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Up until today, video compression algorithm has been applied in various video applications ranging from video conferencing to video telephony. Motion Estimation or ME is deemed as one of the effective and popular techniques in video compression. As one of its technique, the Block Matching Algorithm or BMAs is widely employed in majority of well-known video codes due to its simplicity and high compression efficiency. As such, it is crucial to find different approaches of fast BMAs as the simplest and straightforward BMA is not a good fit for implementation of real-time video coding because of its high computational complexity. The aims for this study is to develop and design a new hybrid search pattern and strategy for new fast BMAs that can further improves the ME process in terms of estimation accuracy and video image quality, searching speed and computational complexity. There are 6 main designs of the algorithms proposed namely the Orthogonal-Diamond Search Algorithm with Small Diamond Search Pattern (ODS-SDSP), the Orthogonal-Diamond Search Algorithm with Large Diamond Search Pattern (ODS-LDSP), the Diamond-Orthogonal Search Algorithm with Small Diamond Pattern (DOS-SDSP), the Diamond-Orthogonal Search Algorithm with Large Diamond Pattern (DOS-LDSP), the Modified Diamond-Orthogonal Search Algorithm with Small Diamond Pattern (MDOS-SDSP) and the Modified Diamond-Orthogonal Search Algorithm with Large Diamond Pattern (MDOS-LDSP). These 6 algorithms are divided into 3 main methods namely Method A, Method B and Method C according to their search patterns and strategies. The first method is where the diamond pattern is being manipulated in the process, the second method is where the orthogonal steps are being manipulated and lastly, the third method is the modified version of the second method to improve the performances of the algorithms. Evaluation is based on the algorithm performances in terms of the search points needed to find the final motion vector, the Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio of the algorithms and the runtime performance of algorithm simulations. The result shows that the DOS-SDSP algorithm is the lowest search points with only 1.7341, 4.9059 and 4.0230 for each motion contents respectively; meanwhile all the algorithms acquired alike and closed PSNR values for all types of motion contents. As for simulation runtime, the results shows that Method B has the least simulation runtime and Method C has the highest simulation runtime compared to others for all video sequences. The finding suggests that an early termination technique should be implemented at the early stage of the process and also varied the selection of the mode to improve the algorithm performances. Therefore, it can be concluded that Method B gives the best performance in terms of search points reduction and simulation runtime meanwhile Method C is the best for PSNR values for all types of motion contents respectively.
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