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NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine National Center for Biotechnology Information PubChem logo OPENCHEMISTRYDATABASE Compound Summary for CID 10943 PubChem compound 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE Vendors Pharmacology Literature Patents Bioactivities 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE_small.png PubChem CID: 10943 Chemical Names: 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE; M-Dichlorobenzene; 541-73-1; Meta-Dichlorobenzene; M-Dichlorobenzol; Benzene, 1,3-dichloro-; More... Molecular Formula: C6H4Cl2 Molecular Weight: 147.00196 g/mol InChI Key: ZPQOPVIELGIULI-UHFFFAOYSA-N UNII: 75W0WNE5FP Safety Summary: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Modify Date: 2016-04-02 Create Date: 2005-03-26 There are three dichlorobenzene isomers- 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dichlorobenzenes do not occur naturally. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene is a colorless to pale yellow liquid used to make herbicides. 1,3- Dichlorobenzene is a colorless liquid used to make herbicides, insecticides, medicine, and dyes. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, the most important of the three chemicals, is a colorless to white solid with a strong, pungent odor. When exposed to air, it slowly changes from a solid to a vapor. Most people can smell 1,4- dichlorobenzene in the air at very low levels. 2D Structure 3D Conformer Names and Identifiers Chemical and Physical Properties Related Records Chemical Vendors Pharmacology and Biochemistry Use and Manufacturing Identification Safety and Hazards Toxicity Literature Patents Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways Biological Test Results Classification Information Sources 2D Structure 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE.png 3D Conformer Names and Identifiers Computed Descriptors IUPAC Name 1,3-dichlorobenzene InChI InChI=1S/C6H4Cl2/c7-5-2-1-3-6(8)4-5/h1-4H InChI Key ZPQOPVIELGIULI-UHFFFAOYSA-N Canonical SMILES C1=CC(=CC(=C1)Cl)Cl Other Identifiers CAS 541-73-1 EC Number 208-792-1 ICSC Number 1095 RTECS Number CZ4499000 UN Number 2810 1993 UNII 75W0WNE5FP Wikipedia Wikipedia 1,3-dichlorobenzene Synonyms MeSH Synonyms 1,3-dichlorobenzene m-dichlorobenzene Depositor-Supplied Synonyms 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE m-Dichlorobenzene 541-73-1 meta-Dichlorobenzene m-Dichlorobenzol Benzene, 1,3-dichloro- m-Phenylene dichloride Benzene, m-dichloro- Metadichlorobenzene m-Phenylenedichloride m-DCB 1,3-dichloro-benzene NSC 8754 RCRA waste no. U071 UNII-75W0WNE5FP CCRIS 4259 HSDB 522 CHEBI:36693 ZPQOPVIELGIULI-UHFFFAOYSA-N EINECS 208-792-1 2,4-dichlorobenzene AI3-15517 DSSTox_CID_2056 DSSTox_RID_76473 DSSTox_GSID_22056 1,3-Dichlorobenzene solution CAS-541-73-1 m-dichlorobenzen 3-dichlorobenzene MDCB PubChem13088 ACMC-209tea 1,3-bis(chloranyl)benzene AC1L1WA5 75W0WNE5FP SCHEMBL28140 M-DICHLOROBENZENE 99 KSC255M9B MLS001050090 35350_ALDRICH 40214_SUPELCO 48523_SUPELCO 48638_SUPELCO CHEMBL45235 113808_ALDRICH 36708_RIEDEL PARAGOS 530110 35350_FLUKA 36708_FLUKA NSC8754 MolPort-003-925-956 LABOTEST-BB LTBB002096 LTBB002096 ZINC388095 CS-B0931 NSC-8754 Tox21_202179 Tox21_300005 ANW-42368 LS-207 AKOS009031576 AS00251 MCULE-4362550696 RP21109 RTR-019159 TRA0127964 NCGC00091197-01 NCGC00091197-02 NCGC00091197-03 NCGC00253960-01 NCGC00259728-01 AJ-20426 AK114310 AN-21339 BC205103 CJ-03113 KB-78294 OR001079 SMR001216526 ZB011284 ST2414814 TR-019159 D0333 FT-0606649 FT-0657417 S0665 C19397 28316-EP2269986A1 28316-EP2287141A1 28316-EP2305655A2 28316-EP2314577A1 A830009 3B4-2898 I01-3651 J-503894 InChI=1/C6H4Cl2/c7-5-2-1-3-6(8)4-5/h1-4 UNII-F56X88UAJQ component ZPQOPVIELGIULI-UHFFFAOYSA-N 46536A91-5C63-4685-94E2-E2FAB9C3B34D 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE (SEE ALSO: 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE (95-50-1) & 1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE (106-46-7)) 63697-17-6 Chemical and Physical Properties Computed Properties Molecular Weight 147.00196 g/mol Molecular Formula C6H4Cl2 XLogP3 3.5 Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 0 Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 0 Rotatable Bond Count 0 Exact Mass 145.969005 g/mol Monoisotopic Mass 145.969005 g/mol Topological Polar Surface Area 0 A^2 Heavy Atom Count 8 Formal Charge 0 Complexity 64.9 Isotope Atom Count 0 Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Covalently-Bonded Unit Count 1 Experimental Properties Physical Description COLOURLESS LIQUID. Liquid Color Colorless liquid Lewis, R.J. Sr.; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary 14th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 2001., p. 359 Boiling Point 173 deg C Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-150 173°C Melting Point -24.8 deg C Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-150 -24.8°C Flash Point 63°C 63°C closed cup Solubility Sol in ethanol, ether; very soluble in acetone Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-150 In water, 125 mg/L at 25 deg C Miller MM et al; J Chem Eng Data 29:184-90 (1984) in water: none Density 1.2884 at 20 deg C/4 deg C Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-150 (water = 1): 1.288 Vapor Density (air = 1): 5.1 Vapor Pressure 2.15 mm Hg at 25 deg C Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989. Vapour pressure kPa at 25°C: 0.286 0.286 kPa @ 25°C LogP log Kow = 3.53 Hansch, C., Leo, A., D. Hoekman. Exploring QSAR - Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society., 1995., p. 17 3.53 Auto-Ignition >500 deg C European Chemicals Bureau; IUCLID Dataset, 1,3-Dichlorobenzene (541-73-1) p.12 (2000 CD-ROM edition). Available from, as of January 10, 2008: http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Decomposition When heated to decomposition it emits toxic /hydrogen chloride/ fumes. Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1174 Viscosity 1.044 mPa.s at 25 deg C Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 6-177 Heat of Vaporization 296.8 J/g Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V6: 89 (1993) Surface Tension 36.20 dynes/cm Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V6: 89 (1993) Kovats Retention Index Standard non-polar 975.4, 986.21, 985.1, 1002, 1014, 985, 990, 982, 1025, 1013.8, 1009, 985, 964, 1016, 1013, 1016, 964, 1000, 997, 964, 1004.1, 985.2, 991.2, 997.1, 988, 1005, 986, 982, 1011.1, 981, 981, 981, 982, 1004 Semi-standard non-polar 1022, 1014.97, 1015.34, 1017.77, 1018.92, 1020.9, 1002.37, 997.98, 999.87, 1017.4, 1020.06, 1027.05, 1027.35, 1022.5, 1022.5, 1036.2, 1004.07, 1013.3, 1024.65, 1058, 1007, 1011, 1014, 1022, 1005, 1024.8, 1006.8, 1047, 1021, 1045, 1002, 1002.6, 997, 162, 160.4 Standard polar 1417.7, 1438.32, 1445.33, 1446, 1451, 1453, 1455.4, 1474.1, 1415, 1415, 1434, 1409, 1414, 1477, 1455.6, 1418 Chemical Classes Volatile organic compounds Crystal Structures Crystal Structures: 1 of 2 CCDC Number 165223 Crystal Structure Data DOI:10.5517/cc5jxsc Associated Article DOI:10.1002/1522-2675(20010613)84:63.0.CO;2-M Crystal Structures: 2 of 2 CCDC Number 637752 Crystal Structure Data DOI:10.5517/ccpdmnb Associated Article DOI:10.1107/S0108768106046684 Spectral Properties Index of refraction: 1.5515 at 20 deg C/D Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-150 Intense mass spectral peaks: 146 m/z (100%), 148 m/z (64%), 111 m/z (37%), 75 m/z (22%) Hites, R.A. Handbook of Mass Spectra of Environmental Contaminants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1985., p. 70 IR: 5654 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection) Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p. V1: 825 UV: 1671 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection) Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p. V1: 825 NMR: 8596 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection) Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p. V1: 825 MASS: 818 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York) Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p. V1: 825 GC-MS 1 of 4 NIST Number 291447 Library Main library Total Peaks 63 m/z Top Peak 146 m/z 2nd Highest 148 m/z 3rd Highest 111 Thumbnail Related Records Related Compounds with Annotation Related Compounds Same Connectivity 8 records Same Parent, Connectivity 50 records Same Parent, Exact 43 records Mixtures, Components, and Neutralized Forms 109 records Similar Compounds 274 records Similar Conformers 16510 records Substances Related Substances All 295 records Same 122 records Mixture 173 records Substances by Category Entrez Crosslinks PubMed 86 records Taxonomy 1 record Gene 1 record Chemical Vendors Pharmacology and Biochemistry Absorption, Distribution and Excretion The dichlorobenzenes may be absorbed through the lung, gastrointestinal tract, and intact skin. Relatively low water solubility and high lipid solubility favor their penetration of most membranes by diffusion, including pulmonary and GI epithelia, the brain, hepatic parenchyma, renal tubules, and the placenta. /Dichlorobenzenes/ USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Dichlorobenzenes p.C-14 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-039 Information on the quantitative absorption of 1,3-DCB in humans and animals is not available for any route of exposure; however, absorption of the compound can be inferred from studies that have detected 1,3-DCB or metabolites in the breast milk, blood, and fat of humans and in the bile and urine of exposed animals. Distribution is believed to be similar to the other DCB isomers, but data demonstrating this are not presently available. Similar to the other DCB isomers, 1,3-DCB is initially metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes, followed by extensive conjugation, primarily to glutathione, has been reported. 1,3-DCB is eliminated mainly in the urine, similar to the other DCB isomers. U.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry; Toxicological Profile for Dichlorobenzenes p.202 (August 2006) PB2007-100672. Available from, as of January 7, 2008: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxpro2.html# Children can be exposed to DCBs prenatally, as indicated by the detection of all three isomers in placenta samples, as well as through breast feeding. 1,2-DCB concentrations measured in whole human milk range from 3 to 29 ppb. 1,3- and 1,4-DCB were detected together in whole human milk with mean and maximum concentrations of 6 and 75 ppb, respectively. These isomers were detected in milkfat samples at a mean concentration of 161 ppb and a maximum concentration of 4,180 ppb. 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-DCB measured separately in whole human milk samples had concentrations of 9, <5, and 25 ppb, respectively, while the milk fat of these samples contained 230 ppb of 1,2-DCB and 640 ppb of 1,4-DCB. U.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry; Toxicological Profile for Dichlorobenzenes p.12 (August 2006) PB2007-100672. Available from, as of January 18, 2008: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxpro2.html# Metabolism/Metabolites M-Dichlorobenzene yields N-acetyl-S-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-L-cysteine, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 3,5-dichlorophenol in rabbit. /from table/ Goodwin, B.L. Handbook of Intermediary Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds. New York: Wiley, 1976., p. D-15 When fed to rabbits, m-dichlorobenzene yielded glucuronides (31%, sulfates (11%), mercapturic acid (9%) and catechols (4%). ...2,4-Dichlorophenylmercapturic acid and 3,5-dichlorocatechol were also observed... Menzie, C.M. Metabolism of Pesticides, Update II. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report - Wildlife No. 2l2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978., p. 95 1,3-Dichlorobenzene was reported to be among several metabolites of gamma-pentachloro-1-cyclohexane in corn and pea seedlings. USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Dichlorobenzene p.C-10 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-039 The S-containing metabolites of m-dichlorobenzene (m-DCB) were identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and disposition of m-DCB metabolites studied. In the blood, urine and feces of rats dosed with m-DCB, 2,4- and 3,5-dichlorophenyl methylsulfoxide and 3,5- and 2,4-dichlorophenyl methanesulfonate emerged, while their possible precursors, 3,5- and 2,4-dichlorophenyl methyl sulfide were not detected in the blood, urine, and feces. However, after heating the alkalinized urine and feces, the methyl sulfides appeared. ... Abstract: PubMed Kimura R et al; J Pharmacobio-Dyn 7 (4): 234-45 (1984) 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (TCB) was reductively converted into monochlorobenzene (MCB) via dichlorobenzenes on incubation with intestinal contents of rats. When the amounts of MCB produced from o-DCB, m-DCB, or p-DCB as substrates were compared, the amount was the least in the case of o-DCB. This was consistent with the finding that o-DCB tended to accumulate more than the other isomers. The mechanism of the reductive dechlorination of aromatic compounds is not well understood. Tsuchiya T, Yamaha T; Agric Biol Chem 47 (5): 1163-5 (1983) The increases in the hepatic microsomal aminopyrine N-demethylase activity and in the content of cytochrome p450 produced by m-dichlorobenzene (m-DCB) occurred after increases in the hepatic concentration of 3,5-dichlorophenyl methyl sulfone, a minor metabolite. The extent of increases in aminopyrine N-demethylase activity and in the content of cytochrome p450 at 48 hr after administration of 200 mg/kg (1.36 mmol/kg) of m-DCB was almost equal to that 72 hr after the ip administration of 25 umol/kg of the sulfone. m-DCB in liver was not detectable at that time, and the concentration of sulfone was 63 to 70% of that 48 to 72 hr after the ip administration of 50 umol/kg of sulfone. Administration of m-DCB (200 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in hexobarbital sleeping time, but this reduction was less than that produced by administration of the sulfone (50 umol/kg). The protein band patterns by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the microsomes from rats treated with the sulfone and m-DCB were similar to those of phenobarbital-treated rats but were different from those of 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats. The sulfone showed type I interaction with the cytochrome p450 (Ks, 0.17 mM). The sulfone was formed from the sulfide but reduction of the sulfone was not observed when it was incubated in a hepatic microsomal preparation. The pattern of induction by the sulfone and m-DCB was similar to that by phenobarbital and differed from that by 3-methylcholanthrene. From these results, 3,5-dichlorophenyl methyl sulfone is considered to be a major contributing factor of the inducing activity of m-DCB and to be a potent phenobarbital like inducer. Abstract: PubMed Kimura R; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 78 (2): 300-9 (1985) ...In rat liver slices, the majority (~70%) of 1,3-DCB was found conjugated to glutathione, or as a cysteine conjugate, with only small amounts of the glucuronide or sulfate detected. In human liver slices, the pattern was different, with approximately equal distribution (~40% each) of glucuronide and glutathione conjugates, and ~20% of the metabolites as the sulfate. Human liver slices metabolized greater amounts of 1,3-DCB than did slices from F344 or Sprague-Dawley rats. Human liver slices formed 2-9-fold greater levels of glucuronide conjugates, 1-4-fold greater levels of sulphatase conjugates, and 1-4-fold greater levels of glutathione/cysteine conjugates of 1,3-DCB than rat liver slices. U.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Regis

Inglese

english translation-geogle-indonesia

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Indonesiano

simple past tenseSmall mainland peninsula with a national park with beaches and stunning scenery to rival the beaches of Bali on the south coast of Java. Pangandaran is one of Java's best-kept secrets as far as international tourists are concerned, but has been extremely popular with locals for along, long time. A small fishing town, it possesses one of Java's finest beaches and Pangandaran Nature Reserve teems with wild buffalo, barking deer and monkeys. The people are very friendly, this combined with the idealize surroundings make this a great place to spend a few days relaxing island-style. Pangandaran is halfway between Bandung and Yogya, about 5 hours by bus from Bandung and 8 hours from Jakarta. This is the second beach resort area on the Indian Ocean after Pelabuhan Ratu. The site is 223 from Bandung and 400km from Jakarta. The trip by car or bus is recommendable because the road conditions are good. However, if we prefer to take the train, get into Bandung-Yogyakarta Express train and get off at the Banjar railroad station about 4 hours later. From here it will be another 50 km by bus to Pangandaran. The beach is called Penanjung, where most of the cottages and hotels are located, however, of modest ratings. Nothing luxurious should be expected. Pangandaran is especially of interest to nature lovers, as there is a wildlife reserve in the vicinity where wild birds and other indigenous animals live about freely to be enjoyed by visitors. In Pangandaran visitors will like fine white beaches, blue ocean and fine seafood. Twelve kilometers before arriving at Pangandaran visitors will see a huge rock on the beach, which is called Karang Nini. Another place of special interest for nature lovers is a forest Conservation Park, close to the camping ground, which has basic facilities suitable for the younger set. Somewhat further out, west of Pangandaran, driving 23 km on the way to Parigi, lays Batu Hiu, meaning Shark's Rock, a coastal rock that has the shark shape.

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Indonesiano

Special Dividends and the Evolution of Dividend Signaling 1. Introduction Dividend signaling plays a prominent role in corporate finance theory, with numerous studies outlining scenarios in which managers use cash dividends to convey information about firm profitability (see, e.g., Bhattacharya (1979), Miller and Rock (1985), John and Williams (1985), and more recent papers cited in Allen and Michaely’s (1995) survey of the dividend literature). However, few empirical studies indicate that signaling is pervasively important, although some research suggests it might be important in limited circumstances (see, e.g., DeAngelo, DeAngelo, and Skinner (1996), Benartzi, Michaely, and Thaler (1997), and many earlier studies cataloged by Allen and Michaely). In their comprehensive survey, Allen and Michaely (1995, p. 825) state that “…the empirical evidence (on dividend signaling) is far from conclusive …. more research on this topic is needed.” The juxtaposition of continued strong theoretical interest in signaling models on the one hand, with limited empirical support on the other, has made the relevance of dividend signaling an important unresolved issue in corporate finance. There are firms in which dividend signaling is inarguably at work, and they are the ones studied by Brickley (1982, 1983), whose managers pay both regular dividends and occasional special dividends (extras, specials, year-ends, etc., hereafter “specials”). As Brickley indicates, the differential labeling of special and regular dividends inherently conveys a warning to stockholders that the “special” payout is not as likely to be repeated as the “regular” payout. Brickley’s evidence indicates that investors treat special dividends as hedged managerial signals about future profitability, in that unanticipated specials are associated with weaker stock market reactions than are regular dividend increases of comparable size. One contribution of the current paper is to provide evidence that the historically prevalent practice of paying special dividends has largely failed the survival test, casting further doubt on the overall importance of signaling motivations in explaining dividend policy in general. We document that special dividends were once commonly paid by NYSE firms but have gradually disappeared over the last 40 to 45 years and are now a rare phenomenon. During the 1940s, 61.7% of dividend-paying NYSE firms paid at least one special, while only 4.9% did so during the first 2 half of the 1990s. In the single year 1950, 45.8% of dividend-paying NYSE firms paid specials, while just 1.4% of such firms paid specials in 1995. In years past, special dividends constituted a substantial fraction of total cash dividends. Among NYSE firms that paid specials, these bonus disbursements average 24.3% (median, 16.8%) of the dollar value of total dividends paid over all years between the firm’s first and last special. Firms that at one point frequently paid specials include such high visibility “blue chip” corporations as General Motors, Eastman K odak, Exxon, Mobil, Texaco, Gillette, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Pfizer, Sears Roebuck, J.C. Penney, Union Pacific, Corning, International Harvester, McGraw Hill, and Boeing. Today, only a handful of NYSE firms continues to pay frequent special dividends, and these firms are generally not well known companies. Why have firms largely abandoned the once pervasive practice of paying special dividends? Our evidence suggests that the evolution of special dividends reflects the principle that dividends are a useful signaling mechanism only when they send clear messages to stockholders. Surprisingly, most firms paid specials almost as predictably as they paid regulars, thereby treating the two dividend components as close substitutes and impeding their ability to convey different messages. Over 1926-1995, more than 10,000 specials were paid by NYSE firms and virtually all of these were declared by firms that announced specials in multiple years. Remarkably, a full 27.9% of the latter firms skipped paying specials in less than one year out of ten on average (i.e., they paid specials in over 90% of the years between their first and last special dividend). Well over half (56.8%) the firms that paid specials in multiple years did so more frequently than every other year on average. We find that the only specials that have survived to an appreciable degree -- and that, in fact, have grown in importance -- are large specials whose sheer size automatically differentiates them from regular dividends.1 When investors view specials and regulars as close substitutes, there is little advantage to differential labeling and so firms should eventually drop the practice of paying two types of dividends and simply embed specials into the regular dividend. Evidence supporting this prediction comes from our 1 Large specials, like large repurchases, are likely to get stockholders’ attention. These large payouts may or may not serve as signals in the conventional sense, however, depending on whether stockholders interpret them as information about the firm’s future profitability as opposed, e.g., to information about the success of its current restructuring efforts. 3 Lintner (1956) model analysis of the dividend decisions of firms that eliminated specials after paying them frequently for many years. This analysis shows that, controlling for earnings, the pattern of regular dividends after the cessation of specials does not differ systematically from the earlier pattern of total (special plus regular) dividends. Other data indicate that these sample firms preserved the relation between earnings and total dividends by substituting into greater reliance on regular dividend increases. We also find that firms generally tended to increase regulars when they reduced specials to a still-positive level (and this tendency becomes more pronounced in recent years), further supporting the view that firms treat specials and regulars as reasonably close substitutes. Finally, our data show that the disappearance of specials is part of a general trend toward simple, homogenous dividend policies in which firms converged on the now standard practice of paying exactly four regular dividends per year. Our event study analysis reveals that the stock market typically reacts favorably to the fact that a special dividend is declared (given a constant regular dividend), but the market response is not systematically related to the sign or magnitude of the change from one positive special dividend payment to another. We observe a significantly positive average stock market reaction of about 1%, both when firms increase specials and when they reduce them to a still-positive level (and leave the regular dividend unchanged). The stock market’s favorable reaction to special declarations is significantly greater than the essentially zero reaction when firms omit specials. These empirical tendencies provide some incentive for managers to pay special dividends more frequently than they otherwise would, even if specials must sometimes be reduced. These findings may therefore help explain why managers typically paid specials frequently, effectively converting them into payout streams that more closely resemble regular dividends than one would think based on the nominal special labeling. We also find some empirical support for the notion that the long term decline in special dividends is related to the clientele effect shift from the mid-century era in which stock ownership was dominated by individual investors to the current era in which institutions dominate. One might reasonably expect this clientele shift to reduce the importance of special dividends, since institutions are presumably more sophisticated than retail investors and are therefore better able to see that most firms treated specials as close substitutes for regulars. At the aggregate level, the secular decline in specials and the increase in 4 institutional ownership occurred roughly in parallel, with both trends proceeding gradually over many years. At the firm level, our logit regressions show a significant negative relation between the level of institutional ownership and the probability that a firm continues to pay special dividends. Finally, we find little support for the notion that special dividends were displaced by common stock repurchases. Theoretically, one mi ght expect a close connection between the disappearance of specials and the adoption of stock repurchases. Both payout methods allow managers to signal their beliefs about company prospects through temporary bonus distributions, with no necessary commitment to repeat today’s higher cash payout in future years. Moreover, repurchases are now widely prevalent (much as specials used to be) although historically they were rare events (as specials are now). However, at the aggregate level, the secular decline in specials began many years before the upsurge in repurchase activity, so that any theory which attributes the disappearance of specials to the advent of repurchases faces the difficult task of explaining the long time gap between the two phenomena. Moreover, at the firm level, the number of companies that repurchased stock after they stopped paying special dividends is significantly less than expected if firms simpl y substituted one for the other form of payout. Finally, repurchase tender offers and large specials both increase in recent years with the upsurge in corporate restructurings and takeovers. Perhaps the most important implication of the findings reported here is the challenge they pose for dividend signaling theories. Specifically, the fact that special dividends once flourished, but have largely failed to survive, is inconsistent with the view that these signals serve an economically important function. We discuss this and other implications of our findings for corporate finance research in section 7. We begin in section 2 by documenting the long-term evolution of special dividend payments. Section 3 analyzes the predictability of special dividends, the evolution of large specials, the behavior of total dividends around the time firms stopped paying specials, and firms’ general tendency to increase regulars when they reduce specials. Section 4 presents our event study analysis of the information content of special dividends. Section 5 examines the relation between institutional ownership and the payment of specials. Section 6 investigates the connection between repurchases and the decline in specials.

Inglese

geogle terjemahan indonesia-englishSpecial Dividends and the Evolution of Dividend Signaling 1. Introduction Dividend signaling plays a prominent role in corporate finance theory, with numerous studies outlining scenarios in which managers use cash dividends to convey information about firm profitability (see, e.g., Bhattacharya (1979), Miller and Rock (1985), John and Williams (1985), and more recent papers cited in Allen and Michaely’s (1995) survey of the dividend literature). However, few empirical studies indicate that signaling is pervasively important, although some research suggests it might be important in limited circumstances (see, e.g., DeAngelo, DeAngelo, and Skinner (1996), Benartzi, Michaely, and Thaler (1997), and many earlier studies cataloged by Allen and Michaely). In their comprehensive survey, Allen and Michaely (1995, p. 825) state that “…the empirical evidence (on dividend signaling) is far from conclusive …. more research on this topic is needed.” The juxtaposition of continued strong theoretical interest in signaling models on the one hand, with limited empirical support on the other, has made the relevance of dividend signaling an important unresolved issue in corporate finance. There are firms in which dividend signaling is inarguably at work, and they are the ones studied by Brickley (1982, 1983), whose managers pay both regular dividends and occasional special dividends (extras, specials, year-ends, etc., hereafter “specials”). As Brickley indicates, the differential labeling of special and regular dividends inherently conveys a warning to stockholders that the “special” payout is not as likely to be repeated as the “regular” payout. Brickley’s evidence indicates that investors treat special dividends as hedged managerial signals about future profitability, in that unanticipated specials are associated with weaker stock market reactions than are regular dividend increases of comparable size. One contribution of the current paper is to provide evidence that the historically prevalent practice of paying special dividends has largely failed the survival test, casting further doubt on the overall importance of signaling motivations in explaining dividend policy in general. We document that special dividends were once commonly paid by NYSE firms but have gradually disappeared over the last 40 to 45 years and are now a rare phenomenon. During the 1940s, 61.7% of dividend-paying NYSE firms paid at least one special, while only 4.9% did so during the first 2 half of the 1990s. In the single year 1950, 45.8% of dividend-paying NYSE firms paid specials, while just 1.4% of such firms paid specials in 1995. In years past, special dividends constituted a substantial fraction of total cash dividends. Among NYSE firms that paid specials, these bonus disbursements average 24.3% (median, 16.8%) of the dollar value of total dividends paid over all years between the firm’s first and last special. Firms that at one point frequently paid specials include such high visibility “blue chip” corporations as General Motors, Eastman K odak, Exxon, Mobil, Texaco, Gillette, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Pfizer, Sears Roebuck, J.C. Penney, Union Pacific, Corning, International Harvester, McGraw Hill, and Boeing. Today, only a handful of NYSE firms continues to pay frequent special dividends, and these firms are generally not well known companies. Why have firms largely abandoned the once pervasive practice of paying special dividends? Our evidence suggests that the evolution of special dividends reflects the principle that dividends are a useful signaling mechanism only when they send clear messages to stockholders. Surprisingly, most firms paid specials almost as predictably as they paid regulars, thereby treating the two dividend components as close substitutes and impeding their ability to convey different messages. Over 1926-1995, more than 10,000 specials were paid by NYSE firms and virtually all of these were declared by firms that announced specials in multiple years. Remarkably, a full 27.9% of the latter firms skipped paying specials in less than one year out of ten on average (i.e., they paid specials in over 90% of the years between their first and last special dividend). Well over half (56.8%) the firms that paid specials in multiple years did so more frequently than every other year on average. We find that the only specials that have survived to an appreciable degree -- and that, in fact, have grown in importance -- are large specials whose sheer size automatically differentiates them from regular dividends.1 When investors view specials and regulars as close substitutes, there is little advantage to differential labeling and so firms should eventually drop the practice of paying two types of dividends and simply embed specials into the regular dividend. Evidence supporting this prediction comes from our 1 Large specials, like large repurchases, are likely to get stockholders’ attention. These large payouts may or may not serve as signals in the conventional sense, however, depending on whether stockholders interpret them as information about the firm’s future profitability as opposed, e.g., to information about the success of its current restructuring efforts. 3 Lintner (1956) model analysis of the dividend decisions of firms that eliminated specials after paying them frequently for many years. This analysis shows that, controlling for earnings, the pattern of regular dividends after the cessation of specials does not differ systematically from the earlier pattern of total (special plus regular) dividends. Other data indicate that these sample firms preserved the relation between earnings and total dividends by substituting into greater reliance on regular dividend increases. We also find that firms generally tended to increase regulars when they reduced specials to a still-positive level (and this tendency becomes more pronounced in recent years), further supporting the view that firms treat specials and regulars as reasonably close substitutes. Finally, our data show that the disappearance of specials is part of a general trend toward simple, homogenous dividend policies in which firms converged on the now standard practice of paying exactly four regular dividends per year. Our event study analysis reveals that the stock market typically reacts favorably to the fact that a special dividend is declared (given a constant regular dividend), but the market response is not systematically related to the sign or magnitude of the change from one positive special dividend payment to another. We observe a significantly positive average stock market reaction of about 1%, both when firms increase specials and when they reduce them to a still-positive level (and leave the regular dividend unchanged). The stock market’s favorable reaction to special declarations is significantly greater than the essentially zero reaction when firms omit specials. These empirical tendencies provide some incentive for managers to pay special dividends more frequently than they otherwise would, even if specials must sometimes be reduced. These findings may therefore help explain why managers typically paid specials frequently, effectively converting them into payout streams that more closely resemble regular dividends than one would think based on the nominal special labeling. We also find some empirical support for the notion that the long term decline in special dividends is related to the clientele effect shift from the mid-century era in which stock ownership was dominated by individual investors to the current era in which institutions dominate. One might reasonably expect this clientele shift to reduce the importance of special dividends, since institutions are presumably more sophisticated than retail investors and are therefore better able to see that most firms treated specials as close substitutes for regulars. At the aggregate level, the secular decline in specials and the increase in 4 institutional ownership occurred roughly in parallel, with both trends proceeding gradually over many years. At the firm level, our logit regressions show a significant negative relation between the level of institutional ownership and the probability that a firm continues to pay special dividends. Finally, we find little support for the notion that special dividends were displaced by common stock repurchases. Theoretically, one mi ght expect a close connection between the disappearance of specials and the adoption of stock repurchases. Both payout methods allow managers to signal their beliefs about company prospects through temporary bonus distributions, with no necessary commitment to repeat today’s higher cash payout in future years. Moreover, repurchases are now widely prevalent (much as specials used to be) although historically they were rare events (as specials are now). However, at the aggregate level, the secular decline in specials began many years before the upsurge in repurchase activity, so that any theory which attributes the disappearance of specials to the advent of repurchases faces the difficult task of explaining the long time gap between the two phenomena. Moreover, at the firm level, the number of companies that repurchased stock after they stopped paying special dividends is significantly less than expected if firms simpl y substituted one for the other form of payout. Finally, repurchase tender offers and large specials both increase in recent years with the upsurge in corporate restructurings and takeovers. Perhaps the most important implication of the findings reported here is the challenge they pose for dividend signaling theories. Specifically, the fact that special dividends once flourished, but have largely failed to survive, is inconsistent with the view that these signals serve an economically important function. We discuss this and other implications of our findings for corporate finance research in section 7. We begin in section 2 by documenting the long-term evolution of special dividend payments. Section 3 analyzes the predictability of special dividends, the evolution of large specials, the behavior of total dividends around the time firms stopped paying specials, and firms’ general tendency to increase regulars when they reduce specials. Section 4 presents our event study analysis of the information content of special dividends. Section 5 examines the relation between institutional ownership and the payment of specials. Section 6 investigates the connection between repurchases and the decline in specials.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-10-10
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Indonesiano

Special Dividends and the Evolution of Dividend Signaling by Harry DeAngelo* Linda DeAngelo* Douglas J. Skinner** March 1998 November 1999 Abstract This paper documents that (1) special dividends were once commonly paid by NYSE firms, but are now a rare phenomenon; (2) firms typically paid specials almost as predictably as they paid regulars; and (3) despite the dramatic decline in specials as a whole, the incidence of very large specials increased in recent years. Most plausibly, small specials disappeared because their predictability made them close substitutes for regular dividend signals, while large specials survived because their sheer size automatically differentiates them from regulars. Firms that stop paying specials substitute into more frequent regular increases but do not alter the pattern of total dividends (per the Lintner (1956) model). Firms that reduce specials tend to increase regulars, effectively making the two types of dividends closer substitutes (and this tendency is more pronounced in recent years). The stock market typically reacts favorably to the declaration of a special, but does not systematically differentiate between special increases and decreases to a still-positive level. The latter regularities give managers incentives to pay specials more frequently than they otherwise would which, in turn, makes specials more closely resemble regulars. Firms that continue to pay specials have lower institutional ownership, suggesting that the long-term trend to a more sophisticated stockholder clientele contributed to the demise of poorly differentiated dividend signals. Finally, special dividends were not displaced by stock repurchases, indicating that most specials failed to survive on their own accord and not because managers discovered the tax advantages of repurchases.

Inglese

geogle terjemahan indonesia-englishSpecial Dividends and the Evolution of Dividend Signaling by Harry DeAngelo* Linda DeAngelo* Douglas J. Skinner** March 1998 November 1999 Abstract This paper documents that (1) special dividends were once commonly paid by NYSE firms, but are now a rare phenomenon; (2) firms typically paid specials almost as predictably as they paid regulars; and (3) despite the dramatic decline in specials as a whole, the incidence of very large specials increased in recent years. Most plausibly, small specials disappeared because their predictability made them close substitutes for regular dividend signals, while large specials survived because their sheer size automatically differentiates them from regulars. Firms that stop paying specials substitute into more frequent regular increases but do not alter the pattern of total dividends (per the Lintner (1956) model). Firms that reduce specials tend to increase regulars, effectively making the two types of dividends closer substitutes (and this tendency is more pronounced in recent years). The stock market typically reacts favorably to the declaration of a special, but does not systematically differentiate between special increases and decreases to a still-positive level. The latter regularities give managers incentives to pay specials more frequently than they otherwise would which, in turn, makes specials more closely resemble regulars. Firms that continue to pay specials have lower institutional ownership, suggesting that the long-term trend to a more sophisticated stockholder clientele contributed to the demise of poorly differentiated dividend signals. Finally, special dividends were not displaced by stock repurchases, indicating that most specials failed to survive on their own accord and not because managers discovered the tax advantages of repurchases. E-mail: hdeangelo@sba.usc.edu or ldeangelo@sba.usc.edu or dskinner@umich.edu *Marshall School of Business, USC. **University of Michigan Business School. We appreciate the useful comments and suggestions of David Denis, Ananth Madhavan, Ron Masulis, Kevin J. Murphy, Pat O’Brien, Jay Ritter, Rene Stulz, Mike Weisbach, and especially Jim Brickley and Larry Dann. We thank Arezou Motamedi, Steve Sedmak, Robert Sosa, Michael Wartena, and especially Sharon Sun for research assistance. Financial support was provided by the Marshall School of Business at USC (Charles E. Cook/Community Bank and Kenneth King Stonier Chairs) and the University of Michigan Business School (KPMG Professorship).

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-10-10
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Indonesiano

This research, approved by the Institutional Review Board of Texas Health Resources, Arlington, Texas on August 23, 2013, conformed to the relevant ethical guidelines for human research. The study cohort included 70 inpatients and outpatients (46 women and 24 men) between the ages of 19–87 years (mean age, 56 years). They represented consecutive patients who attended the hospital and had serum CRP and ESR tests ordered together on three separate occasions during 2011. Their disease may have been active or inactive at the time of sample collection. Timing of the tests was determined by the attending physician(s). The second tests were performed a median of 25 days after the first and the third tests were performed a median of 29 days after the second (interquartile ranges, 6–86 and 8– 68 days, respectively). Diagnoses leading to the testing are listed in Table 1

Inglese

free online medical dictionary engilsh to farsi

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-06-15
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Indonesiano

Echinoderms usually have separate sexes, with a few exceptions among the asteroids, holothurians and ophuroids. The breeding season is mainly spring and summer and reproduction is generally through release of gametes into the water column and indirect development through a variety of larval stages. In some species of each class the females produce yolky eggs from which non-feeding, lecithotrophic larvae develop. Additionally, a few species brood large yolky eggs until they hatch as a small version of the adult. Reproductive strategy and subsequent larval development within the Echinodermata is very varied, often with a number of species in each class/subclass differing in their strategies from the others. This makes a concise summary of larval development difficult, not helped, as pointed out by McEdward & Miner (2001), by the inconsistent terminology used between classes by different authors, especially for the non-feeding larvae with simple morphology. The various types of echinoderm larvae have been given individual names and while some types are particular to one class/subclass (Table 1), others are found in more than one group, making even identification to a particular group problematical to the non-specialist. Larvae do not resemble the parent and are generally bilaterally symmetrical, even though they metamorphose into radially symmetrical adults. Many are planktotrophic, feeding on unicellular algae and particulates, using bands of cilia that run over their bodies. Some have spots or bands of pigment, usually only visible in fresh specimens. They spend a few weeks in the plankton and then settle over a short period. For those with indirect development, metamorphosis is typically very radical and may start before or after settlement. Many of the larvae are small and delicate so will not survive sampling and preservation well, while some others are brooded or benthic, so the majority of echinoderm larvae found in plankton samples will be of a restricted number of types. Because some larval types are found in more than one group, larval types are sequentially described, rather than giving developmental information individually for each class/subclass. Echinoderm larval types

Inglese

saya tidak pernah

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-05-17
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10 easy ways to fail a Ph.D. [article index] [email me] [@mattmight] [+mattmight] [rss] The attrition rate in Ph.D. school is high. Anywhere from a third to half will fail. In fact, there's a disturbing consistency to grad school failure. I'm supervising a lot of new grad students this semester, so for their sake, I'm cataloging the common reasons for failure. Read on for the top ten reasons students fail out of Ph.D. school. Focus on grades or coursework No one cares about grades in grad school. There's a simple formula for the optimal GPA in grad school: Optimal GPA = Minimum Required GPA + ε Anything higher implies time that could have been spent on research was wasted on classes. Advisors might even raise an eyebrow at a 4.0 During the first two years, students need to find an advisor, pick a research area, read a lot of papers and try small, exploratory research projects. Spending too much time on coursework distracts from these objectives. Learn too much Some students go to Ph.D. school because they want to learn. Let there be no mistake: Ph.D. school involves a lot of learning. But, it requires focused learning directed toward an eventual thesis. Taking (or sitting in on) non-required classes outside one's focus is almost always a waste of time, and it's always unnecessary. By the end of the third year, a typical Ph.D. student needs to have read about 50 to 150 papers to defend the novelty of a proposed thesis. Of course, some students go too far with the related work search, reading so much about their intended area of research that they never start that research. Advisors will lose patience with "eternal" students that aren't focused on the goal--making a small but significant contribution to human knowledge. In the interest of personal disclosure, I suffered from the "want to learn everything" bug when I got to Ph.D. school. I took classes all over campus for my first two years: Arabic, linguistics, economics, physics, math and even philosophy. In computer science, I took lots of classes in areas that had nothing to do with my research. The price of all this "enlightenment" was an extra year on my Ph.D. I only got away with this detour because while I was doing all that, I was a TA, which meant I wasn't wasting my advisor's grant funding. Expect perfection Perfectionism is a tragic affliction in academia, since it tends to hit the brightest the hardest. Perfection cannot be attained. It is approached in the limit. Students that polish a research paper well past the point of diminishing returns, expecting to hit perfection, will never stop polishing. Students that can't begin to write until they have the perfect structure of the paper mapped out will never get started. For students with problems starting on a paper or dissertation, my advice is that writing a paper should be an iterative process: start with an outline and some rough notes; take a pass over the paper and improve it a little; rinse; repeat. When the paper changes little with each pass, it's at diminishing returns. One or two more passes over the paper are all it needs at that point. "Good enough" is better than "perfect." Procrastinate Chronic perfectionists also tend to be procrastinators. So do eternal students with a drive to learn instead of research. Ph.D. school seems to be a magnet for every kind of procrastinator. Unfortunately, it is also a sieve that weeds out the unproductive. Procrastinators should check out my tips for boosting productivity. Go rogue too soon/too late The advisor-advisee dynamic needs to shift over the course of a degree. Early on, the advisor should be hands on, doling out specific topics and helping to craft early papers. Toward the end, the student should know more than the advisor about her topic. Once the inversion happens, she needs to "go rogue" and start choosing the topics to investigate and initiating the paper write-ups. She needs to do so even if her advisor is insisting she do something else. The trick is getting the timing right. Going rogue before the student knows how to choose good topics and write well will end in wasted paper submissions and a grumpy advisor. On the other hand, continuing to act only when ordered to act past a certain point will strain an advisor that expects to start seeing a "return" on an investment of time and hard-won grant money. Advisors expect near-terminal Ph.D. students to be proto-professors with intimate knowledge of the challenges in their field. They should be capable of selecting and attacking research problems of appropriate size and scope. Treat Ph.D. school like school or work Ph.D. school is neither school nor work. Ph.D. school is a monastic experience. And, a jealous hobby. Solving problems and writing up papers well enough to pass peer review demands contemplative labor on days, nights and weekends. Reading through all of the related work takes biblical levels of devotion. Ph.D. school even comes with built-in vows of poverty and obedience. The end brings an ecclesiastical robe and a clerical hood. Students that treat Ph.D. school like a 9-5 endeavor are the ones that take 7+ years to finish, or end up ABD. Ignore the committee Some Ph.D. students forget that a committee has to sign off on their Ph.D. It's important for students to maintain contact with committee members in the latter years of a Ph.D. They need to know what a student is doing. It's also easy to forget advice from a committee member since they're not an everyday presence like an advisor. Committee members, however, rarely forget the advice they give. It doesn't usually happen, but I've seen a shouting match between a committee member and a defender where they disagreed over the metrics used for evaluation of an experiment. This committee member warned the student at his proposal about his choice of metrics. He ignored that warning. He was lucky: it added only one more semester to his Ph.D. Another student I knew in grad school was told not to defend, based on the draft of his dissertation. He overruled his committee's advice, and failed his defense. He was told to scrap his entire dissertaton and start over. It took him over ten years to finish his Ph.D. Aim too low Some students look at the weakest student to get a Ph.D. in their department and aim for that. This attitude guarantees that no professorship will be waiting for them. And, it all but promises failure. The weakest Ph.D. to escape was probably repeatedly unlucky with research topics, and had to settle for a contingency plan. Aiming low leaves no room for uncertainty. And, research is always uncertain. Aim too high A Ph.D. seems like a major undertaking from the perspective of the student. It is. But, it is not the final undertaking. It's the start of a scientific career. A Ph.D. does not have to cure cancer or enable cold fusion. At best a handful of chemists remember what Einstein's Ph.D. was in. Einstein's Ph.D. dissertation was a principled calculation meant to estimate Avogadro's number. He got it wrong. By a factor of 3. He still got a Ph.D. A Ph.D. is a small but significant contribution to human knowledge. Impact is something students should aim for over a lifetime of research. Making a big impact with a Ph.D. is about as likely as hitting a bullseye the very first time you've fired a gun. Once you know how to shoot, you can keep shooting until you hit it. Plus, with a Ph.D., you get a lifetime supply of ammo. Some advisors can give you a list of potential research topics. If they can, pick the topic that's easiest to do but which still retains your interest. It does not matter at all what you get your Ph.D. in. All that matters is that you get one. It's the training that counts--not the topic. Miss the real milestones Most schools require coursework, qualifiers, thesis proposal, thesis defense and dissertation. These are the requirements on paper. In practice, the real milestones are three good publications connected by a (perhaps loosely) unified theme. Coursework and qualifiers are meant to undo admissions mistakes. A student that has published by the time she takes her qualifiers is not a mistake. Once a student has two good publications, if she convinces her committee that she can extrapolate a third, she has a thesis proposal. Once a student has three publications, she has defended, with reasonable confidence, that she can repeatedly conduct research of sufficient quality to meet the standards of peer review. If she draws a unifying theme, she has a thesis, and if she staples her publications together, she has a dissertation. I fantasize about buying an industrial-grade stapler capable of punching through three journal papers and calling it The Dissertator. Of course, three publications is nowhere near enough to get a professorship--even at a crappy school. But, it's about enough to get a Ph.D. Related posts • Recommended reading for grad students. • The illustrated guide to a Ph.D. • How to get into grad school. • Advice for thesis proposals. • Productivity tips for academics. • Academic job hunt advice. • Successful Ph.D. students: Perseverance, tenacity and cogency. • The CRAPL: An open source license for academics. 3 qualities of successful Ph.D. students: Perseverance, tenacity and cogency [article index] [email me] [@mattmight] [+mattmight] [rss] Every fall, a fresh crop of Ph.D. students arrives. Since I'm actively looking for Ph.D. students, I get the same question a dozen times every year: "How long does it take to get a Ph.D.?" This isn't the right question. "Ph.D. school takes as long as you want it to," I tell them. There's no speed limit on how fast you can jump through all the hoops. A better question to ask is, "What makes a Ph.D. student successful?" Having watched Ph.D. students succeed and fail at four universities, I infer that success in graduate school hinges on three qualities: perseverance, tenacity and cogency. If you're in Ph.D. school or you're thinking about it, read on. What doesn't matter There's a ruinous misconception that a Ph.D. must be smart. This can't be true. A smart person would know better than to get a Ph.D. "Smart" qualities like brilliance and quick-thinking are irrelevant in Ph.D. school. Students that have made it through so far on brilliance and quick-thinking alone wash out of Ph.D. programs with nagging predictability. Let there be no doubt: brilliance and quick-thinking are valuable in other pursuits. But, they're neither sufficient nor necessary in science. Certainly, being smart helps. But, it won't get the job done. Moreover, as anyone going through Ph.D. school can tell you: people of less than first-class intelligence make it across the finish line and leave, Ph.D. in hand. As my advisor used to tell me, "Whenever I felt depressed in grad school--when I worried I wasn't going to finish my Ph.D.--I looked at the people dumber than me finishing theirs, and I would think to myself, if that idiot can get a Ph.D., dammit, so can I." Since becoming a professor, I finding myself repeating a corollary of this observation, but I replace "getting a Ph.D." with "obtaining grant funding." Update: Within a month of writing that last line, I was awarded my first three grants. Perseverance To escape with a Ph.D., you must meaningfully extend the boundary of human knowledge. More exactly, you must convince a panel of experts guarding the boundary that you have done so. You can take classes and read papers to figure out where the boundary lies. That's easy. But, when it comes time to actually extend that boundary, you have to get into your bunker and prepare for the onslaught of failure. A lot of Ph.D. students get depressed when they reach the boundary, because there's no longer a test to cram for or a procedure to follow. This is the point (2-3 years in) where attrition peaks. Finding a problem to solve is rarely a problem itself. Every field is brimming with open problems. If finding a problem is hard, you're in the wrong field. The real hard part, of course, is solving an open problem. After all, if someone could tell you how to solve it, it wouldn't be open. To survive this period, you have to be willing to fail from the moment you wake to the moment your head hits the pillow. You must be willing to fail for days on end, for months on end and maybe even for years on end. The skill you accrete during this trauma is the ability to imagine plausible solutions, and to estimate the likelihood that an approach will work. If you persevere to the end of this phase, your mind will intuit solutions to problems in ways that it didn't and couldn't before. You won't know how your mind does this. (I don't know how mine does it.) It just will. As you acquire this skill, you'll be launching fledgling papers at peer reviewers, checking to see if others think what you're doing qualifies as research yet. Since acceptance rates at good venues range between 8% and 25%, most or all of your papers will be rejected. You just have to hope that you'll eventually figure out how to get your work published. If you stick with it long enough and work at it hard enough, you will. For students that excelled as undergraduates, the sudden and constant barrage of rejection and failure is jarring. If you have an ego problem, Ph.D. school will fix it. With a vengeance. (Some egos seem to recover afterward.) This phase of the Ph.D. demands perseverance--in the face of uncertainty, in the face of rejection and in the face of frustration. Tenacity To get a tenure-track professorship after Ph.D. school, you need an additional quality: tenacity. Since there are few tenure-track faculty positions available, there is a fierce (yet civil) competition to get them. In computer science, a competitive faculty candidate will have about 10 publications, and 3-5 of those will be at "selective" or "Tier 1" venues (crudely, less than 33% acceptance rate). A Ph.D. by itself won't even get you a job interview anymore. There are few good reasons to get a Ph.D. "Because you want to become a professor" might be the only good one. Ironically, there's a good chance you won't realize that you want to be a professor until the end of grad school. So, if you're going to do Ph.D. school at all, do it right, for your own sake. To become professor, you can't have just one discovery or solve just one open problem. You have to solve several, and get each solution published. As you exit graduate school, an arc connecting your results should emerge, proving to faculties that your research has a profitable path forward. You will also need to actively, even aggressively, forge relationships with scholars in your field. Researchers in your field need to know who you are and what you're doing. They need to be interested in what you're doing too. None of that is going to happen by itself. Cogency Finally, a good Ph.D. student must have the ability to clearly and forcefully articulate their ideas--in person and in writing. Science is as much an act of persuasion as it is an act of discovery. Once you've made a discovery, you have to persuade experts that you've made a legitimate, meaningful contribution. This is harder to do than it seems. Simply showing experts "the data" isn't going to work. (Yes, in a perfect world, this would be sufficient.) Instead, you have to spoon-feed the experts. As you write, you have to consciously minimize the amount of time and cognitive pain it takes for them to realize you've made a discovery. You may have to go "on tour" and give engaging presentations to get people excited about your research. When you give conference talks, you want them eagerly awaiting the next episode. You will have to write compelling abstracts and introductions that hook the reader and make her feel like investing time in your work. You will have to learn how to balance clarity and precision, so that your ideas come across without either ambiguity or stifling formality. Generally, grad students don't arrive with the ability to communicate well. This is a skill that they forge in grad school. The sooner acquired, the better. Unfortunately, the only way to get better at writing is to do a lot of it. 10,000 hours is the magical number folks throw around to become an expert at something. You'll never even get close to 10,000 hours of writing by writing papers. Assuming negligible practice writing for public consumption before graduate school, if you take six years to get through grad school, you can hit 10,000 hours by writing about 5 hours a day. (Toward the end of a Ph.D., it's not uncommon to break 12 hours of writing in a day.) That's why I recommend that new students start a blog. Even if no one else reads it, start one. You don't even have to write about your research. Practicing the act of writing is all that matters. Translations • Portuguese. Related posts • How to get into grad school. • Productivity tips for academics. • Recommended reading for grad students. • Academic job hunt advice.

Inglese

sentence translation english

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-03-05
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Indonesiano

citcat translateCAshiering, ini sangat vital, di tuntut ketelitian saat mengerjakan cashiering, karena efeknya akan sangat besar bagi perusahaan,tamu dan si kasir itu sendiri. Biasa nya setiap orang yg bekerja sebagai receptionist/cashier mempunyai ID dan nomer cashiernya sendiri termasuk password khusus, dimana setiap memulai/menyelesaikan shift mereka harus membuka/menutup cashiernya masing masing. Di Fidelio versi 6.20 ini batas buka cashier per orang tiap hari nya adalah 3 kali sebelom night audit run.( INI BISA BERBEDA ANTARA 1 HOTEL DENGAN HOTEL LAINNYA ), jadi kalo melebihi cashier tidak bisa di gunakan,, apabila ini terjadi maka kita bisa menggunakan cashier ID orang lain atau kimta bisa minta bantuan IT depatment (Closing the cashier using cashier closure options). If you press 1: CHECK OUT: Opsi ini untuk men check out kan tamu /folio dari system, ini di lakukan ketika tamu benar benar sudah keluar kamar dan membayar semua bill, ini jangan di lakukan jika tamu ingin membayar bill terlebih dahulu tapi tamu secara pisik masih akan tinggal dikamar. Saat kamu menekan opsi untuk check out, system akan menampilakan beberapa opsi pembayaran, contoh cash, credit card, city ledger dll. hati hati dalam melakukannya, sesuaikan dengan apa tamu membayar, dan selalu hasil akhir dari semua transaksi harus 0 ( zero ) · Cash: tamu membayar semua tagihan dengan cash maka select cash dan masukan amount dengan benar maka di kredit tamu otomatis akan 0(zero),jika tamu mempunyai negativ bill di folio maka kita bisa menggunakan opsi deposit refund. · Credit Card: jika tamu sudah memberikan preauth credit card saat check in maka kita tinggal melakukan completion pada credit cardnya.pastikan nomer dan nama yg tercantum pada kartu kredit adalah sama dengan apa yg ada di sistem, tahap akhir yang harus kamu check dan update di system adalah code credit card completion yg tercantum di credit card slip print out, JANGAN LUPA UNTUK MEMINTA TANDA TANGAN TAMU PADA SLIP KARTU KREDIT!! · City Ledger: In case of the bills to city ledger, bisa kita proses chek outnya jika ada AR number, pastikan tamu hanya menerima bill extra nya saja. jika AR number tidak ada kita bisa minta bantuan ke supervisor atau ke accounting. · Foreign Currency: pembayaran dengan mata uang asing pastikan tamu mengetahui rate curency di hotel dan beritahukan pada tamu jika ada kembalian uang maka uang yg di terima adalah mata uang yg berlaku di negara itu. Ketika semua pembayaran selesai dan hasil akhir di folio/system 0 ( zero ) maka seccara otomatis final bill print out akan keluar, perlu di ingat lagi bahwa tanda tangan tamu harus sama dengan yg di registration card, jika tamu nya berbeda maka pastikan tanda tangan nya sama dengan yg tercantum di ID card tamu. If you press 2 INFORMATION PRINT OUT: opsi ini hanya akan memberikan informasi bill tamu sementara, tidak akan ada nomer invoice pada print out nya. If you press 3 PAY ONLY: opsi ini di gunakan jika tamu ingin membayar bill, sementara tamu masih tinggal di hotel, atau kita bisa menggunakan opsi ini ketika tamu memberikan cash in advance saat check in sebagai deposit. Dalam hall ini di folio tamu akan muncul negative balance. If you press 4 NEW POSTING: Opsi ini gunakan untuk memposting transaksi baru tamu di folio pastikan kalau jumlah transaksi benar terisi di sini, dan juga code yang di masukan harus benar. If you press 5 PROFILE: ini untuk melihat profile tamu yang sama, kita bisa juga melihat profile di saat kita sedang ada di cashiering option dengan menekan angka 5. If you press 6 GUEST INFORMATION: Disamping untuk memberikan informasi tentang tamu lengkap dengan harga dan rate code nya di sini juga kita biisa melihat bila tamu itu mempunyai pesan atau tidak. If you press 7 CHANGE REG INFO: seluruh opsi reservation tamu bisa di buka dan di edit di sini, ini adalah cara terbaik untuk merubah rate, rate code, package dan special request jika ada. If you press 8 OPTIONAL FIELDS: hal terpenting dalam reservation option adalah check out info.contohnya Jika ada sesuatu yang harus di kembalikan tamu atau di minta dari tamu maka pesan check out akan muncul, ini bisa kita gunakan sebagai pesan pengingat-Reminder- gunakan opsi ini sebaik mungkin. If you press 9 ROUTING INSTRUCTIONS: Opsi ini akan memperliatkan routing instructions tamu. Routing ini biasa di gunakan untuk menempatkan charges yg berbeda di windows yg berbeda pula. Seperti yang kita tahu guest folio bis adi bagi menjadi 2 hingga 4 windows. Contohnya sebagai berikut; When the Room is to travel agent and extras is directly paid by the guest. In this case we can route the suite charges and the taxes to the second window and rest of the charges would then go to the other window or in this case would go to the first window. Guest has all his bills to company except alcoholic charges. In this case you can rout alcoholic beverages to the second window and all the department codes to the third window to the company. It will rout all the alcoholic beverages to the second, all the rest to the third window. It is important to remember that the system will read window by window. If in the above mentioned case you rout all department codes to second window and alcoholic beverages to the third window then the same would not happen. Since the two instructions are overlapping, the instruction in the 2nd window will be followed before the instruction in 3rd. You must ensure to link the routing instruction with the profile (name) of the third part payer. If the third party payer is in-house then link the Routing Instructions to the in house guest’s profile. If the third part payer is not in house then create a profile for the third party payer and link the routing instructions to this newly created profile. (What would you route if the room and breakfast is to the travel agent and the rate is inclusive of breakfast)????? If you press 0 AGENT / COMPANY: opsi ini untuk memperlihatkan profile company atau travel agent yang tercantum di reservasi tamu. Seperti yg pernah kita bahas di volume 1 tentang $ sign dan AR number di profile agent atau company.kita harus jeli melihat itu If you press A FIXED CHARGES: ini di gunakan untuk mem posting kan fix charge, sebenarnya system akan otomatis memposting charges setelah night audit runs. Jika fix charge sudah terposting maka tidak bisa di rubah, fix charge ini banyak di gunakan oleh receptionist unutk memposting extrabed bukan untuk memposting harga kamar. If you press B TELEPHONE CALLS: opsi untuk melihat list telepon tamu selama menginap di hotel lengkap dengan nomer, harga, dan jam. If you press D TRANSFER: jika anda menekan hurup D maka anda bisa mentrasfer charges dari satu kamar ke kamar lainnya sebelum tamu itu check out, contoh jika tamu memiliki dua kamar dan dia ingin mentransfer semua extra charge ke kamar utama maka kita bisa melakukannya dengan menekan D. If you press E FOLIO STYLE: ini tidak banyak di gunakan oleh staf FO tapi ini sangat berguna untuk night audit untuk mem print folio tamu. If you press H MISCELLANEOUS: salah satu opsi terpenting yang mempunyaii banyak sub options. Diantaranya adalah; o Enable Phone Details: ketika tamu meminta printout telephone kita bisa menggunakan opsi ini. o Show Posted POS Items: memperlihatkan POINT OF SALES item yang sudah di posted system. There is an allowance created by the system in the cases when the breakfast is included in the package. The same can be viewed from here. Moreover whether it has been used or realised can also be tracked from the same option. TO EXCHANGE CURRENCY Untuk penukaran mata uang asing bisa di lakukan di opsi Currency exchange di reservation fields, pilih mata uang yang akan di tukar lalu masukan jumlah uang yg di tujkar maka system akan memberikan total jumlah yg harus di berikan kepadda tamu dengan nilai tukar yg berlaku di hotel, perlu di ingat harga tukar di hotel selalu berbeda dengan harga harga di luar/pasar. · Beritahukan pada tamu tentang perbedaaan nilai tukar mata uang sebelum tamu melakukan currency exchange. · Pastikan anda meminta tanda tangan tamu pada tanda terima currency exchange lalu masukan ke remittance envelove untuk di drop. · Ingat hotel bukan Bank jadi tamu hanya bisa menukarkan uang nya dengan satu mata uang yang berlaku di mana hotel kita berada. · Hotel hanya akan melayani transaksi ini khusus untuk tamu hotel.bujkan untuk umum PAID OUTS: seperti yang kita tahu paid out adalah memberikan pinjaman uang pada tamu dari cash float kita untuk kepentingan yang mendadak, contoh untuk membayar taksi. Yang nantinya uang paid out akan di posting ke guest folio. · Pastikan semua paid out di saksikan oleh teman kerja atau supervisor · Selalu ada komisi untuk setiap paid out/tergantung hotelnya · Jika ada transaksi paid out yang jumlahnya besar segera minta persetujuan HOD atau GM . Correction Entry: Seandainya terjadi kesalahan dalam memposting ke kamar atau ke folio maka seluruh entry yang ada harus diperbaiki ulang dengan kode transaksi yang sama, sebaiknya kita print back up transaksi yg sudah di koreksi untuk kita serahkan ke night auditor sebagai referesnsi. Miscellaneous Non Revenue: Code ini di gunakan untuk men charge segala sesuatu dari hotel yang tidak menghasilkan revenue untuk hotel. Contoh, deposit untuk CD,DVD,Playstasion yg sebenarnya gratis untuk di pergunakan selama mereka menginap, dan deposit itu akan di kembalikan pada tamu saat mereka mengembalikan barang yang mereka pinjam tersebut, dan kita sebagai receptionis akan melakukan rebate atau reversal transaksi itu.(Always remember to make the miscellaneous voucher along with the abovementioned charges. The voucher number should be fed in the system). DAMAGE RECOVERY : Transaksi kode no 886 ini di gunakan dalam kasus kasus tertentu, contoh apabila ada tamu yang dengan sengaja atau tidak sengaja merusak propertti hotel maka pihak hotel akan melakukan investigasi dan meminta ganti rugi pada tamu, setelah ganti rugi di sepakati kedua belah pihak maka code yang di pakai untuk men charge hal tersebut ke dalam folio tamu adalah code 886 atau Damage recovery. SPLITTING THE CHARGES: Untuk split charge anda harus memilllih charge mana yang akan di split (kurangi/bagi) caranya dengan memberikan tanda minus(-) .system akan menanyakan berapa besar harga yang akan di split, dan secara otomatis Fidelio akan menjumlahkan hasil nya. Contoh lain dalam hal splitting of the charges sebagai berikut; Harga kamar yg sudah di bebankan pada tamu pada tanggal 7th Feb 2009 adalah Rack rate $1000++, dan pda keesokan harinya kita cek ada kesalahan harga yaitu $1200++ pada harga kamar yang sama, maka $200 adalah discrepancy yang harus kita split. Caranya kita pilih harga kamar pada tanggal 8 feb dan kita split (-) $200 pada rate kamar. Selalu siapkan back up yaitu voucher tamu & splitting report. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REVERSAL AND REBATE/ ALLOWANCE: Sangat penting untuk kita mengetahui dan mengerti perbedaan antara rebate dan reversalsaat kita memposting sesuatu ke dalam Fidelio.ini adalah contoh gampang dari perbedaan tersebut: Reversal lebih banyak di gunakan untuk koreksi apabila terjadi kesalahan dalam memposting. Reversal akan selalu di lakukan pada hari yang sama (same day). Reversal harus menggunakakn kode transaksi yang sama dengan apa yang akan kita reverse. · Rebate/Allowance di lakukan di saat tamu menolak untnuk membayar sesuatu yang sudah di posting dalam system. Dalam hal ini perlu persetujnuan dari pihak management atau supervisor. · Reversals dan rebates harus di ketahuidi approved dan di tandatangani oleh pihak management t. (AFOM/ FOM’S, EAM) Pastikan Print out dan misselenious vocher yg sudah di tandatangani pihak management di attach sebagai back up kita dan kita drop ke accounting. PAYMASTER: Paymaster is created for accounts purposes. Contoh ketika kita harus melakukan late charge pada tamu yang sudah checked out, maka folio akan di buat sesuai dengan jumlah yang belum di bayar, folio ini bisa di check out kan saat tamu tersebut membabyar tagihannya. Cara membuat paymaster Go to Accounts under Front Desk option. Masukan nama dan profil tamu dengan benar. Pada Dummy folio kamu harus pastikan beberapa hal di bawah ini: · Rate kamar selalu 0 (zero). · Pastkan market codenya PM · Jumlah pax juga 0(zero). · Market code dan source of business harus dipilih dengan benar. · Tulis pesan di traces dan kirim email pada staff lain yang berkepentingan. Changing the password: Di Fidelio juga ada opsi untuk merubah password, caranya ke cashier menu dan pilih change password (Cashier- Cashier- Change password) CASHIER CLOSURE: hal penting terakhir dalam cashiering adalah cashier closure, pastikan kita selalu menutup cashier pribadi kita pada saat ending shift. Dan pastikan semua report yang ada di drop ke accounting dan apabila ada cash transaction maka remittance harus di buat dan report nya harus sesuai dengan cash float kita (tally)

Inglese

Citcat translate

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-01-05
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Indonesiano

CURRENT METHODS FOR MONITORING IAQ Diagnostic techniques used for IAQ evaluations are usually divided into a qualitative and a quantitative phase.73 Instrumentation used during the qualitative IAQ evaluation is limited and is intended primarily to supplement the investigators visual observations. Direct-reading instruments are used to measure relative humidity, room temperature, O3, CO, CO2, and particulate concentrations. The qualitative evaluation for microbial contaminants includes an assessment of the building and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for water damage and moisture problems, including condensation and the presence of visible mold or musty odors indicative of mVOCs.26 The qualitative evaluation for VOCs includes an observance of odors, building renovation, specialized office equipment, pressed wood products, and cleaning products used. Methodologies for collecting and culturing dust, bulk, and air sampling are discussed in more detail elsewhere.73,74 Environmental testing should be restricted to specific situations that warrant further assessment of the relationship between IAQ and clinical symptoms. HOW TO CREATE A HEALTHIER INDOOR ENVIRONMENT Building procedures The allergy specialist should have some familiarity with building a healthy home because patients are frequently presenting with health complaints related to poor IAQ attributed to their home or workplace. The 3 primary considerations in improving IAQ are (1) evaluation of construction failures that allow moisture into the walls of a building, (2) poor ventilation causing excessive humidity and accumulation of gaseous and/or chemical exposure from materials in the living space, and (3) poorly designed or failing HVAC systems that contribute to poor air circulation. An extensive overview of building sciences and the guidelines for new home construction can be found at http://www.healthhouse. org. Building a healthy home should take into account costs versus energy savings and improved health outcomes. Further studies are needed to confirm the health benefits of healthy home construction. IAQ standards In contrast with the industrial workplace setting, quantitative standards for chemical, biological, and particulate exposures as well as ventilation requirements have not been well established and are not routinely monitored. Although some government entities provide guidelines related to IAQ concerns, these generally take the form of recommendations for the control or elimination of sources and strategies for exposure reduction, rather than for achieving pollutant levels below some specific air concentration (Table I). Legislation such as Clean Indoor Air acts ban or restrict smoking in workplaces and in public places and reduce exposures to ETS for workers and patrons.75 The Environmental Protection Agencys IAQ Tools for Schools program addresses IAQ management in schools by providing guidance for those aspects of building maintenance, housekeeping, and daily school operations that can influence IAQ, such as the importance of preventing water intrusion; carefully selecting, using, and storing cleaning and pesticide products; and ensuring proper ventilation. This program also provides resources and strategies for remediation of allergen and irritant-induced IAQ problems and strategies to maintain good IAQ over time.76 These voluntary programs are gaining widespread acceptance.76 Conclusion This review was prepared with the goal of providing allergists with a balanced perception of indoor pollution and how to apply this information in the evaluation of individual patients who present with s

Inglese

cool. its time to improve it

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-18
Argomento: Generale
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Indonesiano

CURRENT METHODS FOR MONITORING IAQ Diagnostic techniques used for IAQ evaluations are usually divided into a qualitative and a quantitative phase.73 Instrumentation used during the qualitative IAQ evaluation is limited and is intended primarily to supplement the investigators visual observations. Direct-reading instruments are used to measure relative humidity, room temperature, O3, CO, CO2, and particulate concentrations. The qualitative evaluation for microbial contaminants includes an assessment of the building and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for water damage and moisture problems, including condensation and the presence of visible mold or musty odors indicative of mVOCs.26 The qualitative evaluation for VOCs includes an observance of odors, building renovation, specialized office equipment, pressed wood products, and cleaning products used. Methodologies for collecting and culturing dust, bulk, and air sampling are discussed in more detail elsewhere.73,74 Environmental testing should be restricted to specific situations that warrant further assessment of the relationship between IAQ and clinical symptoms. HOW TO CREATE A HEALTHIER INDOOR ENVIRONMENT Building procedures The allergy specialist should have some familiarity with building a healthy home because patients are frequently presenting with health complaints related to poor IAQ attributed to their home or workplace. The 3 primary considerations in improving IAQ are (1) evaluation of construction failures that allow moisture into the walls of a building, (2) poor ventilation causing excessive humidity and accumulation of gaseous and/or chemical exposure from materials in the living space, and (3) poorly designed or failing HVAC systems that contribute to poor air circulation. An extensive overview of building sciences and the guidelines for new home construction can be found at http://www.healthhouse. org. Building a healthy home should take into account costs versus energy savings and improved health outcomes. Further studies are needed to confirm the health benefits of healthy home construction. IAQ standards In contrast with the industrial workplace setting, quantitative standards for chemical, biological, and particulate exposures as well as ventilation requirements have not been well established and are not routinely monitored. Although some government entities provide guidelines related to IAQ concerns, these generally take the form of recommendations for the control or elimination of sources and strategies for exposure reduction, rather than for achieving pollutant levels below some specific air concentration (Table I). Legislation such as Clean Indoor Air acts ban or restrict smoking in workplaces and in public places and reduce exposures to ETS for workers and patrons.75 The Environmental Protection Agencys IAQ Tools for Schools program addresses IAQ management in schools by providing guidance for those aspects of building maintenance, housekeeping, and daily school operations that can influence IAQ, such as the importance of preventing water intrusion; carefully selecting, using, and storing cleaning and pesticide products; and ensuring proper ventilation. This program also provides resources and strategies for remediation of allergen and irritant-induced IAQ problems and strategies to maintain good IAQ over time.76 These voluntary programs are gaining widespread acceptance.76 Conclusion This review was prepared with the goal of providing allergists with a balanced perception of indoor pollution and how to apply this information in the evaluation of individual patients who present with suspected symptoms arising from poor IAQ. As the patients foremost advocate, the allergy consultant should be prepared to acquire and maintain expertise in environmental factors that directly affect genetic susceptibilities inherent in allergic diseases. Evaluation of an individual patients exposure also requires that the allergist be familiar with methodologies for monitoring IAQ and interpreting results in the context of the patients exposure history. Finally, the allergist should be informed about existing indoor and outdoor air quality standards with the goal of advising patients about rational environmental control interventions.

Inglese

google translitex indonesia inggris USEFUL FOR MANY GOOD PEOPLE

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-11
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Indonesiano

ABSTRACT: The observation that the human mind operates in two distinct thinking modes – intuitive and analytical – have occupied psychological and educational researchers for several decades now. Much of this research has focused on the explanatory power of intuitive thinking as source of errors and misconceptions, but in this article, in contrast, we view "intuition traps" as a powerful tool for new learning, and for working with students on bridging the gap between the two thinking modes. The bridging issues are presented via reflections on a virtual workshop (an abstracted version of several real ones), organized around the classical 2-glass puzzle.

Inglese

Indonesian translation google english

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-10
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Indonesiano

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT WINDOWS MALICIOUS SOFTWARE REMOVAL TOOL These license terms are an agreement between Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live, one of its affiliates) and you. Please read them. They apply to the software named above, which includes the media on which you received it, if any. The terms also apply to any Microsoft * updates, * supplements, * Internet-based services, and * support services for this software, unless other terms accompany those items. If so, those terms apply. By using the software, you accept these terms. If you do not accept them, do not use the software. As described below, using some features also operates as your consent to the transmission of certain standard computer information for Internet-based services. If you comply with these license terms, you have the rights below. 1. INSTALLATION AND USE RIGHTS. You may execute any number of copies of the software on your devices running validly licensed copies of Microsoft operating system software (editions and versions specified at www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830). 2. INTERNET-BASED SERVICES. Microsoft provides Internet-based services with the software. It may change or cancel them at any time. Consent for Internet-Based Services. The software feature described below connects to Microsoft or service provider computer systems over the Internet. In some cases, you will not receive a separate notice when they connect. You may switch off this feature or not use it. For more information about this feature, see www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830. By using this feature, you consent to the transmission of this information. Microsoft does not use the information to identify or contact you. Computer Information. The following feature uses Internet protocols, which send to the appropriate systems computer information, such as your Internet protocol address, the type of operating system, browser and name and version of the software you are using, and the language code of the device where you installed the software. Microsoft uses this information to make the Internet-based service available to you. * Malicious Software Removal. Before execution of the software, the software will check for and remove certain malicious software (“Malware”) from your device, which is listed and periodically updated by family at www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830. When the software checks your device for Malware, a report will be sent to Microsoft about any Malware detected, specific information relating to the detection, errors that occurred while the software was checking for Malware, and other information about your device that will help us improve this and other Microsoft products and services. No information included in these reports will be used to identify or contact you. You may disable the software’s reporting functionality by following the instructions found at www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830. For more information, read the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool privacy statement at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=113995. 3. SCOPE OF LICENSE. The software is licensed, not sold. This agreement only gives you some rights to use the software. Microsoft reserves all other rights. Unless applicable law gives you more rights despite this limitation, you may use the software only as expressly permitted in this agreement. In doing so, you must comply with any technical limitations in the software that only allow you to use it in certain ways. You may not * work around any technical limitations in the software; * reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the software, except and only to the extent that applicable law expressly permits, despite this limitation; * make more copies of the software than specified in this agreement or allowed by applicable law, despite this limitation; * publish the software for others to copy; * rent, lease or lend the software; * transfer the software or this agreement to any third party; or * use the software for commercial software hosting services. 4. BACKUP COPY. You may make one backup copy of the software. You may use it only to reinstall the software. 5. DOCUMENTATION. Any person that has valid access to your computer or internal network may copy and use the documentation for your internal, reference purposes. 6. EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. The software is subject to United States export laws and regulations. You must comply with all domestic and international export laws and regulations that apply to the software. These laws include restrictions on destinations, end users and end use. For additional information, see www.microsoft.com/exporting. 7. SUPPORT SERVICES. Because this software is “as is,” we may not provide support services for it. 8. ENTIRE AGREEMENT. This agreement, and the terms for supplements, updates, Internet-based services and support services that you use, are the entire agreement for the software and support services. 9. APPLICABLE LAW. a. United States. If you acquired the software in the United States, Washington state law governs the interpretation of this agreement and applies to claims for breach of it, regardless of conflict of laws principles. The laws of the state where you live govern all other claims, including claims under state consumer protection laws, unfair competition laws, and in tort. b. Outside the United States. If you acquired the software in any other country, the laws of that country apply. 10. LEGAL EFFECT. This agreement describes certain legal rights. You may have other rights under the laws of your country. You may also have rights with respect to the party from whom you acquired the software. This agreement does not change your rights under the laws of your country if the laws of your country do not permit it to do so. 11. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY. The software is licensed “as-is.” You bear the risk of using it. Microsoft gives no express warranties, guarantees or conditions. You may have additional consumer rights under your local laws which this agreement cannot change. To the extent permitted under your local laws, Microsoft excludes the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. 12. LIMITATION ON AND EXCLUSION OF REMEDIES AND DAMAGES. You can recover from Microsoft and its suppliers only direct damages up to U.S. $5.00. You cannot recover any other damages, including consequential, lost profits, special, indirect or incidental damages. This limitation applies to * anything related to the software, services, content (including code) on third party Internet sites, or third party programs; and * claims for breach of contract, breach of warranty, guarantee or condition, strict liability, negligence, or other tort to the extent permitted by applicable law. It also applies even if Microsoft knew or should have known about the possibility of the damages. The above limitation or exclusion may not apply

Inglese

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT WINDOWS MALICIOUS SOFTWARE REMOVAL TOOL These license terms are an agreement between Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live, one of its affiliates) and you. Please read them. They apply to the software named above, which includes the media on which you received it, if any. The terms also apply to any Microsoft * updates, * supplements, * Internet-based services, and * support services for this software, unless other terms accompany those items. If so, those terms apply. By using the software, you accept these terms. If you do not accept them, do not use the software. As described below, using some features also operates as your consent to the transmission of certain standard computer information for Internet-based services. If you comply with these license terms, you have the rights below. 1. INSTALLATION AND USE RIGHTS. You may execute any number of copies of the software on your devices running validly licensed copies of Microsoft operating system software (editions and versions specified at www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830). 2. INTERNET-BASED SERVICES. Microsoft provides Internet-based services with the software. It may change or cancel them at any time. Consent for Internet-Based Services. The software feature described below connects to Microsoft or service provider computer systems over the Internet. In some cases, you will not receive a separate notice when they connect. You may switch off this feature or not use it. For more information about this feature, see www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830. By using this feature, you consent to the transmission of this information. Microsoft does not use the information to identify or contact you. Computer Information. The following feature uses Internet protocols, which send to the appropriate systems computer information, such as your Internet protocol address, the type of operating system, browser and name and version of the software you are using, and the language code of the device where you installed the software. Microsoft uses this information to make the Internet-based service available to you. * Malicious Software Removal. Before execution of the software, the software will check for and remove certain malicious software (“Malware”) from your device, which is listed and periodically updated by family at www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830. When the software checks your device for Malware, a report will be sent to Microsoft about any Malware detected, specific information relating to the detection, errors that occurred while the software was checking for Malware, and other information about your device that will help us improve this and other Microsoft products and services. No information included in these reports will be used to identify or contact you. You may disable the software’s reporting functionality by following the instructions found at www.support.microsoft.com/?kbid=890830. For more information, read the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool privacy statement at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=113995. 3. SCOPE OF LICENSE. The software is licensed, not sold. This agreement only gives you some rights to use the software. Microsoft reserves all other rights. Unless applicable law gives you more rights despite this limitation, you may use the software only as expressly permitted in this agreement. In doing so, you must comply with any technical limitations in the software that only allow you to use it in certain ways. You may not * work around any technical limitations in the software; * reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the software, except and only to the extent that applicable law expressly permits, despite this limitation; * make more copies of the software than specified in this agreement or allowed by applicable law, despite this limitation; * publish the software for others to copy; * rent, lease or lend the software; * transfer the software or this agreement to any third party; or * use the software for commercial software hosting services. 4. BACKUP COPY. You may make one backup copy of the software. You may use it only to reinstall the software. 5. DOCUMENTATION. Any person that has valid access to your computer or internal network may copy and use the documentation for your internal, reference purposes. 6. EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. The software is subject to United States export laws and regulations. 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If you acquired the software in any other country, the laws of that country apply. 10. LEGAL EFFECT. This agreement describes certain legal rights. You may have other rights under the laws of your country. You may also have rights with respect to the party from whom you acquired the software. This agreement does not change your rights under the laws of your country if the laws of your country do not permit it to do so. 11. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY. The software is licensed “as-is.” You bear the risk of using it. Microsoft gives no express warranties, guarantees or conditions. You may have additional consumer rights under your local laws which this agreement cannot change. To the extent permitted under your local laws, Microsoft excludes the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. 12. LIMITATION ON AND EXCLUSION OF REMEDIES AND DAMAGES. You can recover from Microsoft and its suppliers only direct damages up to U.S. $5.00. You cannot recover any other damages, including consequential, lost profits, special, indirect or incidental damages. This limitation applies to * anything related to the software, services, content (including code) on third party Internet sites, or third party programs; and * claims for breach of contract, breach of warranty, guarantee or condition, strict liability, negligence, or other tort to the extent permitted by applicable law. It also applies even if Microsoft knew or should have known about the possibility of the damages. The above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you because your country may not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental, consequential or other damages.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-09
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Indonesiano

Dynamic equilibrium two qualities. First, of conctans change. Change and evolution in the regional setting, derived among others from regional countries continued development, is inherent and inevitable. It does not and should not be seen as a problem, per se. Second, conditions of stability. Change, viewed as a natural and inevitable process, does not have to equate with instability. Thus, such conditions posit an absence of a preponderant power and are not derived from a destabilizing policy of balance of power and containment but rather by rendering irrelevant and redundant competitive dynamics. Instead, the notion of common security, common stability and common prosperity are propagated of mutual in the regions peace and stability : a virthous circle of confidence- building steps. Further,the interlinkages between issues are better regocnized. Political and secutiy issues are very much linked to economic and social issues. In such multifaceted settings, where issues are interlinked, desired result are best achieved through the buliding of bridges rather than by accentuating differences. The east Asia Summit, with ASEAN playing a central, driving seat –type role, certainly has the potential to make an important contribution to the regions peace, stability and prosperity. Within the EAS are sets of bilateral relationships whose present state and further development will have a profound impact on peace and stability in the region and indeed, beyond the US – China, China – India and India – us, For example. The EAS can help ensure that these sets of relationships, and plently more, are essently cooperative rtaher than competitive. In this connection, indonesia is keen to ensure that the EAS in Bali contributes in creating the habit of cooperation and dialogue among state hitherto more versed in working in isolation from one another. ASEAN collectively and indonesia as cuontry, of course, provide the constant : the enjoyment of close and friendly relations with all non – ASEAN EAS participans. Thus, ASEAN has the capacity to connect the other EAS participans in a cooperative regional setting- to develop a comfort level and the habit of cooperation by focusing first on issues of common interest to all EAS participans. Through such a practice and habit of consultation, there would gradually develop a sense of community, where emphasis is placed on the notions of common prosperity and common stability. Learning from ASEAN’s positive experience with shared norms under the TAC, Indonesia has initiated the identification of similiar shared norms and principles that would imbue the relationship among the EAS countries. These norms and principles are not dissimiliar to those enshrined an the UN Charte, TAC, The ASEAN Charter, ARF and various arrangements between countries participating in the EAS. The reaffirmation of such principle would also be instrumental in developing a sense of community, this time not only among ASEAN countries but also among non – ASEAN countries participating in the EAS. We wish to emanate thsese principles from the EAS in bali in november. Together with ASEAN, INDONESIA Has worked ceaselessly to develop the regions capacipty to foster a habit of dialogue and cooperation, to engage others, to create conditions conducive for development, to prevent and manage potential conflicts and in fact to resolve them. And in this regard, beyond it own region and, anchored by a strong ASAEAN community we are set to achieve by 2015, ASEAN continues to be driving force in the promotion of an Asia- Pasific regional architecture that is conducive for the maintenance of regional peace and stability. ASEAN’S certrality or place in the driving seat, is not a given. It is something that ASEAN must continue to earn. And ASEAN has earned that centrality through its intellectual leadership and capacity to engage and serve as equilibrium- maker. This is something that ASEAN must continue to hone, nurture and strengthen. If ASEAN continues to strengthen its capacity to transform challenges into opportunities, adjust with the dynamics of a chaning world, engage other and remain in the driving seat, it seems safe to conclude that in the years to come we can expect an even more enhanced role in a global community of natios – an ASEAN Community that serves as a net contributor to global peace and security, a net contibutor to global political development and a net contributor to global prosperity. Aggessively waging peace.

Inglese

xxl-Indonesian english translation

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-07
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Indonesiano

the olimpic games the olimpic games is a very popular sport even in the world. it is held every four years in different cities around the world. those who participate in the games are usually famous for the rest of their lives. about 100.000 people have competed in the games. these athletes are all amateurs. They play sport and they get no money for their play. They must qalify or win regional and national events and they often play on their countries' national teams. Athletes compete or play against each other in hopes of winning. That might mean crossing the finish line first or putting on a perfect performance. Throughout the the Games, the contestants are suppossed to play with a spirit of sportsmanship. This means that they must play with horor. Their goal is to do their very best in their sport, and not specifically to defeat the other players. unfortunately , some athletes and coaches have tried to cheat or use drugs. They used steroids so they could have stronger muscles and better stamina. In that way they could win the game but of course they won the game illegally. Wars between two countries or inharmonious relationship between two countries could also affect the Olympics. Sometimes atheletes refuse to compete against others with different ideologiy. In short, nationalism has sometimes become a problem in the olympics. Although the Olympics have the problems of cheating an doping, and sometimes nationalism, the Games are still popular. Perhaps it is beacouse we can learn a lot of things from the Games. The Games show us what we are capable of. We can also learn that we can actually compete with each other but we are still friends.

Inglese

the olimpic games the olimpic games is a very popular sport even in the world. it is held every four years in different cities around the world. those who participate in the games are usually famous for the rest of their lives. about 100.000 people have competed in the games. these athletes are all amateurs. They play sport and they get no money for their play. They must qalify or win regional and national events and they often play on their countries' national teams. Athletes compete or play against each other in hopes of winning. That might mean crossing the finish line first or putting on a perfect performance. Throughout the the Games, the contestants are suppossed to play with a spirit of sportsmanship. This means that they must play with horor. Their goal is to do their very best in their sport, and not specifically to defeat the other players. unfortunately , some athletes and coaches have tried to cheat or use drugs. They used steroids so they could have stronger muscles and better stamina. In that way they could win the game but of course they won the game illegally. Wars between two countries or inharmonious relationship between two countries could also affect the Olympics. Sometimes atheletes refuse to compete against others with different ideologiy. In short, nationalism has sometimes become a problem in the olympics. Although the Olympics have the problems of cheating an doping, and sometimes nationalism, the Games are still popular. Perhaps it is beacouse we can learn a lot of things from the Games. The Games show us what we are capable of. We can also learn that we can actually compete with each other but we are still friends.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-06
Argomento: Generale
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Indonesiano

If test materials were widely available, it would be easy for persons to review the tests, learn the answers, and respond according to the impression they would like to make. Thus, the materials would lose their validity. This means that psychologists should make all reasonable efforts to ensure that test materials are secure. Specifically, all tests should be kept locked in a secure place and no untrained persons should be allowed to review them. Any copyrighted material should not be duplicated. In addition, raw data from tests should not ordinarily be released to clients or other persons who may misinterpret them. However, clients have a right to the reports themselves should they request them. They also have the right to have the information released to a person they designate but such a request should be in writing (see Zuckerman, 1997, The Paper Office,for forms and guidelines). The security of assessment results should also be maintained. Ideally, this means that only designated persons (usually the referral source and client) should see the results unless the client provides a release of information. In reality, however, this ethical principal may sometimes be difficult to achieve. For example, many medical contexts expect most relevant treatment information (including psychological assessment results) to be kept in clients’ charts. Typically, all members of the treatment team have access to the charts (Claassen & Lovitt, 2001). On one level, this represents a conflict between psychological and medical guidelines. On another level, it represents a conflict between benefit to the patient (that may be enhanced by the treatment team having access to his or her records) and patient autonomy (patient control over who and where information should go). Security of assessment results can also be compromised when a large number of organizations (insurance company, interacting rehabilitation provider, referral source) all want access to patient records. This has become a particular issue in the managed health care environment. The security of client records also becomes more tenuous when large interconnected databases potentially have access to patient data (McMinn, Buchanan, et al., 1999; McMinn, Ellens, et al., 1999). Sometimes in legal contexts, the court or the opposing council may wish to see either raw data or the actual test materials. Under these conditions, the court should be informed that ethical guidelines as well as agreements made with the test distributor require that this information not be released to untrained persons. An acceptable alternative would be for the psychologist to designate a person with appropriate training to receive the information and explain the data or describe the test material (Tranel, 1994)

Inglese

I

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-04
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Indonesiano

scientevid learning Originally Posted by Ocelot Hi Radrook, Thanks once again for your response. Indeed I was just checking that I'd located the one article amongst many that you thought addressed my claim. As I detailed, it doesn't. Well actually some people do make that claim. I've seen much talk from various brands of creationist that claim that MacroEvolution (evolution of new taxa of the species level and above) is impossible. They use similar arguments as you do so please forgive me for my presumption. I do apologise. Of course the fact that new species have been observed to evolve both in the lab and in the wild, make this claim one of the more ridiculous creationist claims but it is nonetheless one that I have encountered. I asgee that speciation does and has occurred. It's interesting to me that you have raised the bar. You accept that not all individual species need to have been created. Presumably you accept that Lions, Tigers and the domestic Cat all have a common ancestor? Am I correct in my estimation of your beliefs. Yes. If so do you also accept the more controversial conclusion that Homo Sapiens has a common ancestor with Chimps, Bonobos, Gorillas and Orang Utans. It may be more controversial for it's broad implications to theology and philosophy but perhaps because of this added interest it is a conclusion backed by even greater quantities of genetic evidence. No, that's where we diverge. Of course the genetic evidence that all placental mammals share a common ancestor more recent than the one they share with marsupials is as compelling as the evidence for a common ancestor amongst other Genus, Family, Order or Classes. If your theory is true, it would be interesting to see if the genetic evidence could tell us what the original common ancestors were beyond which we can find no further link. For example lets take for want of a better choice a red kangaroo named Charles. You and I both agree that Charles shares a common ancestor with all other red kangaroos, the genetic evidence backs this up. I see no reason to object. According to the genetic evidence Charles also shares a more distant common ancestor with other species of kangaroo such as grey kangaroos, and antilopine kangaroos. Ok. The genetic evidence suggests that further back in time these kangaroos shared a common ancestor with a variety of other species of kangaroo, wallaby and walleroo of the macropus genus. Would you agree? Sure. If so then the genetic evidence further indicates that the macropus genus shares a common ancestor with all other members of the macropod family including various other Kangaroos and Wallabies, the quokka and pademelons. Would you agree that these are all of the same "kind" sharing a common ancestor. That might be acceptable. If so then the genetic evidence indicates that the macropod family share a more distant common ancestor with all members of the order diprodontia. This includes possums koalas and wombats. Is it conceivable to you that the genetic evidence is correct and that these creatures all share a common ancestor with one another? Could they all be of the same "kind"? If they are of the same kind. In fact could all the australidelphia super order of marsupials share a common ancestor as the genetic evidence would suggest, if so are they collectively a "kind" Or do they, as the empirical evidence would suggest, all share a common ancestor with all other marsupials. Are marsupials a kind? I presume that you do not accept that some time in the cretaceous there was an early mammal type reptile or therapsid from whom both you and Charles can claim lineage. However how do you explain why when the genetic evidence is so clear? Because I believe that the data is being interpreted to fit into a preconceived notion. It doesn’t matter where you place the bar, the genetic evidence is clear, there is only one "kind" currently on planet earth we are all descended from the same single common ancestor. I too have no problem when seriously considering a theory of intelligent design that the designer might choose to vary their techniques. What I have a problems with is why the techniques should so closely match a picture of common descent with particular variations being more closely clustered amongst species that appear to be more closely related. Creationists did not make this prediction. Evolutionary biologists did. The examination of the evidence continues to uphold the prediction of the evolutionary biologists. Unless Creationism can explain this remarkable coincidence it is deficient as a theory. I'm afraid your meaning here is not entirely clear to me. However the assumption that evolution is true is rather the point. If you make that assumption you make a prediction that turns out to be true. If you don't make that assumption you need an alternative explanation for the prediction. I offer the analogy once more. If you assume that I am related to my son you will expect a roughly 50% match between the various genes in highly variable alleles. If you do not make that assumption and otherwise find the 50% match you must find another explanation (perhaps we are brothers...) If you find more genetic matches amongst placental mammals than between placental mammals and marsupials this is explained by assuming that placental mammals sharing a more recent common ancestor amongst themselves than the one they might share with marsupials. If you reject that assumption then it would benefit your case to offer an alternative that fits the known facts at least as well. I agree that certain animals share more genetic material in common than other kinds. As I said previously, some of that sharing is due to a common ancestor called a kind in Genesis. What I don't agree with is the transformation of one kind into another or that all living things are ultimately related. Or that my ancestor was a one celled creature which slowly turned into a fish, and later into a reptile, and later into some type of piglike animal as the evolutionist interpretations of data say. Not simply because it is repulsive thought, but because it all depends on a mindless process which I and most human beings on this earth, including human beings who are scientists, find unbelievable due to its inherent improbability and based on the cause and effect phenomena we perceive which indicates that machinelike complex things do not make themselves but are the product of mind or else are programmed to replicate themselves by a mind. Hi again Radrook, It's good to hear back from you. This appears to be a derail from my original question of how do you account for the genetic evidence of common descent if not through common descent. Originally Posted by Radrook It's not the frequency it's the mutation process itself that is a dubious choice for the organization of complex organisms. Originally Posted by Radrook I never denied the occurrence of neutral or beneficial mutations. It is the unlikelyhood of a mindless process with its high probability of being harmful to an organism being said to ultimately lead to the intricate organization as is evident in the human eye with its iris, to adjust the entry of light, the lens to focus that light, on a screen called the retina which is connected to an optic nerve, which reacts to the radiation by coding it into neural impulses, which in turn arrives at a specialized part of the brain which can decode those impulses and turn them into the perception of images. Sorry but in the presence of such strong evidence to the contrary, I just can't buy into the mindless mutation explanation First let me congratulate you on your acceptance of the existence of small positive mutations. This is a major step towards your understanding of what evolution is truly about. It is a step that some creationists are not prepared to make even in the face of reproducible empirical evidence. It appears that you are not sufficiently aware of the intricate complexity that can be produced by undoubtedly mindless processes. Snowflakes, have complexity, a rock arch has irreducible complexity, the water cycle is a steam engine. There is nothing you have demonstrated to be beyond the reach of a mindless process. Are you familiar with John Conway's Game of Life. Draw a random pattern in this very simple purely mechanical 2D universe. The odds that within a few generations you'll see a small glider pattern. It looks designed but you know that you didn't design it. Genetic recipes for life allow new increases in complexity to build upon previous ones. This allows many small mutations to add up to a bigger one. As such it offers us the possibility for a pinnacle of "mindless design" It is in fact so good at design that genetic algorithms have been put to good use by human designers in computer simulations. For example a genetic algorithm produces a shape which is tested virtually for various structural properties. Those algorithms which produce the best designs are then used as the seeds for the next generation of designs. It is not uncommon for such a mindless process to produce "designs" superior in structural efficiency to any of intelligent origin. What evolutionary theory accepts can never evolve is a feature than cannot be broken down into many small neutral or positive stages. The discovery of such a feature would indeed be a problem for evolution. However it is difficult to demonstrate that a feature could not be the result of an appropriate evolutionary path. To do so would probably require examination of an infinite number of possible paths. Instead we get argument for incredulity: "I cannot see how this feature could have evolved, therefore it could not have evolved." I'm sure you don't need me to point out the flaw in this logic. In all cases that I'm aware of, biologists have made progress in discovering possible evolutionary paths for the formation of seemingly problematic features. You bring up the example of the eye as one candidate. This has of course been much discussed and I'm surprised that you do not acknowledge that the solution to this apparent conundrum has already been provided. In fact it was a topic discussed by Darwin himself, who also provided a solution. From here The gradual steps listed are briefly... • photosensitive cell • aggregates of pigment cells without a nerve • an optic nerve surrounded by pigment cells and covered by translucent skin • pigment cells forming a small depression • pigment cells forming a deeper depression • the skin over the depression taking a lens shape • muscles allowing the lens to adjust From the same page you can find links detailing how each stage has been observed in the natural world. Since you accept that small positive mutation can occur and be subject to natural selection it should now be clear to you that the evolution of the eye can be broken down into a series of such steps.

Inglese

english translation into Indonesian

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-27
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Indonesiano

An average cost curvecaptures the relationship between average costs and output. Economists often depict average cost curves as U-shaped, as shown in Figure 2.1, so that average costs decline over low levels of output, but increase at higher levels of output. A combination of factors may cause a firm to have U-shaped costs. A firm’s average costs may decline initially as it spreads fixed costsover increasing output. Fixed costs are insensitive to volume; they must be expended regardless of the total output. Examples of such volume-insensitive costs are manufacturing overhead expenses, such as insurance, maintenance, and property taxes. Firms may eventually see an upturn in average costs if they bump up against capacity constraints, or if they encounter coordination or other and agency problems. We will develop most of these ideas in this chapter. Coordination and agency problems are addressed in Chapters 3 and 4.

Inglese

Title

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-16
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Indonesiano

INTRODUCTION Given the obsession we have with slimness in the United States and the fact that millions of Americans are overweight it is no wonder that a multibillion dollar weight control industry has developed. Weight loss centers and health and fitness spas cater to this obsession and promise us a new body just in time for the swimsuit season. Phamaceutical companies produce drugs, both prescription and over the counter types to help us lose fat the easy way. Food manufacturers market convenient, low calorie, prepackaged but expensive meals. Each year at least one diet book on the best seller list is advertised as the last diet we will ever need. A variety of techniques, some useful and some not are used in attempt to stimulate weight loss. Drugs are used to depress the appetite or increase metabolism. Creams are applied to specific body parts to srink local fat deposits. Surgical techniques include intestinal bypasses, removal or stapling part of the stomach, excising or suction removal of subcutaneous fat tissue, and wiring the jaw shut. Weight loss diets involve almost every possible manipulation, including the high fat diet, the high protein diet, the grapefruit diet, the starvation diet, and even the "no diet" diet. Exercising programs in specially designed clothing are advertised as helping you lose inches of fat in hours. Psychological techniques such as hypnosis or behavior modification are designed to change your eating habits. In severe cases of clinical obesity, treatment usually is administered under medical supervision and may involve a combination of many of these techniques including surgery, hormone therapy, drugs and starvation type diets. An individualized, medically supervised weight control program is very important for the clinically obese because so many health risks are related obesity is very resistant to treatment and over 95 percent of those individuals who lose weight regain it within one to five years and may di this repeatedly.As noted at chapter 10 these fluctuations in body weight, known as weight cycling may not exert deleterious effects on metabolism and health and should not deter obese individuals from attempts to lose weight. The National Institute of Health notes that other group may need medically supervised weight loss programs, including children, pregnant women, persons over the age of 65, and individuals with medical conditions that could be exacerbated by weight loos. Weight control programs have greater chances for success in individuals who have accumulated excess body fat throught environmental conditions, such as excessive eating and decreased physical activity, and who do not have a strong genetic predisposition to obesity. Such a treatmentprogram may be beneficial to the typical adult, for substantial amounts of body fat appear to accumulate between the age of 25 and 35. The prevalence of overweight individuals in the United States has increased in the past quarter century in both children and adults. It is interesting to note that the average American male age 25-50, increased his BMI from 22 to 25 between the 1980 and 1989 RDA, the average female went from about 21 to 24. Moreover prevention of excess weight gain should be a life long life style, beginning in childhood and continuing through adulthood, as suggested by the data presented above. Maintenance of a healthy body weight through prevention techniques may be especially helpfull during the first to years of college when young females typically gain 10-15 pounds. Additionally prevention may also curtail the weight gain in those genetically predisposed, as supported by the recent twin study of Newman and others.

Inglese

Indonesian translation google english

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-09-21
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Indonesiano

Ceramic materials were discussed briefly in Chapter 1, which noted that they are inorganic and nonmetallic materials.Most ceramics are compounds between metal- lic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. The term “ceramic” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff,” in- dicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing. Up until the past 60 or so years, the most important materials in this class were termed the “traditional ceramics,” those for which the primary raw material is clay; products considered to be traditional ceramics are china,porcelain,bricks,tiles,and, in addition, glasses and high-temperature ceramics. Of late, significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental character of these materials and of the phenomena that occur in them that are responsible for their unique properties. Consequently, a new generation of these materials has evolved, and the term “ceramic” has taken on a much broader meaning.To one degree or another, these new materials have a rather dramatic effect on our lives;electronic,computer,com- munication, aerospace, and a host of other industries rely on their use. This chapter discusses the types of crystal structure and atomic point defect that are found in ceramic materials and, in addition, some of their mechanical char- acteristics. Applications and fabrication techniques for this class of materials are treated in the next chapter.

Inglese

Ceramic materials were discussed briefly in Chapter 1, which noted that they are inorganic and nonmetallic materials.Most ceramics are compounds between metal- lic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. The term “ceramic” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff,” in- dicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing. Up until the past 60 or so years, the most important materials in this class were termed the “traditional ceramics,” those for which the primary raw material is clay; products considered to be traditional ceramics are china,porcelain,bricks,tiles,and, in addition, glasses and high-temperature ceramics. Of late, significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental character of these materials and of the phenomena that occur in them that are responsible for their unique properties. Consequently, a new generation of these materials has evolved, and the term “ceramic” has taken on a much broader meaning.To one degree or another, these new materials have a rather dramatic effect on our lives;electronic,computer,com- munication, aerospace, and a host of other industries rely on their use. This chapter discusses the types of crystal structure and atomic point defect that are found in ceramic materials and, in addition, some of their mechanical char- acteristics. Applications and fabrication techniques for this class of materials are treated in the next chapter.Engineering

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-07-16
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Indonesiano

The compound cup stack carbon nanotub coating reduces friction between the main ,d cross strings and combines sith the thin 0.66mm gauge high-Intensity multifilament nylon provider effortless power. The next generation of string producing improved power and feel for enhanced flight performance

Inglese

male

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-07-07
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