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Вы искали: my brother has the best friend in the ... ( Английский - Гуджарати )

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Английский

Гуджарати

Информация

Английский

Position in the world

Гуджарати

ObjectClass

Последнее обновление: 2011-10-23
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Английский

how in the world do you want to grow up

Гуджарати

વિશ્વમાં તમે વૃદ્ધિ કરવા માંગો છો કેવી રીતે

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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

Essay on trees our best friend in gujarati

Гуджарати

ગુજરાતી અમારા શ્રેષ્ઠ મિત્ર વૃક્ષો પર નિબંધ

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Английский

the saddest thing in the world is loving someone who used to love you

Гуджарати

Please, specify two different languages

Последнее обновление: 2017-02-15
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Английский

mahatma gandhi is remembered in the world for four major virtues.

Гуджарати

મહાત્મા ગાંધી વિશે ગુજરાતી નિબંધ

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Английский

Essay tree is my best friends in Gujarati

Гуджарати

નિબંધ વૃક્ષ ગુજરાતી મારી શ્રેષ્ઠ મિત્રો છે

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Английский

essay on trees our best friends in gujarati

Гуджарати

tress our best friend

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Английский

essay on trees our best friends in gujarati

Гуджарати

ગુજરાતી અમારી શ્રેષ્ઠ મિત્રો વૃક્ષો પર નિબંધ

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Английский

Place the items in the best way to count them

Гуджарати

વસ્તુઅોને ગણવા માટે પ્રથમ તેમને વ્યવસ્થિત ગોઠવો

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Английский

The connection type will permit determining the best quality settings that Ekiga will use during calls. You can later change the settings individually in the preferences window.

Гуджарати

સંપર્ક પ્રકાર કોલ દરમ્યાન Ekiga શ્રેષ્ઠ ગુણવત્તા સુયોજનોને નક્કી કરવાની પરવાનગી આપે છે. તમે પછી પસંદગી વિન્ડોમાં સુયોજનો દરેકને બદલી શકો છો.

Последнее обновление: 2014-08-20
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Английский

Check that it's installed in the correct path and that it has the correct permissions

Гуджарати

ચકાસો કે તે યોગ્ય પથમાં સ્થાપિત થયું છે અને તેની પાસે યોગ્ય પરવાનગીઓ છે

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Английский

carrom board game rules Rules FAQ Game Index Subscribe New Warehouse Deals Search for a game or brand... Masters Traditional Games Home Review Centre Ideas for ▼BasketEmail us01727 855058 GAME TABLESPUB GAMESOUTDOORSBOARD GAMESCASINOTABLE-TOPGIANT GAMESFAIR GAMES Visit our Google Plus pageVisit our Facebook page The Rules of Carrom Carrom or Karom is a game that has long been played throughout India and South East Asia but the game has become increasingly popular throughout much of the rest of the world during the last century. There are a huge number of variations in the rules even though an international regulatory body and several major national bodies exist - even these have rule variations depending upon the situation. Masters Games has based the following rules on those from the UK Carrom Club, tailoring them for simplicity where possible. Note: 1 inch = 2.54cm. Equipment The following dimensions vary considerably and are given only as an example of a tournament board. A Carrom board is a square smooth flat wooden board that can be 72cm or 74cm square and which should be positioned 60 - 70cm above the ground. In each corner is a circular hole that can be 51mm in diameter and underneath each hole is a net to catch the pieces in a similar way to a snooker table. Two lines are drawn on the table along the diagonals. These are the "foul lines". In the centre are two concentric circles - the centre circle is the size of a piece, the main circle having a diameter about six times larger. Outside the circles and a short way in from each side of the board are two straight lines parallel with the edge of the board. They should be about 3.8cm apart and the long thin area between them is terminated just before the diagonal foul lines at either end by a red circle of 3.8cm diameter. This thin rectangle with circles at either end is called the "baseline" and the baseline nearest to a player is the area that the player's striker must be played from. There are nine dark or black pieces and nine light or white pieces plus a red piece called the "Queen". The smooth wooden pieces are slightly smaller than the the striker which is between 3.8cm and 4.4cm in diameter. People often own their own strikers which can also be made of bone or ivory and which are normally somewhat heavier than the pieces although can vary in weight from half as heavy to four times as heavy as a piece. On some boards, potato starch, chalk dust or other lubricant is used to make the pieces slide more easily over the surface of the board - the most popular lubricant is boric acid. Preparation To decide who goes first, one player should hold a piece concealed in one hand. If the opponent guesses correctly which hand, the opponent chooses who goes first, otherwise the player concealing the piece chooses. The person who plays first aims to pocket the white pieces. The game is played by two opponents sitting opposite each other. To begin, the Queen is placed in the centre of the board. Six pieces are put around the Queen directly in a circle, each touching the Queen and their neighbours. The remaining twelve pieces are positioned around the inner circle of six pieces, so that each outer piece touches the inner circle. Both circles should have the pieces alternating in colour. The two circles are oriented so that the Queen, a white piece from the inner circle and a white piece from the outer circle lie in a straight line pointing towards the centre of the side of the board where the player who will play first is sitting. Objective Players take turns to play. A turn consists of one or more strikes. A player wins by pocketing all of the pieces of their chosen colour first. However, neither player can win until one or other player has "covered the Queen". To cover the Queen, a player must pocket one of her own pieces immediately after pocketing the Queen. If the Queen is pocketed but not covered, the Queen is returned to the board. Both players normally try to cover the Queen in addition to trying to win the game because a player who wins and also covers the Queen receives bonus points. Striking For each strike, the player must position the striker within the baseline OR on one of the two circles at either end of the baseline. A striker within the baseline must touch both the front line and the rear line. The striker may not "cut the moon" - be placed partially within the baseline and partially within the circle. The player must flick the striker with one finger so that it crosses the front baseline - it is not permitted to flick backwards or horizontally. A piece that is on or behind the front baseline must not be struck by the striker until the striker has crossed the front baseline. In striking, the player's hand or arm must not cross the diagonal foul lines at either end of the baseline. Basic rules For the very first turn, the player is allowed three attempts to "break" i.e. disturb the central group of counters. It doesn't matter which piece the striker hits first and it doesn't matter if the striker hits no pieces. If a the striker pockets the Queen and/or one or more pieces of her own colour, the player retrieves the striker and takes another strike. If the player pockets no pieces or commits a foul, the turn finishes. Covering the Queen A player may only pocket and cover the Queen if that player has already pocketed at least one piece of that player's colour. Should a player pocket the Queen before being permitted to cover it, the turn continues but the Queen is returned to the centre at the end of the turn. If a player pockets the Queen and one of her own pieces in the same turn, this counts and that player has covered the Queen. Such a player must have already pocketed at least one piece in order to cover the Queen as per normal. When a player pockets the Queen but does not cover it, the Queen is returned as near as possible to the centre circle by the opponent. Other Rules Pieces returned to the centre can be placed on top of other pieces within the main circle. If pieces come to rest standing on their edge or overlapping another piece, they are left as they are until moved again in the normal course of play. If the striker comes to rest under another piece, the striker should be removed with as little disturbance to the covering piece as possible. Fouls When a player commits a foul, the turn comes to an end immediately and a penalty is incurred. The penalty is that one pocketed piece is returned to the board by the opponent anywhere within the main circle. Any other pieces requiring to be returned to the board are also placed within the main circle by the opponent. It is normal for pieces to be positioned in order to confer an advantage for the opponent. A foul is recorded in the following situations: The striker is pocketed. The striker or any other piece leaves the board. A player pockets an opponent's piece. If the Queen was also pocketed, it is returned to the centre by the opponent together with the penalty piece. Any other pieces pocketed in the same strike remain pocketed. A player pockets the final opponent's piece. Regardless of whether the Queen has been covered, the opponent's piece is returned to the centre in addition to the penalty piece. A player pockets the final piece before the Queen has been covered. In this case both the pocketed piece and a penalty piece are returned to the centre. A player contravenes the rules for striking. A player touches any piece in play, other than the striker. The first player to strike fails to break the counters in three attempts. Where a penalty is incurred but no pocketed pieces exist to return, the penalty is "owed" until a piece becomes available. If a penalty is owed, when a piece becomes available due to being pocketed, the piece is returned to the centre by the opponent at the end of the turn. Should the opponent forget to do this before the start of the next turn, any owed penalties are lost. Scoring At the end of the game the winner scores 1 point for each opponent's piece left on the board. If the winner has less than 24 points and the winner also covered the Queen, a bonus 5 points are scored. If the winner has 24 or more points, then no points are scored for covering the Queen. The maximum score for one game is therefore 14 points. A match is played to 29 points. Doubles Carrom is played by four people just as often as by two. For the doubles game, partners sit opposite one another and turns proceed in a clockwise order. Other than that, play is exactly the same as for the singles game. The game has a different character, though, because pieces behind the baseline can be safely left for the partner to deal with unlike in the singles game where pieces behind the baseline can only be moved by the opponent or by rebounding of the board edges. PRODUCTS Carrom Boards Carrom Boards Uber Games Carrom Uber Games Carrom Uber Games Tournament Carrom Uber Games Tournament Carrom Garden Games Carrom Board Garden Games Carrom Board Uber Championship Carrom Board Uber Championship Carrom Board These rules are provided by Masters Traditional Games, an Internet shop selling quality traditional games, pub games and unusual games. For information on copying and copyright, see our disclaimer. Our rules are comprehensive instructions for friendly play. If in doubt, always abide by locally-played or house rules. Copyright Masters Traditional Games © 2017. All rights reserved. Other Categories Playing Cards Antique/Used Practicalities Payment Security & Privacy Delivery & Postage Returns Policy Masters Games Contact Details About Us UK UK based but we ship globally Secure Hosting Credit Card Safe Amex Mastercard Maestro Visa Paypal Dell

Гуджарати

carrom board game rules

Последнее обновление: 2017-08-21
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Английский

Population Day World population day is an international level awareness campaign being celebrated all over the world to call people on stage to know the reason of this exploding population year by year as well as solve the big mistake of whole human fraternity. This great awareness event is to bring a population revolution globally as well as breaking sleep of all the deeply slept people to pay their full attention and help in combating this population issue. World Population Day 2017 World Population Day 2017 will be celebrated all over the world by the people on 11th of July at Tuesday. World Population Day History World Population Day is a great event being celebrated all through the world annually on 11th of July. It is celebrated to increase the awareness of the people towards the worldwide population issues. It was first started in the year 1989 by the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It was exalted by the interest of the public when the global population became near about five billion at 11th of July in the year 1987. The following message “Universal Access to Reproductive Health Services” was distributed worldwide by the theme of 2012th World Population Day celebration when the worldwide population was approximately 7,025,071,966. The big step was taken by the authority for more small and healthy society as well as sustainable future of the people. A crucial investment is made to fulfill the reproductive health care demands and supply. The step was taken for increasing the reproductive health as well as reducing the social poverty by reducing the population. It was the huge challenge for the development when the population on the earth has reached to around 7 billion in the year 2011. According to the decisions of the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme in the year 1989, it was recommended that 11th of July every year should be noticed by the community globally and celebrated as the World Population Day in order to raise the awareness among common public and find out the real solutions to combat with the population issues. It was started to focus the required attention of people towards the importance of population issues. Why World Population Day is celebrated The aim of the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme is paying great attention towards the reproductive health problems of the community people as it is the leading cause of the ill health as well as the death of the pregnant women worldwide. It has been distinguished that around 800 women are dying daily in the procedure of giving birth to a baby. The campaign of the World Population Day every year increases the knowledge and skills of the people worldwide towards their reproductive health and family planning. Around 1.8 billion youngsters are entering to their reproductive years and it’s very necessary to call their attention towards the primary part of the reproductive health. According to the statistics, it is noted that the world population on 1st of January 2014 has been reached to 7,137,661,030. The annual celebration of world population day is planned with lots of activities and events to make aware people about the reality. Through this great awareness celebration, people are encouraged to take part in the event to know about population issues like importance of family planning towards the increasing population, gender equality, maternal and baby health, poverty, human rights, right to health, sexuality education, use of contraceptives and safety measures like condoms, reproductive health, adolescent pregnancy, girl child education, child marriage, sexually transmitted infections and so many. Sexuality related issues are very necessary to get solved among youths especially between 15 to 19 years of age as according to the statistics it is noted that around 15 million women of this age give birth every year as well as around 4 million go through for abortion. Some of the objectives of celebrating the world population day are mentioned below: It is celebrated to protect and empower youths of both gender like girls and boys. To offer them detail knowledge about the sexuality and delay marriages till they become able to understand their responsibilities. Educate youths to avoid unwanted pregnancies by using reasonable and youth friendly measures. Educate people to remove the gender stereotypes from society. Educate them about the pregnancy related illnesses to raise the public awareness about dangers of early childbirth. Educate them about STD (sexually transmitted diseases) to get prevented from various infections. Demand for some effective laws and policies implementation in order to protect girl child rights. Make sure about the access of equal primary education to both girls and boys. Make sure the easy access of reproductive health services everywhere as part the basic primary health for each couple. How World Population Day is celebrated World population day is celebrated on international level by organizing variety of activities and events to draw attention of mass people to work together on the issues of growing population. Some of the activities include seminar discussions, educational competitions, educational information sessions, essay writing competition, public contests on various topics, poster distribution, songs, sports activity, speeches, poems, artwork, slogans, themes and messages distribution, workshops, lectures, debates, round table discussions, news distribution through press conferences, TV channels and news channels, relay of population related programmes on radio and television and so many. Various health organizations and population divisions works together to solve population issues by organizing conferences, research works, meetings, project analysis and etc. World Population Day Themes The theme of 2015 was”Vulnerable Populations in Emergencies”. The theme of 2014 was “A time to reflect on population trends and related issues” and “Investing in Young People”. The theme of 2013 was “Focus is on Adolescent Pregnancy”. The theme of 2012 was “Universal Access to Reproductive Health Services”. The theme of 2011 was “7 Billion Actions”. The theme of 2010 was “Be Counted: Say What You Need”. The theme of 2009 was “Fight Poverty: Educate Girls”. The theme of 2008 was “Plan Your Family, Plan Your Future”. The theme of 2007 was “Men at Work”. The theme of 2006 was “Being Young is Tough”. The theme of 2005 was “Equality Empowers”. The theme of 2004 was “ICPD at 10”. The theme of 2003 was “1,000,000,000 adolescents”. The theme of 2002 was “Poverty, Population and Development”. The theme of 2001 was “Population, Environment and Development”. The theme of 2000 was “Saving Women’s Lives”. The theme of 1999 was “Start the Count-up to the Day of Six Billion”. The theme of 1998 was “Approaching the Six Billion”. The theme of 1997 was “Adolescent Reproductive Health Care”. The theme of 1996 was “Reproductive Health and AIDS”. World Population Day Quotes “In order to stabilize world population, we must eliminate 350,000 per day”. – Jacques Yves Cousteau “Close to a billion people – one-eighth of the world’s population – still live in hunger. Each year 2 million children die through malnutrition. This is happening at a time when doctors in Britain are warning of the spread of obesity. We are eating too much while others starve”. – Jonathan Sacks “You cannot control your own population by force, but it can be distracted by consumption”. – Noam Chomsky “The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man”. – Thomas Malthus “A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero”. – Garrett Hardin “Every State has the primary duty to protect its own population from grave and sustained violations of human rights, as well as from the consequences of humanitarian crises, whether natural or man-made”. – Pope Benedict XVI “Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio”. – Thomas Malthus “Population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every 25 years or increases in a geometrical ratio”. – Thomas Malthus “Almost half of the population of the world lives in rural regions and mostly in a state of poverty. Such inequalities in human development have been one of the primary reasons for unrest and, in some parts of the world, even violence”. – A. P. J. Abdul Kalam “The point of population stabilization is to reduce or minimize misery”. – Roger Bengston “If we don’t halt population growth with justice and compassion, it will be done for us by nature, brutally and without pity- and will leave a ravaged world”. – Nobel Laureate Dr. Henry W. Kendall “When the family is small, whatever little they have they are able to share. There is peace”. – Philip Njuguna “Once it was necessary that the people should multiply and be fruitful if the race was to survive. But now to preserve the race it is necessary that people hold back the power of propagation”. – Helen Keller “As a woman leader, I thought I brought a different kind of leadership. I was interested in women’s issues, in bringing down the population growth rate… as a woman, I entered politics with an additional dimension – that of a mother”. – Benazir Bhutto “Rapid population growth and technological innovation, combined with our lack of understanding about how the natural systems of which we are a part work, have created a mess”. – David Suzuki “But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights”. – Garrett Hardin “Yet food is something that is taken for granted by most world leaders despite the fact that more than half of the population of the world is hungry”. – Norman Borlaug “Population growth is straining the Earth’s resources to the breaking point, and educating girls is the single most important factor in stabilizing that. That, plus helping women gain political and economic power and safeguarding their reproductive rights”. – Al Gore “The combination of population growth and the growth in consumption is a danger that we are not prepared for and something we will need global co-operation on”. – Maurice Strong

Гуджарати

વિશ્વ વસ્તી દિવસ ગુજરાતી નિબંધ

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Английский

ood morning, Rev. Father Principal, Rev. Father Vice-Principal, Rev. Father Boris D’Santos, my colleagues, dear students and very, very specially the outgoing batch of 2011. Today, on the 3rd of February, we have gathered here to bid farewell to this special group of young men, who after spending 12 years here, are waiting with indignation and anxiety, to leave the portals of this institution and step into a new world. Twelve long years have gone by in the making of you gentlemen! In these years, we have grown together - both you and us.... we have battled together... we have fallen together... and we have rejoiced together. You have always been the subject of our actions, the object of our thoughts and the compliment of our endeavours. It is through you gentlemen, that we have learnt so much. Yes, you have taught us so much! We thank you for it. It is through you that we, once again, experience the joys of school life....by being a part of your pranks, by sharing your secrets and by sharing your jokes. Your days of adolescence, I must admit, were the toughest to deal with. We at times, might have been a little too harsh with you. But trust me, it was not to hurt you, but to make men out of you. It is all part of the process. And today, as you stand at the other threshold of the institution, do not look back at what you have not done, but look forward to what you can do in the future and take with you the fond moments you cherished here. So, gentlemen, we give you to the world armored with the X- factor--- the XAVARIAN factor. Go! The world has a dearth of young educated men like you. Go! make the difference. Be righteous in your actions, dignified in your ways. Let your words bring happiness to others and your actions bring hope. Be good to people on your way up. They will hold you up when you tumble down. Believe in yourself, and you can do what you want to do. And some time in the future, do come back to tell us the stories of your success____ for in your success lies our live’s fulfillment. Before I end, I would like to share two lines with you____ I read it somewhere: The future lies before you like a hidden mass of snow, Be careful how you tread on it, for every mark will show. Thank you. Mrs Sandhya Sinha Class Teacher – 12A

Гуджарати

Please, specify two different languages

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Английский

1. Use Public Transportation: Use your vehicle a lot less often. Carpool and rideshare when you have the ability to do so and consider using public transportation instead of walking; that way, you aren’t contributing to all of the issues that the air is already dealing with before adding your car to the mix. 2. Drive Smart: If you are driving on a regular basis, make sure that you are driving smart instead of wasting gas. Drive within the speed limit, make sure that there aren’t a lot of things in your car that will weigh it down, and do all that you can to conserve the amount of gas that you will be using on a regular basis. 3. Do Regular Car Check Up: Its important for you to go for regular check up of your car to make sure it does not consume extra fuel. This will not only save you money but your car will also last longer. 4. Keep Car Tires Properly Inflated: Car consume more fuel when tires are not properly inflated and aligned. Keeping them properly inflated will lessen your impact on the environment. 5. Buy Energy Efficient Vehicles: Buy vehicles and other items that are helpful to the environment. There are so many options that you have now that are either efficient on gas or they are hybrids, so you don’t have to worry about them putting additional gas and pollution into the atmosphere. If you’re looking for a new car, go energy efficient if you can. 6. Consider “going green”: There are so many options for going green out there and a lot of them come with tax breaks that can make it even easier for you to do so. Look into your local, state, and even federal initiatives in order to see if they have something that can help you change your tune. 7. Plant a Garden: Plant a garden that is going to give the air the nutrients that it needs to be cleaner. There are so many plants out there that will eat up the junk in the atmosphere. Do your research and see what one(s) you can grow easily and that will help the world around you. 8. Use Low-VOC or Water-based Paints: Use paints that are based with water and not oil. The less oil products that you are using, the better off that you’re going to be because that means less oil is being produced overall. 9. Turn Off Lights When not in Use: Don’t keep the lights or other electric devices on. The more traditional power that you are using, the more energy you’re wasting and the more that you’re polluting the air. 10. Buy Green Electricity: Buy electricity generated from renewable energies i.e. hydroelectric, wind or solar power. 11. Make use of Solar Energy: Consider using solar power instead of regular power. Solar power can save a ton of energy for you and, on top of that, it could also end up saving you a lot of cash in the long run as well. 12. Use Natural Gas Instead of Charcoal: Use a propane or natural gas grill instead of charcoal. Then, you’re not putting fossil fuels into the air, which can be incredibly detrimental to the world around you. 13. Use a EPA Certified Woodstove: Use a EPA certified woodstove or fireplace instead of oil. Once again, the less oil you use, the better it is for the atmosphere. 14. Dry Clothes on Clothesline: Dry your clothes on a clothesline instead of trying to dry your clothes in a dryer. The less energy that you use, the better off it will be. 15. Always Use Recyclable Products: Always use recyclable products if you have access to them and the ability to choose them. They take less power to make than other products. 16. Use Both Sides of Paper: Use both sides of a piece of paper. Otherwise, you’re just being wasteful with the things that you are using. 17. Reuse Paper Bags: Reuse paper bags; they work really well for almost anything you can imagine and they are recycled in the first place. 18. Avoid Plastic Bags: They are made from oil products and they can hurt the environment because it takes them forever to decompose (and some never decompose). 19. Choose Products With Minimal Packaging: When it comes to buying items from outside, consider buying those with minimal packaging and are reusable. Even if they are packaged, try to buy the one with least packaging. 20. Use Broom Instead of Leaf Blower: Don’t use items that are going to kick up a lot of dust into the air; consider using other items instead. For example, instead of using a leaf blower, why not consider using a broom instead? 21. Don’t Use Hazardous Chemicals: If you’re using materials that have a lot of chemicals and smell strongly, consider using them outside and/or not using them at all. 22. Quit Smoking: Quit smoking and encourage those around you to do the same. The smoke is terrible for you and for the air quality around you as well. 23. Insulate the Leakages: Utilize insulation in and around your home in order to make it so that you don’t have to use as much energy in order to heat your home. 24. Consolidate Your Trips: Try to make sure that everything that you’re doing can be done in one trip instead of going out several times in your vehicle. That way, you’re using less gas while you’re out and about.

Гуджарати

huzeytu fu xeJe vh «tuz¾xle fu ’wftlle fu c{tkzle ònuht; fhJt:e ftb ÃËhwk :E sðþk l:e.

Последнее обновление: 2016-12-06
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Английский

The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada river near Navagam, Gujarat in India. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams on the Narmada river. The project took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity. One of the 30 dams planned on river Narmada, Sardar Sarovar Dam (SSD) is the largest structure to be built. Following a number of controversial cases before the Supreme Court of India (1999, 2000, 2003), by 2014 the Narmada Control Authority had approved a series of changes in the final height – and the associated displacement caused by the increased reservoir, from the original 80 m (260 ft) to a final 163 m (535 ft) from foundation.[2][3] The project will irrigate more than 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi), most of it in drought prone areas of Kutch and Saurashtra. The dam's main power plant houses six 200 MW Francis pump-turbines to generate electricity and include a pumped-storage capability. Additionally, a power plant on the intake for the main canal contains five 50 MW Kaplan turbine-generators. The total installed capacity of the power facilities is 1,450 MW. Its final configuration is the second largest concrete gravity dam (by volume) after Grand Coulee Dam in the US and has the world's third largest spillway discharging capacity.[4]

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Английский

Disasters fall into two major categories. These include man made and natural disasters. There is a major difference between these two and it is important to learn more about the same in order to increase your knowledge on the occurrence and causes of each and hence ensure that your disaster preparedness is heightened. For starters, natural disasters are brought about by change in natural phenomenon or what is known as acts of God. The extent of loss experienced is dependent on the vulnerability of the population. As such, this means that this can only occur in areas that are susceptible to vulnerability. On the other hand, man made disasters are influenced by humans and they are often as a result of negligence and human error among other factors. Natural disasters: Natural disasters include things such as floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, tornadoes, landslides and hurricanes. Man made disasters: These can be divided into different categories and they include technological hazards, sociological hazards and transportation hazards among others. Despite the difference between these two, it is ideal to note that they can cause irrevocable damage if the right measures are not put in place to avoid the same. This is where the need for disaster preparedness comes in. It goes a long way to cushion people from the after effects of such happenings. There are several sources that provide useful resources that make it possible to meet this end. Whether the disaster is natural or man made, the manner in which action is taken goes a long way to determine how people fair from the experience. In both instances, casualties should be treated immediately and the best way to meet this end is placing the necessary measures in place that counteract this. Note that the costs associated with handling of the man made and natural disasters run to billions of shillings every year and this negatively affects the economy. Man Made Disasters nuclear-bombMan made disasters are also known as anthropogenic disasters and they as a result of human intent, error or as a result of failed systems. As mentioned earlier, these are broken down into several categories and while this is the case, there are some that cause more pronounced damage when compared to others. A good example is to look at man made disasters such as transportation. These are divided into different categories which include aviation, rail, road and space among others. Often these are as a result of neglect or ignorance and over the years, they have claimed several lives. Another type of disaster that falls in this category is nuclear bomb. When this occurs, it is often as a result of intent and the end results are even more catastrophic with a large percentage of those involved losing their lives or alternatively ending up with major defects or long term injuries. Other types of man made disasters which are just as catastrophic include chemical spill, oil spill, arson and terrorism. There are also some technological hazards which include power outages structural collapse, industrial hazards and fire. In cases of the last example, thousands of kilometers of land can be destroyed and anything else that is in the wake of the fires path. Over the years, fires have come to be known as rampant man made disasters and they are also divided into different categories such as bush fires, mine, wild and firestorms. One of the most famous man made disasters in the form of fire was the Pennsylvania fire which was recorded in 1962. It left major distraction in its wake by destroying a town and to date, such fires continue to burn. Whenever people suffer injuries due to any of the mentioned man made factors, the condition is further aggravated if they don’t get any immediate health care. It is for this reason that it is considered important to take learn more about fire preparedness and the most logical strategies to use to reduce causalities percentages and aggravation of the situation. The extent of damage caused by man made disasters varies greatly and while this is the case, it is important to state that others have notably high costs when compared to others. This is especially true when it comes down to responding and recovering. When you carry out a basic search, you will come across several resources that highlight these costs and hence, this will give you a clearer glimpse of what damage is caused by such occurrences. Additionally, there are different factors which influence the costs such as location. For instance, if this were to occur in densely populated but wealthy countries, the end result might prove to be huge. However, if the same were to occur in densely populated but poor countries, the after effect costs might prove to be lower and this is in part closely tied to insurance. The death toll caused by man made disasters will also vary in accordance to geographical location and in this regard, the poorer countries are hardest hit when compared to the richer ones. This is attributed to the fact that the richer countries have what it take to respond with speed to calls of distress, and can implement the proper safety measures needed from a distance to handle things safely and rapidly. Modern technology plays a very important part in the way you respond and prepare for distasters. With financial backing, it is easy to meet this end. On the other hand, the poorer countries have no resources or assets to respond with. There are several resources that categorically highlight the casualties in such incidences and it is advisable to look into the same in order to become more informed. Natural Disasters tsunamiThe causes of natural disasters are as mentioned earlier. Disasters only occur when hazards come face to face with vulnerability. As such, when natural occurrences that bring about damage and there are no casualties, then it is not referred to as natural disasters. There are people who are of the school of thought that there is a difference between hazards and disaster and while this is the case, the after effects and casualties are almost always the same. There are some which have been termed as the most famous natural disasters and by learning more about them it becomes easier to handle the calamity when disaster strikes. In this category, some of the popular incidences include fires, tsunami, earthquakes, tornadoes and the floods. As a matter of fact, there are incidences when it is important to expound on some of these natural disasters in order to ensure that in case of any eventuality you are well prepared. For instance, earthquakes are known to occur in areas that are earthquake prone. This is defined as the shaking of earth crust and it is brought about by shifting of the tectonic plates. While this is a sudden and unanticipated shake, the magnitude varies and this is what determines the after effects and whether or not a large percentage of the population suffers from the same. Additionally, earthquakes are known to affects humans and animals alike. While the earthquake itself is not responsible for this, secondary effects which occur after the quake do. In most cases, this leads to collapse of buildings, triggering of fires and volcanoes among other man made disasters. Some of the quakes that went down history books as worst natural disasters include the Indian Ocean quake which is the third strongest world wide. It had a magnitude of 9.1-9.3. It is known to have triggered one of the most major tsunamis which claimed the lives of more than 229,000. The most recent one has to be the 2011 Tohuku quake and this one recorded a magnitude of 9.0. The death tool in this case is recorded to be more than 13,000 and to date more than 12,000 people are still recorded as missing. Other quakes worth noting include the java earthquake in 2006, the Chile quake in 2010. The last one was accompanied by tsunami that claimed more than 550 lives. Large buildings like land based casinos were reported to have been torn down like they were made of paper, as one casino news site reports. Floods are also known to cause some of the worst natural disasters and this is especially true when they are accompanied by hurricanes. Hundreds of thousands of lives have been lost due to this and consequently, it is ranked among the most dreaded occurrences. These often occur in areas that are flood prone and for this reason it is always advised to avoid living in such areas. Other types of natural disasters that are just as disastrous include blizzards, droughts, fires, health disasters and space disasters among others. The manner in which each of these incidences is handled varies in accordance to the magnitude of the natural disaster and how well people cope with the same. While natural disasters are an act of God and unstoppable, having the necessary precautionary measures in place to ensure that people are well prepared for the same goes a long way to ease the burden associated with such burdens making it less difficult to handle. What is more, if more people seek to get educated on such aspects, it becomes easier to handle any eventualities. The same could not be said about our ancestors before us. It is precisely due to these facts that the importance of preparedness cannot be overstressed. To cap it all, the world should unite in handling such occurrences to ease the burden placed on individual countries and especially those termed as third world countries.

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Английский

IMPORTANCE OF WATER Water is our lifeline that bathes us and feeds us. In ancient cultures water represented the very essence of life. The Romans were the first to pipe water into their growing cities, especially with their aqueducts. They also realized that sewage water could cause damage to their people, and needed to be removed from large areas of people. Water has played a role not only in the history of countries, but in religion, mythology, and art. Water in many religions cleanses the soul through holy water. For example, the water at Lourdes, France is thought by many religions to be sacred water with healing powers. In Egyptian mythology, the Nu was the beginning of everything and represented water. It brought life to their people, but in drought, produced chaos. Water has always been perceived as a gift from the gods as it rained from the heavens. The water or hydrologic cycle explains interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. The water or hydrologic cycle is a major driving force on our planet. Water is in constant motion, evaporating into the atmosphere from oceans, lakes, rivers and streams. When the atmosphere can no longer support the moisture within the clouds, we experience rain, snow, hail, or sleet. Some water is locked in the form of ice at the polar caps and in glaciers. Water melts in the spring, producing runoff, that percolates through the Earth as groundwater (subsurface) or makes its way back to the sea (surface). The oceans contain most of the water, but it is salt water which is unusable by most organisms. Only pure H2O (water) can interact with organisms. The movement of the oceans also has a direct effect on the atmosphere. The atmosphere is that envelope of gas that keeps organisms living on this planet. Oceans and atmosphere interact to give us weather. Water provides the Earth with the capacity of supporting life. An organism doesn’t have to be told how important water is to their existence. An amphibian knows to lay their eggs in water or else there will be no new born. Even flies know to lay their eggs in fresh water. The only organism that doesn’t understand the importance of water is humans, especially in industrialized countries. Children in those societies turn on the water in a sink and never think about the trouble someone has gone for that "miracle" to occur. In the United States it is mandated by law that its citizens should be given clean and abundant water. Dams, reservoirs, filtering plants, and pipes all bring clean water when the facet is turned on. Sewage water is only mixed with recycled water supplies after the water goes through rigorous cleaning methods. Water borne diseases do not effect the U.S. population like in other countries that do not treat their water supply. Water borne diseases are any illnesses caused by drinking contaminated water. Diseases can include infection from bacteria (Salmonella), viruses, or by small parasites (Cryptosporida, Giardia, and Toxoplasma). These organisms and viruses cause diseases like cholera, typhoid fever, malaria, botulism, polio, dysentery, giardia, and hepatitis A. One of the first symptoms of these diseases is diarrhea, which cause about three million deaths throughout the world, mainly in India, Africa, and South America. Sewage is sometimes discharged into rivers, where children downstream might be taking a bath or using the water to drink. The simplest treatment method is boiling. Just bring the water to a boil for at least one minute, then allow it to cool. But this is not always effective in heavily chemical polluted water supplies. Without water, organisms could not exist. Water is a resource that should not be taken for granted. It needs to be conserved, just as we save other valuable resources. Water is one of the weirdest compounds known to humans. The difference between the boiling point and freezing point of water is one of the largest ranges of any compound. It is this span of temperature that mirrors the range of where life can exist, from bacteria to humans. Water also has a very high specific heat, which means that it can absorb or lose much heat before its temperature changes. This is important in maintaining body heat in mammals. It also takes a lot of energy before vaporization can occur. For this reason, water evaporates slowly from ponds and lakes, where many life forms are dependent on a stable, warm environment. Water is less dense in its solid state than in its liquid state, so that ice floats instead of sinking. This property permits life to develop in polar and subpolar regions where ice floats and allows life to continue living below the surface. If ice were heavier than water, it would sink, and more ice would form on top of it. As a result, all life in the waters would be trapped in the ice in the many areas of the world where it gets cold enough to freeze water. Water is a remarkable solvent, where most elements and compounds can dissolve in its powerful molecular structure. Gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, can also dissolve, making it readily available for photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organisms to use. . Water also exhibits viscosity. One can observe the effects of viscosity alongside a stream or river with uniform banks. The water along the banks is nearly still, while the current in the center may be swift. This resistance between the layers is called viscosity. This property allows smaller fish to live near the shore, while larger fish are able to swim efficiently in strong currents. Viscosity is also responsible for the formation of eddies, creating turbulence that leads to good mixing of air in the water and more uniform distribution of microscopic organisms. How water provides all these properties are complex, but only emphasizes the importance of water to every organism on Earth.

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Английский

Energy consumption (and costs) Do you know in actual we are consuming more electricity or paying more amounts what we actually not use it ? According to the energy auditors we can easily save between 5 and 10% of their energy consumption (and costs) by changing our behavior such as switching electrical equipment off at the mains rather than leaving it on standby, turning off lights when they’re not being used By saving Electrical energy will directly reflected to saving money so it is very necessary to under stood ghost unit or amount which we are paying without using the appliances. The major appliances in your home — refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers — account for a big chunk of your monthly utility bill. And if your refrigerator or washing machine is more than a decade old, you’re spending a lot more on energy than you need to. Today’s major appliances don’t hog energy the way older models do because they must meet minimum federal energy efficiency standards. These standards have been tightened over the years, so any new appliance you buy today has to use less energy than the model you’re replacing. For instance, if you buy one of today’s most energy-efficient refrigerators, it will use less than half the energy of a model that’s 12 years old or older. Top Lighting • Get into the habit of turning lights off when you leave a room. —-Saving Energy 0.5 % • Use task lighting (table and desktop lamps) instead of room lighting. • Take advantage of daylight • De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination—–Saving Energy 1 % • Compact fluorescent bulbs (CFL): 1. CFL use 75% less energy than Normal bulbs. 2. CFL are four times more energy efficient than Normal bulbs. 3. CFL can last up to ten times longer than a normal bulb. • Use electronic chokes. in place of conventional copper chokes.—-Saving Energy 2 % • Get into the habit of turning lights off when you leave a room. • Use only one bulb for light fittings with more than one light bulb, or replace additional bulbs with a lower wattage version. • Use energy-saving light bulbs that can last up to ten times longer than a normal bulb and use significantly less energy. A single 20- to 25-watt energy-saving bulb provides as much light as a 100-watt ordinary bulb. • Use tungsten halogen bulbs for spotlights—they last longer and are up to 100% more efficient. • Fit external lights with a motion sensor. • Use high frequency fittings for fluorescent tubes because they cut flicker and are even more efficient than energy-saving light bulbs. They are suitable for kitchens, halls, workshops and garages. Save on Your Fridge & Freezer: • Defrost your fridge regularly. • Check that the door seals are strong and intact. • Don’t stand Freezer’s Back Side too near the Wall. • Avoid putting warm or hot food in the fridge or freezer—it requires more energy to cool it down. • Clean condenser coils twice a year. • Get rid of old refrigerators! They use twice the energy as new Energy Star® models. • Keep refrigerators full but not overcrowded. • Defrost your fridge regularly. When ice builds up, your freezer uses more electricity. If it frosts up again quickly, check that the door seals are strong and intact. • Do not stand the fridge next to the oven or other hot appliances if you can help it. Also ensure there is plenty of ventilation space behind and above it. • Keep the fridge at 40°F and the freezer at 0°F. Empty and then turn your fridge off if you go on a long vacation (but make sure you leave the door open). • Aim to keep your fridge at least three-quarters full to maintain maximum efficiency. A full fridge is a healthy fridge. • Avoid putting warm or hot food in the fridge or freezer—it requires more energy to cool it down. Air Condition Unit • For Home Purpose use Window unit Instead Of Split Unit. • For Office and Commercial Purpose Use Split AC instead of Window unit. • Consider installing a programmable t. Just set the times and temperatures to match your schedule and you will save money and be comfortably cool when you return home. • Get air conditioner maintenance each year. • Checks the condenser coils, the evaporator coils, the blower wheel, the filter, the lubrication and the electrical contacts. • Replace worn and dirty equipment for maximum efficiency. • Replace air conditioner filters every month. • Turn off central air conditioning 30 minutes before leaving your home. • Consider using ceiling or portable fans to circulate and cool the air. • Try increasing your air conditioner temperature. Even 1 degree higher could mean significant savings, and you will probably not notice the difference. • Keep central air conditioner usage to a minimum—or even turn the unit off – if you plan to go away. • Consider installing a programmable thermostat. Just set the times and temperatures to match your schedule, and you will save money and be comfortably cool when you return home. • Get air conditioner maintenance each year – ensure your service person checks the condenser coils, the evaporator coils, the blower wheel, the filter, the lubrication and the electrical contacts. Replace worn and dirty equipment for maximum efficiency. • Replace air conditioner filters every month. • Buy the proper size equipment to meet your family’s needs – an oversized air conditioner unit will waste energy. • If you have a furnace, replace it at the same time as your air conditioner system. Why? Because it is your furnace fan that blows cool air around your home, and a newer furnace fan provides improved air circulation all year round, plus saves energy costs. Water Heater • Check your hot water temperature. It does not need to be any higher than 140°F for washing purposes. • Plug the basin or bath when you run any hot water. • Use a timer to make sure the heating and hot water are only on when needed. • Insulate your hot water pipes to prevent heat loss, and your water will stay hotter for longer. Plus, you will also use less energy to heat it. And simply fitting a jacket onto your hot water tank can cut waste by up to three quarters. • Take showers—a bath consumes 5 times more hot water. Buy a low-flow showerhead for more efficiency and it will pay for itself in no time. • Avoid washing dishes under hot running water, and do not pre-rinse before using the dishwasher. • Repair dripping hot water taps immediately • Make sure hot water taps are always turned off properly. Washing Machine • Wash full loads of Washing Machine—you will use your machine less often, saving time, and it is more energy-efficient. • Wash at a lower temperature or the economy setting to save even more. • Use the spin cycle, and then hang washing out rather than tumble drying—your clothes and linens will smell fresher! • If you need to tumble dry, try a lower temperature setting. • Use your dryer for consecutive loads, because the built-up heat between loads will use less energy. Oven/Electrical Cooker • Make sure your oven door closes tightly. • Use a microwave rather than conventional oven, when possible. • Keep the center of the pan over the element, and keep the lid on when cooking on the stovetop. • Only boil the amount of water that you need—just ensure there is enough water to cover the heating element. Turn the element or electric kettle down as soon as it reaches the boiling point. Computer / Laptop • Buy a laptop instead of a desktop, if practical. —-Saving Energy 5 %. • If you buy a desktop, get an LCD screen instead of an outdated CRT. • Use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approx 40%. • Turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system’s energy. • Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. • Use separate On/Off switch Socket Instead of One. • Laser printers use more electricity than inkjet printers. Fan • A ceiling fan in operation through out night will gobble up 22 units in a month. • There is a wrong notion that fan at more speed would consume more current. • Fan running at slow speed would waste energy as heat in the regulator. • The ordinary regulator would take 20 watts extra at low speed. • The energy loss can be compensated by using electronic regulator Buy efficient electric appliances: • They use two to 10 times less electricity for the same functionality, and are mostly higher quality products that last longer than the less efficient ones. In short, efficient appliances save you lots of energy and money. • In many countries, efficiency rating labels are mandatory on most appliances. Look Energy Star label is used. • The label gives you information on the annual electricity consumption. In the paragraphs below, we provide some indication of the consumption of the most efficient appliances to use as a rough guide when shopping. Lists of brands and models and where to find them are country-specific and so cannot be listed here, but check the links on this page for more detailed information. • Average consumption of electric appliances in different regions in the world, compared with the high efficient models on the market Ghost consumers: • Identify the “ghost consumers” which consume power – not because they are in use, but because they are plugged in and are in stand-by mode. • The TV consumes 10 watt power When It’s is in Stand by Mode. Ex. TV is in stand-by-mode for 10 hours a Day. Energy Consumption / Day= 10 X 10 = 100 Watts. = 0.1 KWH. Energy consumption / Month= 1X100X30=3000 Watts=3KWH ( Unit) . Energy Consumption in Rupees. = 3 X 4 = 12 Rs/Month. • The TV consumes 5 watt power when we don’t plug out from switch Board. Ex. TV is in un Plug Mode for 10 hours a Day. Energy Consumption / Day= 5 X 10 = 50 Watts. = 0.05 KWH. Energy consumption / Month= 1X50X30= 1500 Watts=1.5 KWH ( Unit) . Energy Consumption in Rupees. = 1.5 X 4 = 6 Rs/Month. • The cell phone charger uses 3 watt per hour when plugged. • Mosquito mats consume 5 watts per hour. • If you use an electric geyser, do not leave it in thermostat mode, for it causes standing losses of 1-1.5 units. ઊર્જા વપરાશ (અને ખર્ચ) તમે ખરેખર ખબર છે કે અમે વધુ વીજળી વપરાશ અથવા વધુ ચૂકવણી કરવામાં આવે છે નથી જેટલી અમે ખરેખર તે ઉપયોગ નથી શું? Last Update:2016-06-01 Subject: all Quality: Excellent Energy consumption (and costs) Do you know in actual we are consuming more electricity or paying more amounts what we actually not use it ? According to the energy auditors we can easily save between 5 and 10% of their energy consumption (and costs) by changing our behavior such as switching electrical equipment off at the mains rather than leaving it on standby, turning off lights when they’re not being used By saving Electrical energy will directly reflected to saving money so it is very necessary to under stood ghost unit or amount which we are paying without using the appliances. The major appliances in your home — refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers — account for a big chunk of your monthly utility bill. And if your refrigerator or washing machine is more than a decade old, you’re spending a lot more on energy than you need to. Today’s major appliances don’t hog energy the way older models do because they must meet minimum federal energy efficiency standards. These standards have been tightened over the years, so any new appliance you buy today has to use less energy than the model you’re replacing. For instance, if you buy one of today’s most energy-efficient refrigerators, it will use less than half the energy of a model that’s 12 years old or older. Top Lighting • Get into the habit of turning lights off when you leave a room. —-Saving Energy 0.5 % • Use task lighting (table and desktop lamps) instead of room lighting. • Take advantage of daylight • De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination—–Saving Energy 1 % • Compact fluorescent bulbs (CFL): 1. CFL use 75% less energy than Normal bulbs. 2. CFL are four times more energy efficient than Normal bulbs. 3. CFL can last up to ten times longer than a normal bulb. • Use electronic chokes. in place of conventional copper chokes.—-Saving Energy 2 % • Get into the habit of turning lights off when you leave a room. • Use only one bulb for light fittings with more than one light bulb, or replace additional bulbs with a lower wattage version. • Use energy-saving light bulbs that can last up to ten times longer than a normal bulb and use significantly less energy. A single 20- to 25-watt energy-saving bulb provides as much light as a 100-watt ordinary bulb. • Use tungsten halogen bulbs for spotlights—they last longer and are up to 100% more efficient. • Fit external lights with a motion sensor. • Use high frequency fittings for fluorescent tubes because they cut flicker and are even more efficient than energy-saving light bulbs. They are suitable for kitchens, halls, workshops and garages. Save on Your Fridge & Freezer: • Defrost your fridge regularly. • Check that the door seals are strong and intact. • Don’t stand Freezer’s Back Side too near the Wall. • Avoid putting warm or hot food in the fridge or freezer—it requires more energy to cool it down. • Clean condenser coils twice a year. • Get rid of old refrigerators! They use twice the energy as new Energy Star® models. • Keep refrigerators full but not overcrowded. • Defrost your fridge regularly. When ice builds up, your freezer uses more electricity. If it frosts up again quickly, check that the door seals are strong and intact. • Do not stand the fridge next to the oven or other hot appliances if you can help it. Also ensure there is plenty of ventilation space behind and above it. • Keep the fridge at 40°F and the freezer at 0°F. Empty and then turn your fridge off if you go on a long vacation (but make sure you leave the door open). • Aim to keep your fridge at least three-quarters full to maintain maximum efficiency. A full fridge is a healthy fridge. • Avoid putting warm or hot food in the fridge or freezer—it requires more energy to cool it down. Air Condition Unit • For Home Purpose use Window unit Instead Of Split Unit. • For Office and Commercial Purpose Use Split AC instead of Window unit. • Consider installing a programmable t. Just set the times and temperatures to match your schedule and you will save money and be comfortably cool when you return home. • Get air conditioner maintenance each year. • Checks the condenser coils, the evaporator coils, the blower wheel, the filter, the lubrication and the electrical contacts. • Replace worn and dirty equipment for maximum efficiency. • Replace air conditioner filters every month. • Turn off central air conditioning 30 minutes before leaving your home. • Consider using ceiling or portable fans to circulate and cool the air. • Try increasing your air conditioner temperature. Even 1 degree higher could mean significant savings, and you will probably not notice the difference. • Keep central air conditioner usage to a minimum—or even turn the unit off – if you plan to go away. • Consider installing a programmable thermostat. Just set the times and temperatures to match your schedule, and you will save money and be comfortably cool when you return home. • Get air conditioner maintenance each year – ensure your service person checks the condenser coils, the evaporator coils, the blower wheel, the filter, the lubrication and the electrical contacts. Replace worn and dirty equipment for maximum efficiency. • Replace air conditioner filters every month. • Buy the proper size equipment to meet your family’s needs – an oversized air conditioner unit will waste energy. • If you have a furnace, replace it at the same time as your air conditioner system. Why? Because it is your furnace fan that blows cool air around your home, and a newer furnace fan provides improved air circulation all year round, plus saves energy costs. Water Heater • Check your hot water temperature. It does not need to be any higher than 140°F for washing purposes. • Plug the basin or bath when you run any hot water. • Use a timer to make sure the heating and hot water are only on when needed. • Insulate your hot water pipes to prevent heat loss, and your water will stay hotter for longer. Plus, you will also use less energy to heat it. And simply fitting a jacket onto your hot water tank can cut waste by up to three quarters. • Take showers—a bath consumes 5 times more hot water. Buy a low-flow showerhead for more efficiency and it will pay for itself in no time. • Avoid washing dishes under hot running water, and do not pre-rinse before using the dishwasher. • Repair dripping hot water taps immediately • Make sure hot water taps are always turned off properly. Washing Machine • Wash full loads of Washing Machine—you will use your machine less often, saving time, and it is more energy-efficient. • Wash at a lower temperature or the economy setting to save even more. • Use the spin cycle, and then hang washing out rather than tumble drying—your clothes and linens will smell fresher! • If you need to tumble dry, try a lower temperature setting. • Use your dryer for consecutive loads, because the built-up heat between loads will use less energy. Oven/Electrical Cooker • Make sure your oven door closes tightly. • Use a microwave rather than conventional oven, when possible. • Keep the center of the pan over the element, and keep the lid on when cooking on the stovetop. • Only boil the amount of water that you need—just ensure there is enough water to cover the heating element. Turn the element or electric kettle down as soon as it reaches the boiling point. Computer / Laptop • Buy a laptop instead of a desktop, if practical. —-Saving Energy 5 %. • If you buy a desktop, get an LCD screen instead of an outdated CRT. • Use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approx 40%. • Turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system’s energy. • Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. • Use separate On/Off switch Socket Instead of One. • Laser printers use more electricity than inkjet printers. Fan • A ceiling fan in operation through out night will gobble up 22 units in a month. • There is a wrong notion that fan at more speed would consume more current. • Fan running at slow speed would waste energy as heat in the regulator. • The ordinary regulator would take 20 watts extra at low speed. • The energy loss can be compensated by using electronic regulator Buy efficient electric appliances: • They use two to 10 times less electricity for the same functionality, and are mostly higher quality products that last longer than the less efficient ones. In short, efficient appliances save you lots of energy and money. • In many countries, efficiency rating labels are mandatory on most appliances. Look Energy Star label is used. • The label gives you information on the annual electricity consumption. In the paragraphs below, we provide some indication of the consumption of the most efficient appliances to use as a rough guide when shopping. Lists of brands and models and where to find them are country-specific and so cannot be listed here, but check the links on this page for more detailed information. • Average consumption of electric appliances in different regions in the world, compared with the high efficient models on the market Ghost consumers: • Identify the “ghost consumers” which consume power – not becaus

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ઊર્જા વપરાશ (અને ખર્ચ) તમે ખરેખર ખબર છે કે અમે વધુ વીજળી વપરાશ અથવા વધુ ચૂકવણી કરવામાં આવે છે નથી જેટલી અમે ખરેખર તે ઉપયોગ નથી શું?

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Energy consumption (and costs) Do you know in actual we are consuming more electricity or paying more amounts what we actually not use it ? According to the energy auditors we can easily save between 5 and 10% of their energy consumption (and costs) by changing our behavior such as switching electrical equipment off at the mains rather than leaving it on standby, turning off lights when they’re not being used By saving Electrical energy will directly reflected to saving money so it is very necessary to under stood ghost unit or amount which we are paying without using the appliances. The major appliances in your home — refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers — account for a big chunk of your monthly utility bill. And if your refrigerator or washing machine is more than a decade old, you’re spending a lot more on energy than you need to. Today’s major appliances don’t hog energy the way older models do because they must meet minimum federal energy efficiency standards. These standards have been tightened over the years, so any new appliance you buy today has to use less energy than the model you’re replacing. For instance, if you buy one of today’s most energy-efficient refrigerators, it will use less than half the energy of a model that’s 12 years old or older. Top Lighting • Get into the habit of turning lights off when you leave a room. —-Saving Energy 0.5 % • Use task lighting (table and desktop lamps) instead of room lighting. • Take advantage of daylight • De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination—–Saving Energy 1 % • Compact fluorescent bulbs (CFL): 1. CFL use 75% less energy than Normal bulbs. 2. CFL are four times more energy efficient than Normal bulbs. 3. CFL can last up to ten times longer than a normal bulb. • Use electronic chokes. in place of conventional copper chokes.—-Saving Energy 2 % • Get into the habit of turning lights off when you leave a room. • Use only one bulb for light fittings with more than one light bulb, or replace additional bulbs with a lower wattage version. • Use energy-saving light bulbs that can last up to ten times longer than a normal bulb and use significantly less energy. A single 20- to 25-watt energy-saving bulb provides as much light as a 100-watt ordinary bulb. • Use tungsten halogen bulbs for spotlights—they last longer and are up to 100% more efficient. • Fit external lights with a motion sensor. • Use high frequency fittings for fluorescent tubes because they cut flicker and are even more efficient than energy-saving light bulbs. They are suitable for kitchens, halls, workshops and garages. Save on Your Fridge & Freezer: • Defrost your fridge regularly. • Check that the door seals are strong and intact. • Don’t stand Freezer’s Back Side too near the Wall. • Avoid putting warm or hot food in the fridge or freezer—it requires more energy to cool it down. • Clean condenser coils twice a year. • Get rid of old refrigerators! They use twice the energy as new Energy Star® models. • Keep refrigerators full but not overcrowded. • Defrost your fridge regularly. When ice builds up, your freezer uses more electricity. If it frosts up again quickly, check that the door seals are strong and intact. • Do not stand the fridge next to the oven or other hot appliances if you can help it. Also ensure there is plenty of ventilation space behind and above it. • Keep the fridge at 40°F and the freezer at 0°F. Empty and then turn your fridge off if you go on a long vacation (but make sure you leave the door open). • Aim to keep your fridge at least three-quarters full to maintain maximum efficiency. A full fridge is a healthy fridge. • Avoid putting warm or hot food in the fridge or freezer—it requires more energy to cool it down. Air Condition Unit • For Home Purpose use Window unit Instead Of Split Unit. • For Office and Commercial Purpose Use Split AC instead of Window unit. • Consider installing a programmable t. Just set the times and temperatures to match your schedule and you will save money and be comfortably cool when you return home. • Get air conditioner maintenance each year. • Checks the condenser coils, the evaporator coils, the blower wheel, the filter, the lubrication and the electrical contacts. • Replace worn and dirty equipment for maximum efficiency. • Replace air conditioner filters every month. • Turn off central air conditioning 30 minutes before leaving your home. • Consider using ceiling or portable fans to circulate and cool the air. • Try increasing your air conditioner temperature. Even 1 degree higher could mean significant savings, and you will probably not notice the difference. • Keep central air conditioner usage to a minimum—or even turn the unit off – if you plan to go away. • Consider installing a programmable thermostat. Just set the times and temperatures to match your schedule, and you will save money and be comfortably cool when you return home. • Get air conditioner maintenance each year – ensure your service person checks the condenser coils, the evaporator coils, the blower wheel, the filter, the lubrication and the electrical contacts. Replace worn and dirty equipment for maximum efficiency. • Replace air conditioner filters every month. • Buy the proper size equipment to meet your family’s needs – an oversized air conditioner unit will waste energy. • If you have a furnace, replace it at the same time as your air conditioner system. Why? Because it is your furnace fan that blows cool air around your home, and a newer furnace fan provides improved air circulation all year round, plus saves energy costs. Water Heater • Check your hot water temperature. It does not need to be any higher than 140°F for washing purposes. • Plug the basin or bath when you run any hot water. • Use a timer to make sure the heating and hot water are only on when needed. • Insulate your hot water pipes to prevent heat loss, and your water will stay hotter for longer. Plus, you will also use less energy to heat it. And simply fitting a jacket onto your hot water tank can cut waste by up to three quarters. • Take showers—a bath consumes 5 times more hot water. Buy a low-flow showerhead for more efficiency and it will pay for itself in no time. • Avoid washing dishes under hot running water, and do not pre-rinse before using the dishwasher. • Repair dripping hot water taps immediately • Make sure hot water taps are always turned off properly. Washing Machine • Wash full loads of Washing Machine—you will use your machine less often, saving time, and it is more energy-efficient. • Wash at a lower temperature or the economy setting to save even more. • Use the spin cycle, and then hang washing out rather than tumble drying—your clothes and linens will smell fresher! • If you need to tumble dry, try a lower temperature setting. • Use your dryer for consecutive loads, because the built-up heat between loads will use less energy. Oven/Electrical Cooker • Make sure your oven door closes tightly. • Use a microwave rather than conventional oven, when possible. • Keep the center of the pan over the element, and keep the lid on when cooking on the stovetop. • Only boil the amount of water that you need—just ensure there is enough water to cover the heating element. Turn the element or electric kettle down as soon as it reaches the boiling point. Computer / Laptop • Buy a laptop instead of a desktop, if practical. —-Saving Energy 5 %. • If you buy a desktop, get an LCD screen instead of an outdated CRT. • Use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approx 40%. • Turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system’s energy. • Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. • Use separate On/Off switch Socket Instead of One. • Laser printers use more electricity than inkjet printers. Fan • A ceiling fan in operation through out night will gobble up 22 units in a month. • There is a wrong notion that fan at more speed would consume more current. • Fan running at slow speed would waste energy as heat in the regulator. • The ordinary regulator would take 20 watts extra at low speed. • The energy loss can be compensated by using electronic regulator Buy efficient electric appliances: • They use two to 10 times less electricity for the same functionality, and are mostly higher quality products that last longer than the less efficient ones. In short, efficient appliances save you lots of energy and money. • In many countries, efficiency rating labels are mandatory on most appliances. Look Energy Star label is used. • The label gives you information on the annual electricity consumption. In the paragraphs below, we provide some indication of the consumption of the most efficient appliances to use as a rough guide when shopping. Lists of brands and models and where to find them are country-specific and so cannot be listed here, but check the links on this page for more detailed information. • Average consumption of electric appliances in different regions in the world, compared with the high efficient models on the market Ghost consumers: • Identify the “ghost consumers” which consume power – not because they are in use, but because they are plugged in and are in stand-by mode. • The TV consumes 10 watt power When It’s is in Stand by Mode. Ex. TV is in stand-by-mode for 10 hours a Day. Energy Consumption / Day= 10 X 10 = 100 Watts. = 0.1 KWH. Energy consumption / Month= 1X100X30=3000 Watts=3KWH ( Unit) . Energy Consumption in Rupees. = 3 X 4 = 12 Rs/Month. • The TV consumes 5 watt power when we don’t plug out from switch Board. Ex. TV is in un Plug Mode for 10 hours a Day. Energy Consumption / Day= 5 X 10 = 50 Watts. = 0.05 KWH. Energy consumption / Month= 1X50X30= 1500 Watts=1.5 KWH ( Unit) . Energy Consumption in Rupees. = 1.5 X 4 = 6 Rs/Month. • The cell phone charger uses 3 watt per hour when plugged. • Mosquito mats consume 5 watts per hour. • If you use an electric geyser, do not leave it in thermostat mode, for it causes standing losses of 1-1.5 units.

Гуджарати

ઊર્જા વપરાશ (અને ખર્ચ) તમે ખરેખર ખબર છે કે અમે વધુ વીજળી વપરાશ અથવા વધુ ચૂકવણી કરવામાં આવે છે નથી જેટલી અમે ખરેખર તે ઉપયોગ નથી શું?

Последнее обновление: 2016-06-01
Тематика: Общая тематика
Частота использования: 1
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