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INTRODUCTION Given the obsession we have with slimness in the United States and the fact that millions of Americans are overweight it is no wonder that a multibillion dollar weight control industry has developed. Weight loss centers and health and fitness spas cater to this obsession and promise us a new body just in time for the swimsuit season. Phamaceutical companies produce drugs, both prescription and over the counter types to help us lose fat the easy way. Food manufacturers market convenient, low calorie, prepackaged but expensive meals. Each year at least one diet book on the best seller list is advertised as the last diet we will ever need. A variety of techniques, some useful and some not are used in attempt to stimulate weight loss. Drugs are used to depress the appetite or increase metabolism. Creams are applied to specific body parts to srink local fat deposits. Surgical techniques include intestinal bypasses, removal or stapling part of the stomach, excising or suction removal of subcutaneous fat tissue, and wiring the jaw shut. Weight loss diets involve almost every possible manipulation, including the high fat diet, the high protein diet, the grapefruit diet, the starvation diet, and even the "no diet" diet. Exercising programs in specially designed clothing are advertised as helping you lose inches of fat in hours. Psychological techniques such as hypnosis or behavior modification are designed to change your eating habits. In severe cases of clinical obesity, treatment usually is administered under medical supervision and may involve a combination of many of these techniques including surgery, hormone therapy, drugs and starvation type diets. An individualized, medically supervised weight control program is very important for the clinically obese because so many health risks are related obesity is very resistant to treatment and over 95 percent of those individuals who lose weight regain it within one to five years and may di this repeatedly.As noted at chapter 10 these fluctuations in body weight, known as weight cycling may not exert deleterious effects on metabolism and health and should not deter obese individuals from attempts to lose weight. The National Institute of Health notes that other group may need medically supervised weight loss programs, including children, pregnant women, persons over the age of 65, and individuals with medical conditions that could be exacerbated by weight loos. Weight control programs have greater chances for success in individuals who have accumulated excess body fat throught environmental conditions, such as excessive eating and decreased physical activity, and who do not have a strong genetic predisposition to obesity. Such a treatmentprogram may be beneficial to the typical adult, for substantial amounts of body fat appear to accumulate between the age of 25 and 35. The prevalence of overweight individuals in the United States has increased in the past quarter century in both children and adults. It is interesting to note that the average American male age 25-50, increased his BMI from 22 to 25 between the 1980 and 1989 RDA, the average female went from about 21 to 24. Moreover prevention of excess weight gain should be a life long life style, beginning in childhood and continuing through adulthood, as suggested by the data presented above. Maintenance of a healthy body weight through prevention techniques may be especially helpfull during the first to years of college when young females typically gain 10-15 pounds. Additionally prevention may also curtail the weight gain in those genetically predisposed, as supported by the recent twin study of Newman and others.

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Investors’ Reaction to the Implementation of Corporate Governance Mechanisms The study investigates the impact of corporate governance on investor reaction. This is the first study till date that addresses this gap in literature. The design of the study comprises of corporate governance, investor reac-tion. Data was taken from 125 non-financial sector of Pakistani companies listed at KSE for the period of 2005-2010. Data was extracted from balance sheet analysis (SBP report), KSE website and annual reports of companies. Correlation (individual and composite) and linear regression tests were applied to validate the out-comes. The results confirm that there is no impact of corporate governance on investor reaction and relationship between them is negative. This implies the inefficiency of financial market where noise trades create sentiment. Corporate Governance; Investor Reaction; Emerging Market Introduction Corporate governance is an important component for profitability and growth of firms through achieving the allocative efficiency, so that scarce funds were transferred to investment projects with higher returns. Generally, efficiency can be achieved if the investment projects offer higher returns as compared to cost of capital [1]. Corporate governance mechanism provides protection to shareholders and other stakeholder particularly investors. Good governance practices help to increase the share prices that could get higher capital. It also facilitates the international investor to lend money and purchase shares in domestic companies [2]. [3,4] investigated the market reaction to corporate governance mechanism. They argued that those firms which were greatly affected from such governance practices reacted more profoundly as compared to firms exhibiting good governance practices. Furthermore, [5] investigated the market reaction to corporate governance practices. They criticized the governance practices are value destroying as they found abnormal return, reducing in CEO pay, number of large block holders, easiness of institutional investors and presence of a staggered board. Although, researchers scrutinized the market reaction to corporate governance mechanism, but there is no study till date that investigates impact of corporate governance mechanism on investor reaction. So the specialty of this study is to gain the attention of academicians and practitioners by bridging this gap in literature. Two research questions has been addressed which are: Does corporate governance impact the investor behavior? Is this relationship significant across different economies? This study confirms that the corporate governance mechanism impacts insignificantly on investor reaction. This paper is organized in a way that the first section describes the introduction of the study followed by literature review to build theoretical framework. The next one discusses the methodology, followed by discussion of the results and conclusion; the last section explains the managerial implications and future research direction. Literature Review Corporate governance is a “process whereby suppliers of capital (shareholders) attempt to ensure that managers of the firms in which they invest provide a sufficient return. It addresses the agency problem whereby the shareholders (principals) are the ultimate owners of the firm and want to ensure that managers (agents), who are separate from the shareholders, act in the shareholders’ best interests rather than the interests of managers” [6]. [6] scrutinized the link between measures of corporate governance and stock returns. They highlighted that high governance ranking firms outperform than other port- folios. Moreover, market reacts significantly to governance related information which reflects that good governance does matters to Canadian investors. Similarly, [7] investigated the price reaction to corporate governance announcements. They confirmed that investors react to these governance practices but the sign of their reaction depend upon the extension and nature of these types of announcements. Moreover, [8] studied the corporate governance mechanisms and market reaction and liquidity impact. They depicted that market price reaction is significant positive when firm committed for higher transparency and minority shareholder protection in its announcement. Furthermore, shares having voting rights experience stronger price reaction and liquidity enhancement rather than non-voting shares. They suggested that corporate governance mechanism can be effective strategy for countries having weak investor protection provisions. Corporate Governance announcements are important ways for interacting with the investors. [9] demonstrated the link between corporate governance rating announcements and stock returns of companies. By using event study, they analyzed the 11 top listed corporate governance companies for the period of 2004-2005 and found no relationship between corporate governance and share performance of firms, might be attributable to perception of Thai investors. [5] scrutinized the link between market reaction to corporate governance regarding to regulatory and legislative actions. They proved that abnormal re-turns relating to corporate governance mechanism are reduction in number of large bondholders, CEO pay, ease of institutional investors to access the proxy method and presence of stagnant board. [10] studied that how corporate governance would impact the market reaction to earning surprise regarding to post earnings announcements drift. They confirmed the investor ‘reactions both, over-reaction and under-reaction to earnings surprises can create post earnings announcement drift. They investigated for bad governance firms, that investor would under-react to earnings surprises as they believed that earnings surprises might be attributable to firm’s luck rather than its ability. On the other scenario i.e. for good governance firms, they scrutinized that investor would over-react to earnings surprises as they believed that earnings surprises are attributable to firm’s ability rather than its luck. [11] studied the role of corporate governance in abnormal returns regarding to seasonal equity offerings. They confirmed that investors react positively for companies in which people hold the CEO and chair-man positions. Moreover, investor reacts positively for companies having high outsider members, low CEO ownership and small board size. They highlighted that investors also react positively to seasonal equity offerings by companies having stronger corporate governance mechanism that ultimately reduces the agency problems. [12] demonstrated the relationship between governance and asymmetric information and other imperfections that usually firm faces. They found that corporate governance is highly related to high market valuation and operating performance. They highlighted that countries having weak legal system are more probable to firm level corporate governance mechanism. [13] examined the firm announcement that is negatively valued by investor might be attributable to information asymmetry and its adverse features. They also depicted that stronger corporate governance mechanisms experience low price de-cline from the information symmetry, transpiring that strong corporate governance mechanism might mitigate the agency problems. [14] explored the impact of corporate governance on investment decisions. They proved that strong corporate governance structure can ease the investment decisions. Owner-owned firms get less financial distress and more positive stock evaluation than management controlled firms, reflecting that firms with better corporate governance practices can get positive investor evaluation from investors. [15] depicted the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanism for increasing capital and Re-search and development investment decisions. They found that higher ownership governance yields greater abnormal returns to capital investment decisions however; higher board governance mechanism yields abnormal returns to research and development investment decisions. Institutional investors play a vital role in corporate governance activities like [16] examined the institutional investors would impact the corporate governance through analyzing the portfolio holdings of institutions in companies over the period of 2003-2008. They proved that change in institutional investment would bring positive change in firm level governance; however, they did not find any impact of governance on institutional investments. Furthermore, they highlighted that firms having higher institutional ownership could easily terminate poorly performing chief executives and made further improvements. [17] investigated the corporate governance mechanism and investor protection. They found that investor’s evaluation of investor protection regimes are related to firm-level corporate governance mechanism along with characteristics of their portfolio holdings. They also depicted that firm level corporate governance are attributable to mitigation of agency problems between large and small shareholders, irrespective of weaker investor protection. Furthermore, countries having weak legal structure might be attributable to attract investors through having strong corporate governance regime. The investor preferences for country level investor protection and good corporate governance mechanism are highly related to investment decisions. [18] investigated that governance-sensitive institutions is related to improvement in shareholder rights. They also confirmed that low turnover institutions with preference for small cap and growth companies are attributable to be more governance sensitive. Furthermore, they suggested that common proxies for governance sensitivity do not measure governance preference clearly. [19] scrutinized the relationship between governance mechanisms and firm investment choices by using Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) as a sample. They highlighted that responsiveness of REITs’ investment opportunities depend upon their corporate governance structures. Moreover, REITs have higher institutional ownership, then their investment opportunities are closely related to Tobin’s q. However, Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) may vitiate the effectiveness of internal governance mechanism. They found that information asymmetry diminished by REIT governance. Further-more, they confirmed that high financial incentives for board members along with experienced board members and independent audit committee having financial expertise reduces asymmetric information [20]. From above discussion it can be inferred that corporate governance mechanism impacts the investor reaction positively. Therefore, a proposed hypothesis is. H1: Corporate governance mechanism has a significant impact on investor reaction. Methodology Methodology portion comprises of two sections. One describes the variables, proxies and data collection and other highlights the statistical tests applied on the data. The aim of current study is to investigate impact of corporate governance mechanism on investor reaction. Therefore, data has been collected for the 125 non-financial sector of Pakistani companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange, for the period of 2005-2010 on yearly basis. Data was extracted from Balance sheet analysis (SBP report), KSE website and annual reports of companies. Variables Corporate governance mechanism has been taken as in-dependent variable and investor reaction has been taken as dependent variable. Equation α = Intercept CG= Corporate Governance IR = Investor Reaction, BS= Board Size, ACI = Audit Committee Independence, OS = Ownership Structure, ε = Error Term. Proxies Corporate Governance Corporate Governance can be measured through four proxies: Board size = Natural log of Number of Total Directors Board independence = Number of Non Executive Directors divided by Total Number of Directors Audit Committee independence = Number of Non Executive Directors divided by Total Number of Audit Committee Members Ownership Structure = Shares held by Directors divided by Total Shares Investor reaction Investor reaction can be measured through stock re-turns. Stock Returns = Natural log of Pn/Po Methodological Tests Correlation test has applied to find out the interrelationship between variables. Linear regressions have applied to check the hypothesis. Result and Discussion Correlation Correlation tests were used to find out inter-relation- ship among Corporate Governance and Investor Reaction. The findings highlight that Investor Reaction (IS). Tables 1 and 2 depict the correlation analysis. Table 1 shows the correlation between variables of corporate governance and investor reaction. It depicts that board size is negatively related to director independence, ownership structure and investor reaction while it is positively related to audit committee independence. Director Independence is positively related to audit committee independence however, it has negative relationship between ownership structure and investor reaction. Audit committee independence is negatively related to ownership structure and investor reaction. Lastly, Ownership structure also exhibits a negative relationship with investor reaction. When correlation test was applied between corporate governance and investor reaction, it highlights that corporate governance has negative relationship with investor reaction. Linear Regression OLS regression was applied for testing the hypothesis. i.e. corporate governance has significant impact on investor reaction. The results of OLS regression have been presented in Tables 3 and 4. When investor reaction was regressed with individual component of corporate governance, it has been seen that there is no impact of corporate governance on investor reaction. The value of R-square is 0.53% which means that this model explains only few factors of corporate governance that affect investor reaction (IR) while 99% are other factors that influence investor reaction (IR). F- statistics is insignificant at 0.94. When investor reaction was regressed with corporate governance, it has been seen that corporate governance is insignificantly negatively related to investor reaction. The value of R-square is 0.16% which means that this model explains only 0.16% of factors of corporate governance that affect investor reaction (IR) while 99% are other factors that influence investor reaction (IR). F-statistics is insignificant at 1.19. Conclusions Corporate governance is insignificantly negatively related to investor reaction. On the basis of these findings, our hypothesis has been rejected. Previous studies confirmed the corporate governance practices provide investor protection, due to which investor invest more in those firms which incorporated corporate governance mechanism in their strategic policy. This study does not support the above justification. One interpretation might be that this study was con-ducted in inefficient market, due to which investor don’t have much knowledge about financial markets. They don’t respond to market rationally. Due to this behavior investor creating sentiment in markets and exploit stock return, Noise trader exploit corporate governance practices as well. In such market corporate governance mechanisms is unable to provide protection to their investors. Managerial Implications Corporate governance has no impact on investor reaction. Therefore, mangers should focus other factors while making their strategic policies to attract their investors, not solely focus on corporate governance Limitation and Future Research In future studies, further variables would be incorporated to investigate the impact of corporate governance on investor reaction. This relationship would be generalized among different economies in order to validate the out-comes. Review of Accounting Gimmicks Called Depreciation Depreciation is a complex, intricate and confusing term in the fields of engineering, social and management sciences. As a result, it has been over used, over stressed, and over worked by the accountants and professional valuers. International Accounting Standard (IAS) 4, qualifies assets for depreciation when assets are used for more than one accounting period, i.e. assets held by an enterprise for production or service, and has economic useful life. Whereas, under Standard Statement of Accounting Practice (SSAP) 12, depreciation is viewed as wearing out, consumption or other loss of value of fixed asset, whether arising from use, affluxion of time or obsolescence through technology and market changes. Complexity may arise when it is viewed as a fall in price, physical deterioration, allocation of cost, fall in value, valuation technique and asset replacement. Intricate and confusion are inevitable when accountants employ various methods of providing for depreciation on the same or similar assets of different life span. These methods may include straight line, reducing balance, sum of the year’s digit, revaluation, annuity, output, sinking fund etc which will definitely give different values in the financial statement. The consequential effect is either to undermine or overstate the reported profit or distributable profit in the hands of the stakeholders, hence the absurdity of the financial reports. It is recom- mended that depreciation should be used with caution especially when the anticipated economic useful lives of the asset is short lived by new technology or passage of time thereby making it extremely difficult to recover or replace the net book value of the asset. Depreciation; Measuring Profitability; Expense Capture; Corporate Performance Measures; Earnings Engineering Currently the theory and practice of depreciation have not generally unified the fixed amount to be charged as annual expenses in the Income Statement and Balance Sheet due to different meanings and computations. Al- though materiality concept affirms that what might be material to one person/company may not necessarily be material to another person/company (Concept of Value). Materiality concept is viewed as fundamental when inclusion, exclusion of a particular item, transaction into or from the financial statement could lead to distortion, misleading and/or debase financial statement anticipated report, meaning and understanding. In order to avoid this confusing nature of any inclusion or exclusion there is the need to explain vividly such aspects in the form of notes to the accounts which gives credence and reliability to the users of financial statement. The word depreciation has been grossly over worked, over used, over stressed and above all has varying senses with different connotations even among intra and inter group disciplines. International Accounting Standard (IAS) 4 and Statement of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAP) 12 view standards in accounting for depreciation as the allocation of depreciable amount of assets over its estimated useful life. Depreciable amount from assets is anchored on its historica

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Ultimo aggiornamento: 2014-09-17
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Ceramic materials were discussed briefly in Chapter 1, which noted that they are inorganic and nonmetallic materials.Most ceramics are compounds between metal- lic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. The term “ceramic” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff,” in- dicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing. Up until the past 60 or so years, the most important materials in this class were termed the “traditional ceramics,” those for which the primary raw material is clay; products considered to be traditional ceramics are china,porcelain,bricks,tiles,and, in addition, glasses and high-temperature ceramics. Of late, significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental character of these materials and of the phenomena that occur in them that are responsible for their unique properties. Consequently, a new generation of these materials has evolved, and the term “ceramic” has taken on a much broader meaning.To one degree or another, these new materials have a rather dramatic effect on our lives;electronic,computer,com- munication, aerospace, and a host of other industries rely on their use. This chapter discusses the types of crystal structure and atomic point defect that are found in ceramic materials and, in addition, some of their mechanical char- acteristics. Applications and fabrication techniques for this class of materials are treated in the next chapter.

Ceramic materials were discussed briefly in Chapter 1, which noted that they are inorganic and nonmetallic materials.Most ceramics are compounds between metal- lic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. The term “ceramic” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff,” in- dicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing. Up until the past 60 or so years, the most important materials in this class were termed the “traditional ceramics,” those for which the primary raw material is clay; products considered to be traditional ceramics are china,porcelain,bricks,tiles,and, in addition, glasses and high-temperature ceramics. Of late, significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental character of these materials and of the phenomena that occur in them that are responsible for their unique properties. Consequently, a new generation of these materials has evolved, and the term “ceramic” has taken on a much broader meaning.To one degree or another, these new materials have a rather dramatic effect on our lives;electronic,computer,com- munication, aerospace, and a host of other industries rely on their use. This chapter discusses the types of crystal structure and atomic point defect that are found in ceramic materials and, in addition, some of their mechanical char- acteristics. Applications and fabrication techniques for this class of materials are treated in the next chapter.Engineering

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The compound cup stack carbon nanotub coating reduces friction between the main ,d cross strings and combines sith the thin 0.66mm gauge high-Intensity multifilament nylon provider effortless power. The next generation of string producing improved power and feel for enhanced flight performance

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This statement is one I do not agree with. Furthermore I cannot give it any credibility. For one thing, it is gathering all peoples into one group. To say that theists and athiests are both victims, in my mind, is comparing apples to oranges. There is a distinct and comprehensive difference between the two. A theists has faith in a Higher Power. The atheist has no faith in anything. As he relates to the theist, there is faith in a Higher Power, and it is the Bible, Quran, or the Bhagavad Gita that teaches and guides the person in faith as it relates to the person’s Higher Power. The atheist has no such teachings, faith, teachings, or Holy Book that does what the Theists believes and is the foundation which the Theist draws from. As Christians, we believe in God the Father, His Son Christ, and the Holy Spirit. They are the One God from whom all of us are created, exist and draws its strength from. We believe our total existence comes from the Bible, which is the foundation from where is The One God’s Holy, Final, and Written Word. I do not understand how or why His Holiness comes to such conclusions. Even Wiccans and Pagans have faith and belief in something. To say that, “He can say yes to whatsoever life brings to him; he is a yea-sayer”, is not in accordance to Christian belief. Actually, if one thinks about it, this is a statement that no believer whatever his religion is can take as having any merit or credence what so ever. There is such a things as provocative, critical, and reasoning thinking. This statement from His Holiness does not, in my estimation, provides none of these. This is just off the top of my head, it is early, and not had my coffee yet. I look at this, and find it ludicrous.

Indonesian cuisine

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9.5 Determination of Electrostatic Forces from Energy We saw that we can find electric forces between charged bodies only if we know the charge distribution on them, which is rarely the case. Moreover, the previously discussed method cannot be used to determine forces on polarized bodies except in a few simple cases. For example, suppose that a parallel-plate capacitor is partially dipped in a liq- uid dielectric, as in Fig. 9.3a. If the capacitor is charged, polarization charges exist only on the two vertical sides of the dielectric inside the capacitor. The electric force acting on them has only a horizontal component, if any. Yet experiment tells us that when we charge the capacitor, there is a small but noticeable rise in the dielectric level between the plates. How can we explain this phenomenon? The answer lies in what happens not at the top of the dielectric but near the bottom edge of the capacitor. In that region, the dipoles in the dielectric orient them- selves as shown in Fig. 9.3b. The net force on the dipoles points essentially upward and pushes the dielectric up between the plates. Although we can explain the nature of this force, based on what we have learned so far we have no idea how to calculate it. The method described next enables us to determine the electric forces in this and many other cases where the direct method fails. In addition, conceptually the same method is used for the more important determination of magnetic forces in practical applications. Figure 9.3 (a) When a parallel-plate capacitor dipped in a liquid dielectric is charged, the level between the plates rises due to electric forces acting on dipoles in the dielectric in the region around the edge of the capacitor, where the field is not uniform. (b) Enlarged domain of the capacitor fringing field in the dielectric, indicating the force on a dipole in a nonuniform field. ENERGY, FORCES, AND PRESSURE IN THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD 129 Figure 9.4 A body in an electrostatic system moved a small distance dx by the electric force Consider an arbitrary electrostatic system consisting of a number of charged conducting and polarized dielectric bodies. We know that there are forces acting on all these bodies. Let us concentrate on one of the bodies, for example the one in Fig. 9.4, that may be either a conductor or a dielectric. Let the unknown electric force on the body be F, as indicated in the figure. Suppose we let the electric force move the body by a small distance dx in the direction of the x axis indicated in the figure. The electric force would in this case do work equal to where F, is the projection of the force F on the x axis. At first glance we seem to have gained nothing by this discussion: we do not know the force F, so we do not know the work dAel,fo,c, either. However, we will now show that if we know how the electric energy of the system depends on the coordi- nate x, we can determine the work dAel,f,,,,, and then from Eq. (9.10), the component F, of the force F. In this process, either (1) the charges on all the bodies of the system can remain unchanged or (2) the potentials of all the conducting bodies can remain unchanged. Let us consider case (1) first. The charges can remain unchanged in spite of the change in the system geometry only if none of the conducting bodies is connected to a source that could change its charge (for example, a battery). Therefore, by conservation of energy, the work in moving the body can be done only at the expense of the electric energy contained in the system. Let the system energy as a function of the coordinate x of the body, We(x), be known. The increment in energy after the displacement, dW,(x), is negative because some of the energy has been used for doing the work. Since work has to be a positive number, we have in this case dA,l,fo,,, = -dW,(x). Combining this expression with Eq. (9.10), the component F, of the electric force on the body is F - -.------- x - We (charges kept constant). dx Figure 9.5 Determination of the force on the electrodes of a parallel-plate capacitor using Eq. (9.11) Example 9.4-Force acting on one plate of a parallel-plate capacitor. In this example, we will find the electric force acting on one plate of a parallel-plate capacitor. The dielectric is homogel~eous, of permittivity E, the area of the plates is S, and the distance between them is x. One plate is charged with Q and the other with -Q (Fig. 9.5). Let the electric force move the right plate by a small distance dx. The energy in the capacitor is given by W,(x) = Q2 /2C(x) = Q2x/(2cS), SO the force that tends to irlcrease the distance between the plates is This is the same result as in Example 9.2, except for the sign. The minus sign tells us that the force tends to decrease the coordinate x, i.e., that it is attractive. Example 9.5-Force per unit length acting on a conductor of a two-wire line. The wires of a two-wire line of radii a are x apart, and are charged with charges Q' and -Q'. The energy per unit length of the line is using C' as calculated in problem P8.13. From Eq. (9.11) we obtain the force per unit length on the right conductor, tending to increase the distance between them, as This is the same as in Example 9.3, except for the minus sign. We know that this means only that the force tends to decrease the distance x between the wires, i.e., that it is attractive. Example 9.6-Force acting on a dielectric partly inserted into a parallel-plate capacitor. Let us find the electric force acting on the dielectric in Fig. 9.6. Equation (9.11) allows us to do this in a simple way. The capacitance of a capacitor such as this one is given by ENERGY, FORCES, AND PRESSURE IN THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD 131 Figure 9.6 Determination of the force on the dielectric partly inserted between the electrodes of a parallel-plate capacitor using Eq. (9.11) (see problem P8.8). The energy in the capacitor is Q 2 We(x) = - = Q2 - Q2d 2C 2(C1+ C2) 2b[cx + to(a - x)] ' The derivative dW,(x)/dx in this case is a bit more complicated to calculate, and it is left as an exercise. The force is found to be Note that this force is always positive because t > to. This means that the forces tend to pull the dielectric further in between the plates. Example 9.7-Rise of level of liquid dielectric partly filling a parallel-plate capacitor. As a final example of the application of Eq. (9.11), let us determine the force that raises the level of the liquid dielectric between the plates of the capacitor in Fig. 9.3. Assume the dielectric is distilled water with t-, = 81, the width of the plates is b, their distance is d = 1 cm, and the capacitor was charged by being connected to V = 1000 V. The electric forces will raise the level of the water between the plates until the weight of the water between the plates becomes equal to this force. The weight is equal to where p,, is the mass density of water and g = 9.81 m/s2 . By equating this force to the force that we found in Example 9.6, we get So far, we have discussed examples of case (I), where the charges in a system were kept constant. Case (2) is finding forces from energy when the voltage, not the charge, of the n conducting bodies of the system is kept constant (for example, we connect the system to a battery). When a body is moved by electric forces again by dx, some changes must occur in the charges on the conducting bodies, due to electro- static induction. These changes are made at the expense of the energy in the sources (battery). So we would expect the energy contained in the electric field to increase in this case. It can be shown in a relatively straightforward way that the expression for the component F, of the electric force on the body in this case is Fs = +--- We(x) (potentials kept constant). dx (9.12) Of course, this formula in all cases leads to the same result for the force as Eq. (9.11), but in some cases it is easier to calculate dW,/dx for constant potentials than for constant charges, and conversely. Example 9.8-Example 9.6 revisited. Let us compute the force from Example 9.6 using Eq. (9.12) instead of Eq. (9.11), which we used in Example 9.6. Now we assume the potential of the two plates to be constant, and therefore express the system energy in the form so that The result is easier to obtain than in Example 9.6. Questions and puoblems: P9.17 to P9.20

The buttons on my phone are worn thin I don't think that I knew the chaos I was getting in. But I've broken all my promises to you I've broken all my promises to you.

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Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Bridges”, and “The City of Light”. The city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot. You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorised waterbuses (“vaporetti”) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city’s islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. You can see the amusing city’s landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Saint Mark’s Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside. They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.

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1 Predicting Australian Takeover Targets: A Logit Analysis Maurice Peat* Maxwell Stevenson* * Discipline of Finance, School of Finance, The University of Sydney Abstract Positive announcement-day adjusted returns to target shareholders in the event of a takeover are well documented. Investors who are able to accurately predict firms that will be the subject of a takeover attempt should be able to earn these excess returns. In this paper a series of probabilistic regression models were developed that use financial statement variables suggested by prior research as explanatory variables. The models, applied to in-sample and out-of-sample data, led to predictions of takeover targets that were better than chance in all cases. The economic outcome resulting from holding a portfolio of the predicted targets over the prediction period are also analysed. Keywords: takeovers, targets, prediction, classification, logit analysis JEL Codes: G11, G17, G23, G34 This is a draft copy and not to be quoted. 2 1. Introduction In this paper our aim is to accurately predict companies that will become takeover targets. Theoretically, if it is possible to predict takeovers with accuracy greater than chance, it should be possible to generate abnormal returns from holding a portfolio of the predicted targets. Evidence of abnormal returns of 20% to 30% made by shareholders of firms on announcement of a takeover bid is why prediction of these events is of interest to academics and practitioners alike. The modelling approach adopted in this study was based on the discrete choice approach used by Palepu (1986) and Barnes (1999). The models were based on financial statement information, using variables suggested by the numerous theories that have been put forward to explain takeover activity. The performance of the models was evaluated using statistical criteria. Further, the predictions from the models were rated against chance and economic criteria through the formation and tracking of a portfolio of predicted targets. Positive results were found under both evaluation criteria. Takeover prediction studies are a logical extension of the work of Altman (1968) who used financial statement information to explain corporate events. Early studies by Simkowitz and Monroe (1971) and Stevens (1973) were based on the Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) technique. Stevens (1973) coupled MDA with factor analysis to eliminate potential multicollinearity problems and reported a predictive accuracy of 67.5%, suggesting that takeover prediction was viable. Belkaoui (1978) and Rege (1984) conducted similar analyses in Canada with Belkaoui (1978) confirming the results of these earlier researchers and reporting a predictive accuracy of 85% . Concerns were raised by Rege (1984) who was unable to predict with similar accuracy. These concerns were also raised in research by others such as Singh (1971) and Fogelberg, Laurent, and McCorkindale (1975). Reacting to the wide criticism of the MDA method, researchers began to use discrete choice models as the basis of their research. Harris et al. (1984) used probit analysis to develop a model and found that it had extremely high explanatory power, but were unable to discriminate between target and non-target firms with any degree of accuracy. Dietrich and Sorensen (1984) continued this work using a logit model and achieved a classification accuracy rate of 90%. Palepu (1986) addressed a number of methodological problems in takeover prediction. He suggested the use of statebased prediction samples where a number of targets were matched with non-targets 3 for the same sample period. While this approach was appropriate for the estimation sample, it exaggerated accuracies within the predictive samples because the estimated error rates in these samples were not indicative of error rates within the population of firms. He also proposed the use of an optimal cut-off point derivation which considered the decision problem at hand. On the basis of this rectified methodology, along with the application of a logit model to a large sample of US firms, Palepu (1986) provided evidence that the ability of the model was no better than a chance selection of target and non-target firms. Barnes (1999) also used the logit model and a modified version of the optimal cut-off rule on UK data. His results indicated that a portfolio of predicted targets may have been consistent with Palepu’s finding, but he was unable to document this in the UK context due to model inaccuracy. In the following section the economic explanations underlying takeover activity are discussed. Section 3 outlines our takeover hypotheses and describes the explanatory variables that are used in the modelling procedure. The modelling framework and data used in the study is contained in Section 4, while the results of our model estimation, predictions, classification accuracy and portfolio economic outcomes are found in Section 5. We conclude in Section 6. 2. Economic explanations of takeover activity Economic explanations of takeover activity have suggested the explanatory variables that were included in this discrete choice model development study. Jensen and Meckling (1976) posited that agency problems occurred when decision making and risk bearing were separated between management and stakeholders1, leading to management inefficiencies. Manne (1965) and Fama (1980) theorised that a mechanism existed that ensured management acted in the interests of the vast number of small non-controlling shareholders2. They suggested that a market for corporate control existed in which alternative management teams competed for the rights to control corporate assets. The threat of acquisition aligned management objectives with those of stakeholders as managers are terminated in the event of an acquisition in order to rectify inefficient management of the firm’s assets. Jensen and Ruback (1983) suggested that both capital gains and increased dividends are available to an 1 Stakeholders are generally considered to be both stock and bond holders of a corporation. 2 We take the interests of shareholders to be in the maximization of the present value of the firm. 4 acquirer who could eliminate the inefficiencies created by target management, with the attractiveness of the firm for takeover increasing with the level of inefficiency. Jensen (1986) looked at the agency costs of free cash flow, another form of management inefficiency. In this case, free cash flow referred to cash flows in excess of positive net present value (NPV) investment opportunities and normal levels of financial slack (retained earnings). The agency cost of free cash flow is the negative NPV value that arises from investing in negative NPV projects rather than returning funds to investors. Jensen (1986) suggested that the market value of the firm should be discounted by the expected agency costs of free cash flow. These, he argued, were the costs that could be eliminated either by issuing debt to fund an acquisition of stock, or through merger with, or acquisition of a growing firm that had positive NPV investments and required the use of these excess funds. Smith and Kim (1994) combined the financial pecking order argument of Myers and Majluf (1984) with the free cash flow argument of Jensen (1986) to create another motivational hypothesis that postulated inefficient firms forgo profitable investment opportunities because of informational asymmetries. Further, Jensen (1986) argued that, due to information asymmetries that left shareholders less informed, management was more likely to undertake negative NPV projects rather than returning funds to investors. Smith and Kim (1994) suggested that some combination of these firms, like an inefficient firm and an efficient acquirer, would be the optimal solution to the two respective resource allocation problems. This, they hypothesised, would result in a market value for the combined entity that exceeded the sum of the individual values of the firms. This is one form of financial synergy that can arise in merger situations. Another form of financial synergy is that which results from a combination of characteristics of the target and bidding firms. Jensen (1986) suggested that an optimal capital structure exists, whereby the marginal benefits and marginal costs of debt are equal. At this point, the cost of capital for a firm is minimised. This suggested that increases in leverage will only be viable for those firms who have free cash flow excesses, and not for those which have an already high level of debt. Lewellen (1971) proposed that in certain situations, financial efficiencies may be realized without the realization of operational efficiencies. These efficiencies relied on a simple Miller and Modigliani (1964) model. It proposed that, in the absence of corporate taxes, an increase in a firm’s leverage to reasonable levels would increase the value of the equity share of the company due to a lower cost of capital. By a 5 merger of two firms, where either one or both had not utilised their borrowing capacity, would result in a financial gain. This financial gain would represent a valuation gain above that of the sum of the equity values of the individual firms. However, this result is predicated on the assumption that the firms need to either merge or be acquired in order to achieve this result. Merger waves are well documented in the literature. Gort (1969) suggested that industry disturbances are the source of these merger waves, his argument being that they occurred in response to discrepancies between the valuation of a firm by shareholders and potential acquirers. As a consequence of economic shocks (such as deregulation, changes in input or output prices, etc.), expectations concerning future cash flow became more variable. This results in an increased probability that the value the acquirer places on a potential target is greater than its current owner’s valuation. The result is a possible offer and subsequent takeover. Mitchell and Mulherin (1996), in their analysis of mergers and acquisitions in the US during the 1980s, provided evidence that mergers and acquisitions cluster by industries and time. Their analysis confirmed the theoretical and empirical evidence provided by Gort (1969) and provided a different view suggesting that mergers, acquisitions, and leveraged buyouts were the least cost method of adjusting to the economic shocks borne by an industry. These theories suggested a clear theoretical base on which to build takeover prediction models. As a result, eight main hypotheses for the motivation of a merger or acquisition have been formulated, along with twenty three possible explanatory variables to be incorporated predictive models. 3. Takeover hypotheses and explanatory variables The most commonly accepted motivation for takeovers is the inefficient management hypothesis.3 The hypothesis states that inefficiently managed firms will be acquired by more efficiently managed firms. Accordingly, H1: Inefficient management will lead to an increased likelihood of acquisition. Explanatory variables suggested by this hypothesis as candidates to be included in the specifications of predictive models included: 1. ROA (EBIT/Total Assets – Outside Equity Interests) 3 It is also known as the disciplinary motivation for takeovers. 6 2. ROE (Net Profit After Tax / Shareholders Equity – Outside Equity Interests) 3. Earnings Before Interest and Tax Margin (EBIT/Operating Revenue) 4. EBIT/Shareholders Equity 5. Free Cash Flow (FCF)/Total Assets 6. Dividend/Shareholders Equity 7. Growth in EBIT over past year, along with an activity ratio, 8. Asset Turnover (Net Sales/Total Assets) While there are competing explanations for the effect that a firm’s undervaluation has on the likelihood of its acquisition by a bidder, there is consistent agreement across all explanations that the greater the level of undervaluation then the greater the likelihood a firm will be acquired. The hypothesis that embodies the impact of these competing explanations is as follows: H2: Undervaluation of a firm will lead to an increased likelihood of acquisition. The explanatory variable suggested by this hypothesis is: 9. Market to book ratio (Market Value of Securities/Net Assets) The Price Earnings (P/E) ratio is closely linked to the undervaluation and inefficient management hypotheses. The impact of the P/E ratio on the likehood of acquisition is referred to as the P/E hypothesis: H3: A high Price to Earnings Ratio will lead to a decreased likelihood of acquisition. It follows from this hypothesis that the P/E ratio is a likely candidate as an explanatory variable for inclusion in models for the prediction of potential takeover targets. 10. Price/Earnings Ratio The growth resource mismatch hypothesis is the fourth hypothesis. However, the explanatory variables used in models specified to examine this hypothesis capture growth and resource availability separately. This gives rise to the following: H4: Firms which possess low growth / high resource combinations or, alternatively, high growth / low resource combinations will have an increased likelihood of acquisition. The following explanatory variables suggested by this hypothesis are: 7 11. Growth in Sales (Operating Revenue) over the past year 12. Capital Expenditure/Total Assets 13. Current Ratio (Current Assets/Current Liabilities) 14. (Current Assets – Current Liabilities)/Total Assets 15. Quick Assets (Current Assets – Inventory)/Current Liabilities The behaviour of some firms to pay out less of their earnings in order to maintain enough financial slack (retained earnings) to exploit future growth opportunities as they arise, has led to the dividend payout hypothesis: H5: High payout ratios will lead to a decreased likelihood of acquisition. The obvious explanatory variable suggested by this hypothesis is: 16. Dividend Payout Ratio Rectification of capital structure problems is an obvious motivation for takeovers. However, there has been some argument as to the impact of low or high leverage on acquisition likelihood. This paper proposes a hypothesis known as the inefficient financial structure hypothesis from which the following hypothesis is derived. H6: High leverage will lead to a decreased likelihood of acquisition. The explanatory variables suggested by this hypothesis include: 17. Net Gearing (Short Term Debt + Long Term Debt)/Shareholders Equity 18. Net Interest Cover (EBIT/Interest Expense) 19. Total Liabilities/Total Assets 20. Long Term Debt/Total Assets The existence of Merger and Acquisition (M&A) activity waves, where takeovers are clustered in wave-like profiles, have been proposed as indicators of changing levels of M&A activity over time. It has been argued that the identification of M&A waves, with the corresponding improved likelihood of acquisition when the wave is surging, captures the effect of the rate of takeover activity at specific points in time, and serves as valuable input into takeover prediction models. Consistent with M&A activity waves and their explanation as a motivation for takeovers is the industry disturbance hypothesis: 8 H7: Industry merger and acquisition activity will lead to an increased likelihood of acquisition. An industry relative ratio of takeover activity is suggested by this hypothesis: 21. The numerator is the total bids launched in a given year, while the denominator is the average number of bids launched across all the industries in the ASX. Size will have an impact on the likelihood of acquisition. It seems plausible that smaller firms will have a greater likelihood of acquisition due to larger firms generally having fewer bidding firms with the resources to acquire them. This gives rise to the following hypothesis: H8: The size of a firm will be negatively related to the likelihood of acquisition. Explanatory variables that can be employed to control for size include: 21. Log (Total Assets) 22. Net Assets 4. Data and Method The data requirements for the variables defined above are derived from the financial statements and balance sheet date price information for Australian listed companies. The financial statement information was sourced from the AspectHuntley data base which includes annual financial statement data for all ASX listed companies between 1995 and 2006. The database includes industry classifications for all firms included in the construction of industry relative ratios. Lists of takeover bids and their respective success were obtained from the Connect4 database. This information enabled the construction of variables for relative merger activity between industries. Additionally, stock prices from the relevant balance dates of all companies were sourced from the AspectHuntley online database, the SIRCA Core Price Data Set and Yahoo! Finance. 4.1 The Discrete Choice Modelling Framework The modelling procedure used is the nominal logit model, made popular in the bankruptcy prediction literature by Ohlson (1980) and, subsequently, in the takeover prediction literature by Palepu (1986). Logit models are commonly utilised for dichotomous state problems. The model is given by equations [1] to [3] below. 9 [3] The logit model was developed to overcome the rigidities of the Linear Probability Model in the presence of a binary dependent variable. Equations [1] and [2] show the existence of a linear relationship between the log-odds ratio (otherwise known as the logit Li) and the explanatory variables. However, the relationship between the probability of the event and acquisition likelihood is non-linear. This non-linear relationship has a major advantage that is demonstrated in equation [3]. Equation [3] measures the change in the probability of the event as a result of a small increment in the explanatory variables, . When the probability of the event is high or low, the incremental impact of a change in an explanatory variable on the likelihood of the event will be compressed, requiring a large change in the explanatory variables to change the classification of the observation. If a firm is clearly classified as a target or non-target, a large change in the explanatory variables is required to change its classification. 4.2 Sampling Schema Two samples were used in the model building and evaluation procedure. They were selected to mimic the problem faced by a practitioner attempting to predict takeover targets into the future. The first sample was used to estimate the model and to conduct in-sample classification. It was referred to as the Estimation Sample. This sample was based on financial data for the 2001 and 2002 financial years for firms that became takeover targets, as well as selected non-targets, between January, 2003 and D

saya pergi ke kediri

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The surface is not plate. please use the PV structure drawings and submit the calculation. R 45 meter-please clarify. acceesories for connection between tape and BCC is not clear. Please clarify BCC 50 sqmm? to use 95 sqmm for loop sytem on the above roof or copper tape 3mm wide.

England

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tdgdgdgdrgeeeThe Place of Logic in Philosophy. The sciences fall into two broad divisions, viz.: the speculative and the regulative (or normative) sciences. In the speculative sciences, philosophic thought deals with those things which we find proposed to our intelligence in the universe: such sciences have no other immediate end than the contemplation of the truth. Thus we study Mathematics, not primarily with a view to commercial success, but that we may know. In the normative sciences, on the other hand, the philosopher pursues knowledge with a view to the realization of some practical end. "The object of philosophy," says St. Thomas of Aquin, "is order. This order may be such as we find already existing; but it may be such as we seek to bring into being ourselves."¹ Thus sciences exist, which have as their object the realization of order in the acts both of our will and of our intellect. The science which deals with the due ordering of the acts of the will, is Ethics, that which deals with order in the acts of the intellect is Logic. ¹St. Thomas in Ethic. I. lect. 1. Sapientis est ordinare. . . . Ordo autem quadrupliciter ad rationem comparatur. Est enim quidam ordoquem ratio non facit sed solum considerat, sicut est ordo rerum naturalium. Alius autem est ordo quem ratio considerando facit in proprio actu, puta cum ordinat conceptus suos ad invicem et signa conceptuum quae sunt voces significativae. Tertius autem est ordo quem ratio considerando facit in operationibus voluntatis. Quartus autem est ordo quem ratio considerando facit in exterioribus rebus, quarum ipsa est causa, sicut in arca et domo. The question has often been raised, whether Logic is science or an art. The answer to this will depend entirely on the precise meaning which we give to the word 'art.' The medieval philosophers regarded the notion of an art as signifying a body of rules by which man directs his actions to the performance of some work.2 Hence they held Logic to be the art of reasoning, as well as the science of the reasoning process. Perhaps a more satisfactory terminology is that at present in vogue, according to which the term 'art,' is reserved to mean a body of precepts for the production of some external result, and hence is not applicable to the normative sciences. Aesthetics, the science which deals with beauty and proportion in the objects of the external senses, is now reckoned with Ethics and Logic, as a normative science. By the medieval writers it was treated theoretically rather than practically, and was reckoned part of Metaphysics. It may be well to indicate briefly the distinction between Logic and two other sciences, to which it bears some affinity. Logic and Metaphysics. The term Metaphysics sometimes stands for philosophy in general sometimes with a more restricted meaning it stands for that part of philosophy known as Ontology. In this latter sense Metaphysics deals not with thoughts, as does Logic, but with things, not with the conceptual order but with the real order. It investigates the meaning of certain notions which all the special sciences presuppose, such as Substance, Accident, Cause, Effect, Action. It deals with principles which the special sciences do not prove, but on which they rest, such as e.g., Every event must have a cause. Hence it is called the science of Being, since its object is not limited to some special sphere, but embraces all that is, whether material or spiritual. Logic on the other hand deals with the conceptual order, with thoughts. Its conclusions do not relate to things, but to the way in which the mind represents things. ²St. Thomas us An. Post. I., lect. x. "Nihil enim aliud ars esse videtur, quam certa ordinatio rationis qua per determinata media ad debitum finem actus humani perveniunt." Logic and Psychology. The object of Psychology is the human soul and all its activities. It investigates the nature and operations of intellect, will, imagination, sense. Thus its object is far wider than that of Logic, which is concerned with the intellect alone. And even in regard to the intellect, the two sciences consider it under different aspects. Psychology considers thought merely as an act of the soul. Thus if we take a judgment, such as e.g., "The three angles of a triangle are together equal to two right angles," Psychology considers it, merely in so far as it is a form of mental activity. Logic on the other hand, examines the way in which this mental act expresses the objective truth with which it deals; and if necessary, asks whether it follows legitimately from the grounds on which it is based. Moreover, Logic, as a regulative science, seeks to prescribe rules as to how we ought to think. With this Psychology has nothing to do: it only asks, "What as a matter of fact is the nature of the mind's activity?" The Scope of Logic. Logicians are frequently divided into three classes, according as they hold that the science is concerned (1) with names only, (2) with the form of thought alone, (3) with thought as representative of reality. The first of these views — that Logic is concerned with names only — has found but few defenders. It is however taught by the French philosopher Condillac (1715 — 1780), who held that the process of reasoning consists solely in verbal transformations. The meaning of the conclusion is, he thought, ever identical with that of the original proposition. The theory that Logic deals only with the forms of thought, irrespective of their relation to reality, was taught among others by Hamilton (1788 —1856) and Mansel (1820 —1871). Both of these held that Logic is no way concerned with the truth of our thoughts, but only with their consistency.In this sense Hamilton says: "Logic is conversant with the form of thought, to the exclusion of the matter" (Lectures. I. p. xi). By these logicians a distinction is drawn between 'formal truth,' i.e., self-consistency and 'material truth,' i.e., conformity with the object and it is said that Logic deals with formal truth alone. On this view Mill well observes: "the notion of the true and false will force its way even into Formal Logic. We may abstract from actual truth, but the validity of reasoning is always a question of conditional truth — whether one proposition must be true if the others are true, or whether one proposition can be true if others are true" (Exam. of Hamilton, p. 399). According to the third theory, Logic deals with thought as the means by which we attain truth. Mill, whom we have just quoted, may stand as a representative of this view. "Logic," he says, "is the theory of valid 'thought, not of thinking, but of correct thinking" (Exam. of Hamilton, p. 388). To which class of logicians should Aristotle and his Scholastic followers be assigned? Many modern writers rank them in the second of these groups, and term them Formal Logicians. It will soon appear on what a misconception this opinion rests, and how completely the view taken of Logic by the Scholastics differs from that of the Formal Logicians. In their eyes, the aim of the science was most assuredly not to secure self-consistency, but theoretically to know how the mind represents its object, and practically to arrive at truth. The terms Nominalist, Conceptualist, and Realist Logicians are now frequently employed to denote these three classes. This terminology is singularly unfortunate: for the names, Nominalist, Conceptualist and Realist, have for centuries been employed to distinguish three famous schools of philosophy, divided from each other on a question which has nothing to do with the scope of Logic. In this class we shall as far as possible avoid using the terms in their novel meaning.

Woww photonya terlalu seksi

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Seymour summons a seemingly robotic being, called Mortiorchis, upon which he sits. As with previous Seymour battles, certain party members may use the Trigger Command to talk to him. For this battle, Kimahri can talk to Seymour to raise his Strength, and Yuna can talk to him to raise her Magic Defense. Seymour Flux can use the attack Lance of Atrophy to put an ally into Zombie status, and the Mortiorchis will combo with Full-Life, effectively KO'ing a character (unless the characters have high Agility, as well as many Holy Waters). Like Seymour Natus, he can also Banish Aeons, giving it approximately one turn to attack if summoned. Seymour Flux occasionally casts Protect and Reflect upon himself. Three turns in, Mortiorchis will start to use Cross Cleave, which deals around 2,000 damage to the whole party. Seymour will then cast Reflect on himself and rebound Flare at a party member, but a character with high Agility or in Haste may get a turn in between and can Dispel Seymour, causing him to cast the spell on himself. Total Annihilation is Seymour Flux's signature attack, as well as his deadliest, which requires three rounds of charging, and will kill anything but an extremely good party. If the player summons an aeon then Mortiorchis will postpone its use of Total Annihilation until Seymour Flux banishes it; therefore an aeon cannot be a shield for Total Annihilation. Strategy Seymour is vulnerable to the poison status (the Mortiorchis is immune), and if Lulu casts Bio on him, he will take 1,400 damage at the end of each of his turns (sometimes, he will get two turns in a row not long before Mortiorchis, so he'll use Lance of Atrophy on his first turn then skip the second, thus he will react to damage twice just a second apart); this will whittle down his health without, potentially, any other actions.

Seymour summons a seemingly robotic being, called Mortiorchis, upon which he sits. As with previous Seymour battles, certain party members may use the Trigger Command to talk to him. For this battle, Kimahri can talk to Seymour to raise his Strength, and Yuna can talk to him to raise her Magic Defense. Seymour Flux can use the attack Lance of Atrophy to put an ally into Zombie status, and the Mortiorchis will combo with Full-Life, effectively KO'ing a character (unless the characters have high Agility, as well as many Holy Waters). Like Seymour Natus, he can also Banish Aeons, giving it approximately one turn to attack if summoned. Seymour Flux occasionally casts Protect and Reflect upon himself. Three turns in, Mortiorchis will start to use Cross Cleave, which deals around 2,000 damage to the whole party. Seymour will then cast Reflect on himself and rebound Flare at a party member, but a character with high Agility or in Haste may get a turn in between and can Dispel Seymour, causing him to cast the spell on himself. Total Annihilation is Seymour Flux's signature attack, as well as his deadliest, which requires three rounds of charging, and will kill anything but an extremely good party. If the player summons an aeon then Mortiorchis will postpone its use of Total Annihilation until Seymour Flux banishes it; therefore an aeon cannot be a shield for Total Annihilation. Strategy Seymour is vulnerable to the poison status (the Mortiorchis is immune), and if Lulu casts Bio on him, he will take 1,400 damage at the end of each of his turns (sometimes, he will get two turns in a row not long before Mortiorchis, so he'll use Lance of Atrophy on his first turn then skip the second, thus he will react to damage twice just a second apart); this will whittle down his health without, potentially, any other actions.

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Gareth Bale has spoken of his excitement at becoming a ‘Galactico’ following his unveiling as a Real Madrid player. A joyous crowd greeted the Welshman’s arrival at the Bernabeu on Monday, following his protracted, expensive move from Tottenham Hotspur. The unveiling ceremony was met with raucous cheers, and there was even a moment when an image of Bale as a boy, wearing a Real replica jersey, was shown on the big screen. That image perhaps gave credence to Bale’s typical footballer’s claim that he has always “dreamed” of playing for Los Blancos. There has been vigorous debate as to whether or not Real even need Bale, and he is under no illusion that he faces a fight to make the first-team. “I have a job to get into the XI. Every player here is world class. Madrid sign the best players in the world,” he said. “I know I cannot walk straight into the team, I have to work hard. I am always looking to improve myself as a footballer, and that should not stop now. “There is a lot more to come from me, I am here with the best players, the best coaches and with the best chance to keep improving. I have played in a lot of different positions. “Wherever the coach thinks I can play my best football I will give 100%.” There were also rumours that Real superstar, Cristiano Ronaldo, was nonplussed to find that Bale was stealing his thunder. But Bale has moved to smooth over any ill feeling between himself and CR7, by doffing his hat to the Portuguese goal machine as “the best player in the world.” “Cristiano Ronaldo is for me the best player in the world,” Bale said. “He is a massive factor why I wanted to come here. The team is full of world-class players, no better than him. It will be an honour to play with him, and hopefully learn from him. Hopefully we can win a lot of trophies together.” “He’s the boss here I think, the main player, the best player in the world,” Bale continued, fawning over CR7. “I want to obviously help the team and try to win trophies. I will have to wait and see what he says.”

WEALTHY is the brand related with the automotive aftermarket industry. As major suppliers in the automotive aftermarket, WEALTHY has standard quality and services that should be fulfilled by each product, and every employee before the products arrive at the customers. WEALTHY was founded in 2006 to fulfill the demand of quality and realible products in automotive aftermarket maintenance in Asia. Although WEALTHY brand is relatively young in the aftermarket industry, but WEALTHY has a motto: "To Serve and Educate the Workshop to have Safety & Standard Quality of Services" By Combining the knowhow of the founder and the demand of Asian Automotives Aftermarket, WEALTHY has produced some reliably high standard quality products such as Wiper Blades, Refill of Wiper Blades, Bulbs, Automatic Transmission Conditioner, Power Steering Conditioner, and many other products that the car owner can rely for their car's maintenance. WEALTHY is also going green to protect the environment ; we have a commitment towards the environment. Such as our water based products. These products can be found in our range, i.e. Polishing Products, etc. As technology of the automotive industry continue to grow, WEALTHY will also continue to grow and develop through her R&D Department to fulfill a demand of the automotive industry. If one day you see any development of the aftermarket products for the automotive industry, it shoud be come fromWEALTHY. Until now we have over 4,000 customers spread out across Indonesia, from Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Sumatra; using our maintenance products and accessories for cars and motorcycles.

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Gareth Bale has spoken of his excitement at becoming a ‘Galactico’ following his unveiling as a Real Madrid player. A joyous crowd greeted the Welshman’s arrival at the Bernabeu on Monday, following his protracted, expensive move from Tottenham Hotspur. The unveiling ceremony was met with raucous cheers, and there was even a moment when an image of Bale as a boy, wearing a Real replica jersey, was shown on the big screen. That image perhaps gave credence to Bale’s typical footballer’s claim that he has always “dreamed” of playing for Los Blancos. There has been vigorous debate as to whether or not Real even need Bale, and he is under no illusion that he faces a fight to make the first-team. “I have a job to get into the XI. Every player here is world class. Madrid sign the best players in the world,” he said. “I know I cannot walk straight into the team, I have to work hard. I am always looking to improve myself as a footballer, and that should not stop now. “There is a lot more to come from me, I am here with the best players, the best coaches and with the best chance to keep improving. I have played in a lot of different positions. “Wherever the coach thinks I can play my best football I will give 100%[ERROR].” There were also rumours that Real superstar, Cristiano Ronaldo, was nonplussed to find that Bale was stealing his thunder. But Bale has moved to smooth over any ill feeling between himself and CR7, by doffing his hat to the Portuguese goal machine as “the best player in the world.” “Cristiano Ronaldo is for me the best player in the world,” Bale said. “He is a massive factor why I wanted to come here. The team is full of world-class players, no better than him. It will be an honour to play with him, and hopefully learn from him. Hopefully we can win a lot of trophies together.” “He’s the boss here I think, the main player, the best player in the world,” Bale continued, fawning over CR7. “I want to obviously help the team and try to win trophies. I will have to wait and see what he says.”

i will try my best Translation

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A head gasket is a gasket that sits between the engine block and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal the cylinders to ensure maximum compression and avoid leakage of coolant or engine oil into the cylinders; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in any engine, and, as part of the combustion chamber, it shares the same strength requirements as other combustion chamber components

A head gasket is a gasket that sits between the engine block and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal the cylinders to ensure maximum compression and avoid leakage of coolant or engine oil into the cylinders; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in any engine, and, as part of the combustion chamber, it shares the same strength requirements as other combustion chamber components

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gAssessment of menopausal status, including premature ovarian failure Assessing ovarian status, including follicle development, ovarian reserve, and ovarian responsiveness, as part of an evaluation for infertility and assisted reproduction protocols such as in vitro fertilization Assessing ovarian function in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome Evaluation of infants with ambiguous genitalia and other intersex conditions Evaluating testicular function in infants and children Diagnosing and monitoring patients with antimullerian hormone-secreting ovarian granulosa cell tumors Method Name Immunometric Assay Reporting Name Antimullerian Hormone, S Aliases Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) Mullerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH) Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) Specimen Type Serum Specimen Required Container/Tube: Preferred: Red top Acceptable: Serum gel Specimen Volume: 0.2 mL Specimen Minimum Volume 0.1 mL Reject Due To Hemolysis Mild OK; Gross reject acceptable to 1,000 mg/dL Lipemia Mild OK, Gross needs to be spun Icterus Mild OK, interpret with caution; Gross reject Other NA Specimen Stability Information Specimen Type Temperature Time Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days Frozen 90 days Clinical Information Antimullerian hormone (AMH), also known as mullerian-inhibiting substance, is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family. It is produced by Sertoli cells of the testis in males and by ovarian granulosa cells in females. Expression during male fetal development prevents the mullerian ducts from developing into the uterus and other mullerian structures, resulting in normal development of the male reproductive tract. In the absence of AMH, the mullerian ducts and structures develop into the female reproductive tract. AMH is also expressed in the follicles of females of reproductive age and inhibits the transition of follicles from primordial to primary stages. Follicular AMH production begins during the primary stage, peaks in the preantral and small antral stages, and then decreases to undetectable concentrations as follicles grow larger. AMH serum concentrations are elevated in males under 2 years old and then progressively decrease until puberty, when there is a sharp decline. By contrast, AMH concentrations are low in female children until puberty. Concentrations then decline slowly over the reproductive lifespan as the size of the pool of remaining microscopic follicles decreases. AMH concentrations are frequently below the detection limit of current assays after natural or premature menopause. Because of the gender differences in AMH concentrations, its changes in circulating concentrations with sexual development, and its specificity for Sertoli and granulosa cells, measurement of AMH has utility in the assessment of gender, gonadal function, fertility, and as a gonadal tumor marker. Since AMH is produced continuously in the granulosa cells of small follicles during the menstrual cycle, it is superior to the episodically released gonadotropins and ovarian steroids as a marker of ovarian reserve. Furthermore, AMH concentrations are unaffected by pregnancy or use of oral or vaginal estrogen- or progestin-based contraceptives. Studies in fertility clinics have shown that females with higher concentrations of AMH have a better response to ovarian stimulation and tend to produce more retrievable oocytes than females with low or undetectable AMH. Females at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after gonadotropin administration can have significantly elevated AMH concentrations. Polycystic ovarian syndrome can elevate serum AMH concentrations because it is associated with the presence of large numbers of small follicles. AMH measurements are commonly used to evaluate testicular presence and function in infants with intersex conditions or ambiguous genitalia, and to distinguish between cryptorchidism (testicles present but not palpable) and anorchia (testicles absent) in males. In minimally virilized phenotypic females, AMH helps differentiate between gonadal and nongonadal causes of virilization. Serum AMH concentrations are increased in some patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors, which comprise approximately 10%[ERROR] of ovarian tumors. AMH, along with related tests including inhibin A and B (#81049 Inhibin A, Tumor Marker, Serum; #88722 Inhibin B, Serum, #86336 Inhibin A and B, Tumor Marker, Serum), estradiol (#81816 Estradiol, Serum), and CA-125 (#9289 Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125), Serum), can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring these patients. Reference Values Males 12 years: 0.7-19 ng/mL Females 45 years: <1.0 ng/mL Interpretation Menopausal women or women with premature ovarian failure of any cause, including after cancer chemotherapy, have very low antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels, often below the current assay detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL. While the optimal AMH concentrations for predicting response to in vitro fertilization are still being established, it is accepted that AMH concentrations in the perimenopausal to menopausal range (0-0.6 ng/mL) indicate minimal to absent ovarian reserve. Depending on patient age, ovarian stimulation is likely to fail in such patients and most fertility specialists would recommend going the donor oocyte route. By contrast, if serum AMH concentrations exceed 3 ng/mL, hyper-response to ovarian stimulation may result. For these patients, a minimal stimulation would be recommended. In patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome, AMH concentrations may be 2 to 5 fold higher than age-appropriate reference range values. Such high levels predict anovulatory and irregular cycles. In children with intersex conditions, an AMH result above the normal female range is predictive of the presence of testicular tissue, while an undetectable value suggests its absence. In boys with cryptorchidism, a measurable AMH concentration is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or functional failure of the abnormally sited gonad. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary may secrete AMH, inhibin A, and inhibin B. Elevated levels of any of these markers can indicate the presence of such a neoplasm in a woman with an ovarian mass. Levels should fall with successful treatment. Rising levels indicate tumor recurrence/progression. Cautions Like all laboratory tests, antimullerian hormone (AMH) measurement alone is seldom sufficient for diagnosis and results should be interpreted in the light of clinical findings and other relevant test results, such as ovarian ultrasonography (in fertility applications, this would include an antral follicle count), abdominal or testicular ultrasound (intersex/testicular function applications) and measurements of sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B (for fertility), and inhibin A and B (for tumor workup). Elevated AMH is not specific for malignancy, and the assay should not be used exclusively to diagnose or exclude an AMH-secreting ovarian tumor. This assay demonstrates no cross reactivity with transforming growth factor beta-1, activin A, inhibin A or B, luteinizing hormone alpha or beta, FSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone, or insulin-like growth factor-1. However, although unlikely, there might be cytokines that have not been evaluated for cross reactivity that do cross react, resulting in false-elevations. As with other immunoassays, the AMH assay can be susceptible to false-low results at extremely high analyte concentrations (hooking effect) or in the hypothetical scenario of the presence of anti-AMH autoantibodies in a patient serum specimen. Heterophilic antibody interferences that are not blocked by the assay’s blocking regents may also rarely occur, causing typically false-high results. If test results are incongruent with the clinical picture, the laboratory should be contacted.

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terjemahanABSTRACT Consumer satisfaction is achieved when the need and desire for such services can be met. To meet customer satisfaction, companies must create and maintain a system to serve the growing consumer demand. The background to the problem and the low level of customer satisfaction with service delivery to customers Semarang Container Terminal, which was indicated by the static amount of container traffic and the high complaints from customers for services rendered. This is also supported by the apparent contradiction between the studies with one another aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the performance of services, barriers to change and corporate image on customer satisfaction for services provided in Semarang Container Terminal. The population is around consumer Container Terminal in Semarang are still active as a customer until the month of October 2012 as many as 519 customers. While the sample is customer Container Terminal in Semarang are still active by 84 respondents. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive sampling Accidental. This research analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis tool. Prior to the regression test, first tested the validity and reliability and the classic assumption test. The results showed that the performance of the service to customer satisfaction shows a positive effect, meaning that if the performance of the services provided Semarang further enhanced Container Terminal, it will further improve customer satisfaction, as evidenced by the value of 11.325 t count> t table 1.9901. Barriers to move towards customer satisfaction has a negative effect, meaning that the higher the resistance of consumers to switch, it is because of consumer dissatisfaction with the services provided. Evidenced by the t value -2.120 1.9901. Keywords: Performance of services, barriers to change, corporate image and customer satisfaction

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Recently, American scientists who studied the sea near the famous Bermuda Triangle have found another "anomaly". They saw that the surface waters in this area are literally teeming with a wide variety of viruses. However, the viruses do not represent any danger for humans as they only interested in oceanic bacteria.
 The very phrase "Bermuda Triangle" has appeared only recently - it was coined by a fan of Spiritualism and esoteric Vincent Gaddis in 1964. By this toponym he meant an area located between the island of Puerto Rico, the Florida coast and Bermuda. According to the famous mystic of the last century, this area of the Atlantic became notorious due to the fact that hundreds of ships and aircraft disappeared there. Some ships, however, were found later, but without their crews and passengers. All this made Gaddis suggests that there was some anomaly in this area. However, he was not the first one to express this idea. In 1950 an American journalist Alexander Jones wrote an article about the mysterious disappearance of ships in this region (which he called simply and tastefully - Sea Devil). Yet, the Bermuda Triangle acquired real popularity in 1974, when Charles Berlitz, a popularizer of science, published a book under the same title where he collected descriptions of various mysterious disappearances in the area. The book immediately became a bestseller, and as a result the mysterious and dangerous Sea Devil became known to the entire world. After that different groups of scientists engaged in searching for reasons to explain these disappearances.

google terjemahRecently, American scientists who studied the sea near the famous Bermuda Triangle have found another "anomaly". They saw that the surface waters in this area are literally teeming with a wide variety of viruses. However, the viruses do not represent any danger for humans as they only interested in oceanic bacteria.
 The very phrase "Bermuda Triangle" has appeared only recently - it was coined by a fan of Spiritualism and esoteric Vincent Gaddis in 1964. By this toponym he meant an area located between the island of Puerto Rico, the Florida coast and Bermuda. According to the famous mystic of the last century, this area of the Atlantic became notorious due to the fact that hundreds of ships and aircraft disappeared there. Some ships, however, were found later, but without their crews and passengers. All this made Gaddis suggests that there was some anomaly in this area. However, he was not the first one to express this idea. In 1950 an American journalist Alexander Jones wrote an article about the mysterious disappearance of ships in this region (which he called simply and tastefully - Sea Devil). Yet, the Bermuda Triangle acquired real popularity in 1974, when Charles Berlitz, a popularizer of science, published a book under the same title where he collected descriptions of various mysterious disappearances in the area. The book immediately became a bestseller, and as a result the mysterious and dangerous Sea Devil became known to the entire world. After that different groups of scientists engaged in searching for reasons to explain these disappearances.

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terjemahanABSTRAKS The background of this research is the phenomenon of not optimal effectiveness of employees of the General Secretariat Garut. This study aimed to analyze the influence of human relations employee effectiveness of the General Secretariat Garut. The method used in this research is descriptive quantitative analysis. The population in this study were all employees of the office of the General Secretariat Garut totaling 130 people. Classified sampling with random sampling techniques, sample size is 57 people altogether. The theory used as a basis for the analysis variable is human relations theory advanced by Jalaluddin (1999) that aspects of psychosocial and physical aspects of the environment. While the basic theory used to analyze the effectiveness of the employment variable using the theory proposed Robbin (1994) which consists of goal attainment approach, system approach, strategic approach to constituency and competing values ​​approach. The test results showed positive hypothesis, where human relations significantly affect employee effectiveness of 85.15%, while 14.85% is the influence of other factors that are not incorporated into the model. While the correlation between the two variables were obtained at 0.92 with the degree of relationship is very strong. Based on the results of the study found several issues considered important, namely: 1) is less good room layout and meubelair, 2) friendly and courteous attitude terbudayakan yet well especially when dealing with constituents, 3) still lack the level of employee adaptation to environmental developments; 4 ) is still not optimal competitive level organization. The suggestion that the authors proposed to solve this problem include: 1) Rebuilding meubelair layout of the room and make it look neat and comfortable with maximum attention to lighting and circulation, 2) Establish and continue local culture positive or culture is hospitality and courtesy to every employee and 3) create a positive atmosphere, removing the fears of employees, support and appreciate creative thinking, even if those ideas are not implemented; 4) Creating effective communication, so that everyone in the organization know and understand the vision of the organization that has been set. Through communication that everyone can understand the specification can serve the needs of their constituents and their constituents.

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Scorpio (♏) (Greek: Σκορπιός, "Skorpios", Latin: "Scorpio") is the eighth astrological sign in the Zodiac, which spans the zodiac between the 210th and 239th degree of celestial longitude. In the Tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this area of the zodiac between October 23rd to November 21st each year. In Sidereal astrology, the sun currently transits the constellation of Scorpio from November 16th to December 15th (approximately). Individuals born during these dates, depending on which system of astrology they subscribe to, may be called Scorpios.

Google TranslateScorpio (♏) (Greek: Σκορπιός, "Skorpios", Latin: "Scorpio") is the eighth astrological sign in the Zodiac, which spans the zodiac between the 210th and 239th degree of celestial longitude. In the Tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this area of the zodiac between October 23rd to November 21st each year. In Sidereal astrology, the sun currently transits the constellation of Scorpio from November 16th to December 15th (approximately). Individuals born during these dates, depending on which system of astrology they subscribe to, may be called Scorpios.

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