT/Shareholders Equity 5. Free Cash Flow (FCF)/Total Assets 6. Dividend/Shareholders Equity 7. Growth in EBIT over past year, along with an activity ratio, 8. Asset Turnover (Net Sales/Total Assets) While there are competing explanations for the effect that a firm’s undervaluation has on the likelihood of its acquisition by a bidder, there is consistent agreement across all explanations that the greater the level of undervaluation then the greater the likelihood a firm will be acquired. The hypothesis that embodies the impact of these competing explanations is as follows: H2: Undervaluation of a firm will lead to an increased likelihood of acquisition. The explanatory variable suggested by this hypothesis is: 9. Market to book ratio (Market Value of Securities/Net Assets) The Price Earnings (P/E) ratio is closely linked to the undervaluation and inefficient management hypotheses. The impact of the P/E ratio on the likehood of acquisition is referred to as the P/E hypothesis: H3: A high Price to Earnings Ratio will lead to a decreased likelihood of acquisition. It follows from this hypothesis that the P/E ratio is a likely candidate as an explanatory variable for inclusion in models for the prediction of potential takeover targets. 10. Price/Earnings Ratio The growth resource mismatch hypothesis is the fourth hypothesis. However, the explanatory variables used in models specified to examine this hypothesis capture growth and resource availability separately. This gives rise to the following: H4: Firms which possess low growth / high resource combinations or, alternatively, high growth / low resource combinations will have an increased likelihood of acquisition. The following explanatory variables suggested by this hypothesis are: 7 11. Growth in Sales (Operating Revenue) over the past year 12. Capital Expenditure/Total Assets 13. Current Ratio (Current Assets/Current Liabilities) 14. (Current Assets – Current Liabilities)/Total Assets 15. Quick Assets (Current Assets – Inventory)/Current Liabilities The behaviour of some firms to pay out less of their earnings in order to maintain enough financial slack (retained earnings) to exploit future growth opportunities as they arise, has led to the dividend payout hypothesis: H5: High payout ratios will lead to a decreased likelihood of acquisition. The obvious explanatory variable suggested by this hypothesis is: 16. Dividend Payout Ratio Rectification of capital structure problems is an obvious motivation for takeovers. However, there has been some argument as to the impact of low or high leverage on acquisition likelihood. This paper proposes a hypothesis known as the inefficient financial structure hypothesis from which the following hypothesis is derived. H6: High leverage will lead to a decreased likelihood of acquisition. The explanatory variables suggested by this hypothesis include: 17. Net Gearing (Short Term Debt + Long Term Debt)/Shareholders Equity 18. Net Interest Cover (EBIT/Interest Expense) 19. Total Liabilities/Total Assets 20. Long Term Debt/Total Assets The existence of Merger and Acquisition (M&A) activity waves, where takeovers are clustered in wave-like profiles, have been proposed as indicators of changing levels of M&A activity over time. It has been argued that the identification of M&A waves, with the corresponding improved likelihood of acquisition when the wave is surging, captures the effect of the rate of takeover activity at specific points in time, and serves as valuable input into takeover prediction models. Consistent with M&A activity waves and their explanation as a motivation for takeovers is the industry disturbance hypothesis: 8 H7: Industry merger and acquisition activity will lead to an increased likelihood of acquisition. An industry relative ratio of takeover activity is suggested by this hypothesis: 21. The numerator is the total bids launched in a given year, while the denominator is the average number of bids launched across all the industries in the ASX. Size will have an impact on the likelihood of acquisition. It seems plausible that smaller firms will have a greater likelihood of acquisition due to larger firms generally having fewer bidding firms with the resources to acquire them. This gives rise to the following hypothesis: H8: The size of a firm will be negatively related to the likelihood of acquisition. Explanatory variables that can be employed to control for size include: 21. Log (Total Assets) 22. Net Assets 4. Data and Method The data requirements for the variables defined above are derived from the financial statements and balance sheet date price information for Australian listed companies. The financial statement information was sourced from the AspectHuntley data base which includes annual financial statement data for all ASX listed companies between 1995 and 2006. The database includes industry classifications for all firms included in the construction of industry relative ratios. Lists of takeover bids and their respective success were obtained from the Connect4 database. This information enabled the construction of variables for relative merger activity between industries. Additionally, stock prices from the relevant balance dates of all companies were sourced from the AspectHuntley online database, the SIRCA Core Price Data Set and Yahoo! Finance. 4.1 The Discrete Choice Modelling Framework The modelling procedure used is the nominal logit model, made popular in the bankruptcy prediction literature by Ohlson (1980) and, subsequently, in the takeover prediction literature by Palepu (1986). Logit models are commonly utilised for dichotomous state problems. The model is given by equations [1] to [3] below. 9 [3] The logit model was developed to overcome the rigidities of the Linear Probability Model in the presence of a binary dependent variable. Equations [1] and [2] show the existence of a linear relationship between the log-odds ratio (otherwise known as the logit Li) and the explanatory variables. However, the relationship between the probability of the event and acquisition likelihood is non-linear. This non-linear relationship has a major advantage that is demonstrated in equation [3]. Equation [3] measures the change in the probability of the event as a result of a small increment in the explanatory variables, . When the probability of the event is high or low, the incremental impact of a change in an explanatory variable on the likelihood of the event will be compressed, requiring a large change in the explanatory variables to change the classification of the observation. If a firm is clearly classified as a target or non-target, a large change in the explanatory variables is required to change its classification. 4.2 Sampling Schema Two samples were used in the model building and evaluation procedure. They were selected to mimic the problem faced by a practitioner attempting to predict takeover targets into the future. The first sample was used to estimate the model and to conduct in-sample classification. It was referred to as the Estimation Sample. This sample was based on financial data for the 2001 and 2002 financial years for firms that became takeover targets, as well as selected non-targets, between January, 2003 and D

saya pergi ke kediri

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-02-23
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Wikipedia
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

The surface is not plate. please use the PV structure drawings and submit the calculation. R 45 meter-please clarify. acceesories for connection between tape and BCC is not clear. Please clarify BCC 50 sqmm? to use 95 sqmm for loop sytem on the above roof or copper tape 3mm wide.

England

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-12-05
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Wikipedia

tdgdgdgdrgeeeThe Place of Logic in Philosophy. The sciences fall into two broad divisions, viz.: the speculative and the regulative (or normative) sciences. In the speculative sciences, philosophic thought deals with those things which we find proposed to our intelligence in the universe: such sciences have no other immediate end than the contemplation of the truth. Thus we study Mathematics, not primarily with a view to commercial success, but that we may know. In the normative sciences, on the other hand, the philosopher pursues knowledge with a view to the realization of some practical end. "The object of philosophy," says St. Thomas of Aquin, "is order. This order may be such as we find already existing; but it may be such as we seek to bring into being ourselves."¹ Thus sciences exist, which have as their object the realization of order in the acts both of our will and of our intellect. The science which deals with the due ordering of the acts of the will, is Ethics, that which deals with order in the acts of the intellect is Logic. ¹St. Thomas in Ethic. I. lect. 1. Sapientis est ordinare. . . . Ordo autem quadrupliciter ad rationem comparatur. Est enim quidam ordoquem ratio non facit sed solum considerat, sicut est ordo rerum naturalium. Alius autem est ordo quem ratio considerando facit in proprio actu, puta cum ordinat conceptus suos ad invicem et signa conceptuum quae sunt voces significativae. Tertius autem est ordo quem ratio considerando facit in operationibus voluntatis. Quartus autem est ordo quem ratio considerando facit in exterioribus rebus, quarum ipsa est causa, sicut in arca et domo. The question has often been raised, whether Logic is science or an art. The answer to this will depend entirely on the precise meaning which we give to the word 'art.' The medieval philosophers regarded the notion of an art as signifying a body of rules by which man directs his actions to the performance of some work.2 Hence they held Logic to be the art of reasoning, as well as the science of the reasoning process. Perhaps a more satisfactory terminology is that at present in vogue, according to which the term 'art,' is reserved to mean a body of precepts for the production of some external result, and hence is not applicable to the normative sciences. Aesthetics, the science which deals with beauty and proportion in the objects of the external senses, is now reckoned with Ethics and Logic, as a normative science. By the medieval writers it was treated theoretically rather than practically, and was reckoned part of Metaphysics. It may be well to indicate briefly the distinction between Logic and two other sciences, to which it bears some affinity. Logic and Metaphysics. The term Metaphysics sometimes stands for philosophy in general sometimes with a more restricted meaning it stands for that part of philosophy known as Ontology. In this latter sense Metaphysics deals not with thoughts, as does Logic, but with things, not with the conceptual order but with the real order. It investigates the meaning of certain notions which all the special sciences presuppose, such as Substance, Accident, Cause, Effect, Action. It deals with principles which the special sciences do not prove, but on which they rest, such as e.g., Every event must have a cause. Hence it is called the science of Being, since its object is not limited to some special sphere, but embraces all that is, whether material or spiritual. Logic on the other hand deals with the conceptual order, with thoughts. Its conclusions do not relate to things, but to the way in which the mind represents things. ²St. Thomas us An. Post. I., lect. x. "Nihil enim aliud ars esse videtur, quam certa ordinatio rationis qua per determinata media ad debitum finem actus humani perveniunt." Logic and Psychology. The object of Psychology is the human soul and all its activities. It investigates the nature and operations of intellect, will, imagination, sense. Thus its object is far wider than that of Logic, which is concerned with the intellect alone. And even in regard to the intellect, the two sciences consider it under different aspects. Psychology considers thought merely as an act of the soul. Thus if we take a judgment, such as e.g., "The three angles of a triangle are together equal to two right angles," Psychology considers it, merely in so far as it is a form of mental activity. Logic on the other hand, examines the way in which this mental act expresses the objective truth with which it deals; and if necessary, asks whether it follows legitimately from the grounds on which it is based. Moreover, Logic, as a regulative science, seeks to prescribe rules as to how we ought to think. With this Psychology has nothing to do: it only asks, "What as a matter of fact is the nature of the mind's activity?" The Scope of Logic. Logicians are frequently divided into three classes, according as they hold that the science is concerned (1) with names only, (2) with the form of thought alone, (3) with thought as representative of reality. The first of these views — that Logic is concerned with names only — has found but few defenders. It is however taught by the French philosopher Condillac (1715 — 1780), who held that the process of reasoning consists solely in verbal transformations. The meaning of the conclusion is, he thought, ever identical with that of the original proposition. The theory that Logic deals only with the forms of thought, irrespective of their relation to reality, was taught among others by Hamilton (1788 —1856) and Mansel (1820 —1871). Both of these held that Logic is no way concerned with the truth of our thoughts, but only with their consistency.In this sense Hamilton says: "Logic is conversant with the form of thought, to the exclusion of the matter" (Lectures. I. p. xi). By these logicians a distinction is drawn between 'formal truth,' i.e., self-consistency and 'material truth,' i.e., conformity with the object and it is said that Logic deals with formal truth alone. On this view Mill well observes: "the notion of the true and false will force its way even into Formal Logic. We may abstract from actual truth, but the validity of reasoning is always a question of conditional truth — whether one proposition must be true if the others are true, or whether one proposition can be true if others are true" (Exam. of Hamilton, p. 399). According to the third theory, Logic deals with thought as the means by which we attain truth. Mill, whom we have just quoted, may stand as a representative of this view. "Logic," he says, "is the theory of valid 'thought, not of thinking, but of correct thinking" (Exam. of Hamilton, p. 388). To which class of logicians should Aristotle and his Scholastic followers be assigned? Many modern writers rank them in the second of these groups, and term them Formal Logicians. It will soon appear on what a misconception this opinion rests, and how completely the view taken of Logic by the Scholastics differs from that of the Formal Logicians. In their eyes, the aim of the science was most assuredly not to secure self-consistency, but theoretically to know how the mind represents its object, and practically to arrive at truth. The terms Nominalist, Conceptualist, and Realist Logicians are now frequently employed to denote these three classes. This terminology is singularly unfortunate: for the names, Nominalist, Conceptualist and Realist, have for centuries been employed to distinguish three famous schools of philosophy, divided from each other on a question which has nothing to do with the scope of Logic. In this class we shall as far as possible avoid using the terms in their novel meaning.

Woww photonya terlalu seksi

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-11-29
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Seymour summons a seemingly robotic being, called Mortiorchis, upon which he sits. As with previous Seymour battles, certain party members may use the Trigger Command to talk to him. For this battle, Kimahri can talk to Seymour to raise his Strength, and Yuna can talk to him to raise her Magic Defense. Seymour Flux can use the attack Lance of Atrophy to put an ally into Zombie status, and the Mortiorchis will combo with Full-Life, effectively KO'ing a character (unless the characters have high Agility, as well as many Holy Waters). Like Seymour Natus, he can also Banish Aeons, giving it approximately one turn to attack if summoned. Seymour Flux occasionally casts Protect and Reflect upon himself. Three turns in, Mortiorchis will start to use Cross Cleave, which deals around 2,000 damage to the whole party. Seymour will then cast Reflect on himself and rebound Flare at a party member, but a character with high Agility or in Haste may get a turn in between and can Dispel Seymour, causing him to cast the spell on himself. Total Annihilation is Seymour Flux's signature attack, as well as his deadliest, which requires three rounds of charging, and will kill anything but an extremely good party. If the player summons an aeon then Mortiorchis will postpone its use of Total Annihilation until Seymour Flux banishes it; therefore an aeon cannot be a shield for Total Annihilation. Strategy Seymour is vulnerable to the poison status (the Mortiorchis is immune), and if Lulu casts Bio on him, he will take 1,400 damage at the end of each of his turns (sometimes, he will get two turns in a row not long before Mortiorchis, so he'll use Lance of Atrophy on his first turn then skip the second, thus he will react to damage twice just a second apart); this will whittle down his health without, potentially, any other actions.

Seymour summons a seemingly robotic being, called Mortiorchis, upon which he sits. As with previous Seymour battles, certain party members may use the Trigger Command to talk to him. For this battle, Kimahri can talk to Seymour to raise his Strength, and Yuna can talk to him to raise her Magic Defense. Seymour Flux can use the attack Lance of Atrophy to put an ally into Zombie status, and the Mortiorchis will combo with Full-Life, effectively KO'ing a character (unless the characters have high Agility, as well as many Holy Waters). Like Seymour Natus, he can also Banish Aeons, giving it approximately one turn to attack if summoned. Seymour Flux occasionally casts Protect and Reflect upon himself. Three turns in, Mortiorchis will start to use Cross Cleave, which deals around 2,000 damage to the whole party. Seymour will then cast Reflect on himself and rebound Flare at a party member, but a character with high Agility or in Haste may get a turn in between and can Dispel Seymour, causing him to cast the spell on himself. Total Annihilation is Seymour Flux's signature attack, as well as his deadliest, which requires three rounds of charging, and will kill anything but an extremely good party. If the player summons an aeon then Mortiorchis will postpone its use of Total Annihilation until Seymour Flux banishes it; therefore an aeon cannot be a shield for Total Annihilation. Strategy Seymour is vulnerable to the poison status (the Mortiorchis is immune), and if Lulu casts Bio on him, he will take 1,400 damage at the end of each of his turns (sometimes, he will get two turns in a row not long before Mortiorchis, so he'll use Lance of Atrophy on his first turn then skip the second, thus he will react to damage twice just a second apart); this will whittle down his health without, potentially, any other actions.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-10-15
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

Gareth Bale has spoken of his excitement at becoming a ‘Galactico’ following his unveiling as a Real Madrid player. A joyous crowd greeted the Welshman’s arrival at the Bernabeu on Monday, following his protracted, expensive move from Tottenham Hotspur. The unveiling ceremony was met with raucous cheers, and there was even a moment when an image of Bale as a boy, wearing a Real replica jersey, was shown on the big screen. That image perhaps gave credence to Bale’s typical footballer’s claim that he has always “dreamed” of playing for Los Blancos. There has been vigorous debate as to whether or not Real even need Bale, and he is under no illusion that he faces a fight to make the first-team. “I have a job to get into the XI. Every player here is world class. Madrid sign the best players in the world,” he said. “I know I cannot walk straight into the team, I have to work hard. I am always looking to improve myself as a footballer, and that should not stop now. “There is a lot more to come from me, I am here with the best players, the best coaches and with the best chance to keep improving. I have played in a lot of different positions. “Wherever the coach thinks I can play my best football I will give 100%.” There were also rumours that Real superstar, Cristiano Ronaldo, was nonplussed to find that Bale was stealing his thunder. But Bale has moved to smooth over any ill feeling between himself and CR7, by doffing his hat to the Portuguese goal machine as “the best player in the world.” “Cristiano Ronaldo is for me the best player in the world,” Bale said. “He is a massive factor why I wanted to come here. The team is full of world-class players, no better than him. It will be an honour to play with him, and hopefully learn from him. Hopefully we can win a lot of trophies together.” “He’s the boss here I think, the main player, the best player in the world,” Bale continued, fawning over CR7. “I want to obviously help the team and try to win trophies. I will have to wait and see what he says.”

WEALTHY is the brand related with the automotive aftermarket industry. As major suppliers in the automotive aftermarket, WEALTHY has standard quality and services that should be fulfilled by each product, and every employee before the products arrive at the customers. WEALTHY was founded in 2006 to fulfill the demand of quality and realible products in automotive aftermarket maintenance in Asia. Although WEALTHY brand is relatively young in the aftermarket industry, but WEALTHY has a motto: "To Serve and Educate the Workshop to have Safety & Standard Quality of Services" By Combining the knowhow of the founder and the demand of Asian Automotives Aftermarket, WEALTHY has produced some reliably high standard quality products such as Wiper Blades, Refill of Wiper Blades, Bulbs, Automatic Transmission Conditioner, Power Steering Conditioner, and many other products that the car owner can rely for their car's maintenance. WEALTHY is also going green to protect the environment ; we have a commitment towards the environment. Such as our water based products. These products can be found in our range, i.e. Polishing Products, etc. As technology of the automotive industry continue to grow, WEALTHY will also continue to grow and develop through her R&D Department to fulfill a demand of the automotive industry. If one day you see any development of the aftermarket products for the automotive industry, it shoud be come fromWEALTHY. Until now we have over 4,000 customers spread out across Indonesia, from Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Sumatra; using our maintenance products and accessories for cars and motorcycles.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-09-08
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Gareth Bale has spoken of his excitement at becoming a ‘Galactico’ following his unveiling as a Real Madrid player. A joyous crowd greeted the Welshman’s arrival at the Bernabeu on Monday, following his protracted, expensive move from Tottenham Hotspur. The unveiling ceremony was met with raucous cheers, and there was even a moment when an image of Bale as a boy, wearing a Real replica jersey, was shown on the big screen. That image perhaps gave credence to Bale’s typical footballer’s claim that he has always “dreamed” of playing for Los Blancos. There has been vigorous debate as to whether or not Real even need Bale, and he is under no illusion that he faces a fight to make the first-team. “I have a job to get into the XI. Every player here is world class. Madrid sign the best players in the world,” he said. “I know I cannot walk straight into the team, I have to work hard. I am always looking to improve myself as a footballer, and that should not stop now. “There is a lot more to come from me, I am here with the best players, the best coaches and with the best chance to keep improving. I have played in a lot of different positions. “Wherever the coach thinks I can play my best football I will give 100%[ERROR].” There were also rumours that Real superstar, Cristiano Ronaldo, was nonplussed to find that Bale was stealing his thunder. But Bale has moved to smooth over any ill feeling between himself and CR7, by doffing his hat to the Portuguese goal machine as “the best player in the world.” “Cristiano Ronaldo is for me the best player in the world,” Bale said. “He is a massive factor why I wanted to come here. The team is full of world-class players, no better than him. It will be an honour to play with him, and hopefully learn from him. Hopefully we can win a lot of trophies together.” “He’s the boss here I think, the main player, the best player in the world,” Bale continued, fawning over CR7. “I want to obviously help the team and try to win trophies. I will have to wait and see what he says.”

i will try my best Translation

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-09-07
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Wikipedia

A head gasket is a gasket that sits between the engine block and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal the cylinders to ensure maximum compression and avoid leakage of coolant or engine oil into the cylinders; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in any engine, and, as part of the combustion chamber, it shares the same strength requirements as other combustion chamber components

A head gasket is a gasket that sits between the engine block and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal the cylinders to ensure maximum compression and avoid leakage of coolant or engine oil into the cylinders; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in any engine, and, as part of the combustion chamber, it shares the same strength requirements as other combustion chamber components

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-07-03
Argomento: Finanza
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo

gAssessment of menopausal status, including premature ovarian failure Assessing ovarian status, including follicle development, ovarian reserve, and ovarian responsiveness, as part of an evaluation for infertility and assisted reproduction protocols such as in vitro fertilization Assessing ovarian function in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome Evaluation of infants with ambiguous genitalia and other intersex conditions Evaluating testicular function in infants and children Diagnosing and monitoring patients with antimullerian hormone-secreting ovarian granulosa cell tumors Method Name Immunometric Assay Reporting Name Antimullerian Hormone, S Aliases Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) Mullerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH) Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) Specimen Type Serum Specimen Required Container/Tube: Preferred: Red top Acceptable: Serum gel Specimen Volume: 0.2 mL Specimen Minimum Volume 0.1 mL Reject Due To Hemolysis Mild OK; Gross reject acceptable to 1,000 mg/dL Lipemia Mild OK, Gross needs to be spun Icterus Mild OK, interpret with caution; Gross reject Other NA Specimen Stability Information Specimen Type Temperature Time Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days Frozen 90 days Clinical Information Antimullerian hormone (AMH), also known as mullerian-inhibiting substance, is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family. It is produced by Sertoli cells of the testis in males and by ovarian granulosa cells in females. Expression during male fetal development prevents the mullerian ducts from developing into the uterus and other mullerian structures, resulting in normal development of the male reproductive tract. In the absence of AMH, the mullerian ducts and structures develop into the female reproductive tract. AMH is also expressed in the follicles of females of reproductive age and inhibits the transition of follicles from primordial to primary stages. Follicular AMH production begins during the primary stage, peaks in the preantral and small antral stages, and then decreases to undetectable concentrations as follicles grow larger. AMH serum concentrations are elevated in males under 2 years old and then progressively decrease until puberty, when there is a sharp decline. By contrast, AMH concentrations are low in female children until puberty. Concentrations then decline slowly over the reproductive lifespan as the size of the pool of remaining microscopic follicles decreases. AMH concentrations are frequently below the detection limit of current assays after natural or premature menopause. Because of the gender differences in AMH concentrations, its changes in circulating concentrations with sexual development, and its specificity for Sertoli and granulosa cells, measurement of AMH has utility in the assessment of gender, gonadal function, fertility, and as a gonadal tumor marker. Since AMH is produced continuously in the granulosa cells of small follicles during the menstrual cycle, it is superior to the episodically released gonadotropins and ovarian steroids as a marker of ovarian reserve. Furthermore, AMH concentrations are unaffected by pregnancy or use of oral or vaginal estrogen- or progestin-based contraceptives. Studies in fertility clinics have shown that females with higher concentrations of AMH have a better response to ovarian stimulation and tend to produce more retrievable oocytes than females with low or undetectable AMH. Females at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after gonadotropin administration can have significantly elevated AMH concentrations. Polycystic ovarian syndrome can elevate serum AMH concentrations because it is associated with the presence of large numbers of small follicles. AMH measurements are commonly used to evaluate testicular presence and function in infants with intersex conditions or ambiguous genitalia, and to distinguish between cryptorchidism (testicles present but not palpable) and anorchia (testicles absent) in males. In minimally virilized phenotypic females, AMH helps differentiate between gonadal and nongonadal causes of virilization. Serum AMH concentrations are increased in some patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors, which comprise approximately 10%[ERROR] of ovarian tumors. AMH, along with related tests including inhibin A and B (#81049 Inhibin A, Tumor Marker, Serum; #88722 Inhibin B, Serum, #86336 Inhibin A and B, Tumor Marker, Serum), estradiol (#81816 Estradiol, Serum), and CA-125 (#9289 Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125), Serum), can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring these patients. Reference Values Males 12 years: 0.7-19 ng/mL Females 45 years: <1.0 ng/mL Interpretation Menopausal women or women with premature ovarian failure of any cause, including after cancer chemotherapy, have very low antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels, often below the current assay detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL. While the optimal AMH concentrations for predicting response to in vitro fertilization are still being established, it is accepted that AMH concentrations in the perimenopausal to menopausal range (0-0.6 ng/mL) indicate minimal to absent ovarian reserve. Depending on patient age, ovarian stimulation is likely to fail in such patients and most fertility specialists would recommend going the donor oocyte route. By contrast, if serum AMH concentrations exceed 3 ng/mL, hyper-response to ovarian stimulation may result. For these patients, a minimal stimulation would be recommended. In patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome, AMH concentrations may be 2 to 5 fold higher than age-appropriate reference range values. Such high levels predict anovulatory and irregular cycles. In children with intersex conditions, an AMH result above the normal female range is predictive of the presence of testicular tissue, while an undetectable value suggests its absence. In boys with cryptorchidism, a measurable AMH concentration is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or functional failure of the abnormally sited gonad. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary may secrete AMH, inhibin A, and inhibin B. Elevated levels of any of these markers can indicate the presence of such a neoplasm in a woman with an ovarian mass. Levels should fall with successful treatment. Rising levels indicate tumor recurrence/progression. Cautions Like all laboratory tests, antimullerian hormone (AMH) measurement alone is seldom sufficient for diagnosis and results should be interpreted in the light of clinical findings and other relevant test results, such as ovarian ultrasonography (in fertility applications, this would include an antral follicle count), abdominal or testicular ultrasound (intersex/testicular function applications) and measurements of sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B (for fertility), and inhibin A and B (for tumor workup). Elevated AMH is not specific for malignancy, and the assay should not be used exclusively to diagnose or exclude an AMH-secreting ovarian tumor. This assay demonstrates no cross reactivity with transforming growth factor beta-1, activin A, inhibin A or B, luteinizing hormone alpha or beta, FSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone, or insulin-like growth factor-1. However, although unlikely, there might be cytokines that have not been evaluated for cross reactivity that do cross react, resulting in false-elevations. As with other immunoassays, the AMH assay can be susceptible to false-low results at extremely high analyte concentrations (hooking effect) or in the hypothetical scenario of the presence of anti-AMH autoantibodies in a patient serum specimen. Heterophilic antibody interferences that are not blocked by the assay’s blocking regents may also rarely occur, causing typically false-high results. If test results are incongruent with the clinical picture, the laboratory should be contacted.

Indonesian translation google english

Ultimo aggiornamento 2013-04-16
Argomento: Generale
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
Qualità:
Riferimento: Anonimo
Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Aggiungi una traduzione