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Английский

Хинди

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Английский

Aids

Хинди

एड्स

Последнее обновление: 2013-09-21
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Английский

AIDS

Хинди

एड़ज (उपर्जित प्रतिरक्षा ह्रास के लक्षण)

Последнее обновление: 2013-06-12
Тематика: Сельское хозяйство и фермерство
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Английский

AIDS

Хинди

Aids

Последнее обновление: 2012-11-30
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Английский

HIV/AIDS

Хинди

एड्स

Последнее обновление: 2014-07-06
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Английский

audiovisual aids

Хинди

दृश्य - श्रव्य साधन

Последнее обновление: 2013-06-12
Тематика: Сельское хозяйство и фермерство
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Английский

processing aids

Хинди

संसाधन सहायक

Последнее обновление: 2013-06-12
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Английский

short drama script on aids

Хинди

एड्स पर लघु नाटक की पटकथा

Последнее обновление: 2017-04-27
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Английский

trancelateGuidance and Counselling- definition, principles, functions, difference Journal Published: June 26, 2014 Definitions of guidance Guidance is a process through with an individual is able to solve their problems and pursue a path suited to their abilities and aspirations. (Brewer) Guidance is a facilitative service, which provide aids to pupils and staff To help pupils determine the courses most appropriate to their needs and abilities To find instructors who will be more sympathetic to their individual requirements and seek out activities which will help them to realize their presentation ( McBaniel) Guidance is an aspect of educational programme which is concerned especially with helping the pupil to become adjusted to her present situation and to plan his future in line with her interests, abilities and social needs. (Hamrin and Erikson) Meaning of guidance Guidance is all round assistance to individual in all aspect of his or her development. It makes use of the science of psychology to determine the attitude, interest , intelligence, personality and the discipline of the education for providing right and suitable assistance. It has the characteristic of It is a process of helping or assisting an individual to solve their problems. It help them to identify where to go, what to do and how to do for post accomplishment of their goals. It is a continuous process which start right from childhood , adolescence and continues over in old age. It is assistance to the individual in the process of development rather than direction of that development. It is a service meant for all: its regular service which is required for every student, not only for abnormal students. Guidance is an organized service not in incidental activity of the school. Guidance is more an art than science. Guidance is centered around the needs and aspiration of students. Principles of guidance According to Crow and Crow there are 14 significant principles for guidance they are Every aspect of person’s complex personality pattern constitutes a significant factor of his total displayed attitudes and form of behavior. Guidance service which are aimed at bringing about desirable adjustments in any particular area of experience must take in to account, the all round development of the individual. Although all human beings are similar in many respect, individual difference must be recognized and considered in any effort aimed at providing help or guidance to a particular child. The functions of the guidance is to help a person Formulate and accept stimulating , worthwhile and attainable goals of behavior Apply the goals to conduct his behavior. Existing social, economic and politic unrest is giving rise to many maladaptive factors that require the cooperation of experienced and thoroughly trained guidance workers and the individuals with the problem. Guidance should be regarded as a continuing process of service to an individual from young childhood through adulthood. Guidance service should not be limited to the few who give observable evidence of its need, but should be extended to the all person of all ages who can benefit there from either directly or indirectly. Curriculum materials and teaching procedure should evidence a guidance point of view. Parents and teachers have guidance appointed responsibilities. To administer guidance intelligently and with as thorough knowledge of the individual as is possible , programs of individual evaluation should be conducted and accurate consultative records of progress should made accessible to guidance workers. An organized guidance programme should be flexible according to the individual and social needs. The responsibilities for administration of guidance programme should be centered in a personally qualified and adequately trained person, working cooperatively with his assistance and other community welfare and guidance agencies. Periodical appraisal should be made for existing guidance programmes. Guidance touches every phase of an individual’s life pattern. Specific guidance problems on any age level should be referred to persons who are trained to deal with particular areas of adjustment. Difference between guidance and counseling Guidance is mainly preventive and developmental where as counseling is remedial as well as preventive and developmental. Intellectual attitudes are the raw material of guidance but emotional rather than pure intellectual attitude are the raw materials of counseling process. In guidance decision making operable at intellectual level, where as in counseling it operate at emotional level. In educational context, counseling service is one among various service offered by guidance programme. Functions of guidance and counseling Guidance and counseling have three fold functions namely adjustmental , orientataional and development. Adjustmental They help the student in making the best possible adjustment to the current situation in the educational institution in the home and the community. It enable the student to accept the things which they cannot change in life and differentiate what they can change and cannot change in life. Orientational They orient the student in the problem of cancer planning, educational programming and direction towards long term personal aims and values. Developmental It is concerned with helping the people to achieve self development and self realization. Need of guidance and counseling The need for guidance and counseling can be summarize as To help is the total development of the students. To arise students in leading a healthy life by abstaining from whatever is deterious to health. To help the proper selection of educational programme. To select career according to their interest and abilities. To help students in vocational development. To develop readiness for change and to face challenges. To help freshers to establish proper written. To identify and motivate students of the weaker society. To help the students to overcome the period of turmoil and confusions. Ensure proper utilization of time –spend outside the class. To help in tackling problems arising out of student exploration and co-education. To minimize the indiscipline. To motivate youth for self employment

Хинди

trancelate

Последнее обновление: 2016-12-13
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Английский

short drama script of aids

Хинди

एड्स के लघु नाटक की पटकथा

Последнее обновление: 2016-11-24
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Английский

Various anabolic steroids and related compoundsSince the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the 1930s, anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success, for the treatment of:Bone marrow stimulation: For decades, anabolic steroids were the mainstay of therapy for hypoplastic anemias due to leukemia or kidney failure, especially aplastic anemia.[7] Anabolic steroids have largely been replaced in this setting by synthetic protein hormones (such as epoetin alfa) that selectively stimulate growth of blood cell precursors.Growth stimulation: Anabolic steroids can be used by pediatric endocrinologists to treat children with growth failure.[8] However, the availability of synthetic growth hormone, which has fewer side effects, makes this a secondary treatment.Stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of muscle mass: Anabolic steroids have been given to people with chronic wasting conditions such as cancer and AIDS.[9][10]Induction of male puberty: Androgens are given to many boys distressed about extreme delay of puberty. Testosterone is now nearly the only androgen used for this purpose and has been shown to increase height, weight, and fat-free mass in boys with delayed puberty.[11]Male contraception, in the form of testosterone enanthate; potential for use in the near-future as a safe, reliable, and reversible male contraceptive.[12][13]Stimulation of lean body mass and prevention of bone loss in elderly men, as some studies indicate.[14][15][16] However, a 2006 placebo-controlled trial of low-dose testosterone supplementation in elderly men with low levels of testosterone found no benefit on body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, or quality of life.[17]Hormone replacement for men with low levels of testosterone; also effective in improving libido for elderly males.[18][19][20][21]Gender dysphoria, by producing secondary male characteristics, such as a deeper voice, increased bone and muscle mass, facial hair, increased levels of red blood cells, and clitoral enlargement in trans man patients,[22] among other people designated female at birth or who develop female secondary sexual characteristics but desire to rather be read as male or look more ambiguous, such as a number of non-binary transgender people,[23][24][25][26] both intersex and dyadic, and dysphoric non-transgender intersex men.[27][28]Increased Maximum Inspiratory Pressure: A study in "Research in Sports Medicine" has found that the combination of resistance training and anabolic steroid administration produce a significant increase in MIP in a cohort of long-term AAS users.[29]

Хинди

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Последнее обновление: 2016-05-03
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Английский

hindi essay difference between boys and girlAs a good postfeminist-era mom, I certainly didn't push my son toward trucks and my daughter toward tutus. If anything, I went out of my way to avoid giving them gender-stereotyped toys, offering glittery finger paint to my son and trains to my daughter. But it didn't matter: My son turned his doll's crib into a race car and my daughter was obsessed with shoes. Even though I'm a psychologist who specializes in early education, it took having kids to make me realize that sex differences aren't just the stuff of Brady Bunch reruns. In fact, one study found that when 18-month-old boys and girls were shown pictures of a doll and a vehicle, for example, most of the girls opted for the doll, while the majority of the boys chose the vehicle. And while 18 months is old enough to have been influenced by stereotyped gifts, research suggests that many of the differences we see are evident from birth, and may even be hardwired. And that's just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to gender research. To see what else I unearthed, read on. Do you recognize your little XY or XX babe in what the science says? It's a Boy! If you've got a James or Brian at home, you've probably already learned that boys love action—watching it and being a part of it (hint: stock up on Band-Aids!). But they're also more emotional than the stereotypes give them credit for. Here, some of the milestones and traits you can look forward to as your little man grows: They like motion. According to psychologists at the University of Cambridge in England, boys prefer to watch mechanical motion over human motion. When they gave 12-month-old boys the choice of looking at people talking or windshield wipers moving, you can guess which the tots picked. And it turns out that baby boys are more adept at keeping track of moving objects; recent research shows that boys are about two months ahead of girls when it comes to figuring out the laws of motion (that if you roll a ball under a couch, say, it will take a few seconds to pop out on the other side). They've got the moves. You know that old saying, "Girls are talkers, boys are walkers"? Well, it's only half true. Girls do talk first, but boys are likely to start walking—and hit all the major motor milestones—around the same time as girls. It's easy to see how this misconception arose: Boys squirm, kick, and wiggle more than their female counterparts. To wit, according to new research, infant boys are more likely to end up in the ER for injuries. But all that activity does not pay off in meeting early-childhood milestones any sooner. (Boys' gross motor skills do take off, however, during the preschool years, at which point they outpace their female peers in most measures of physical ability.) They're more emotional than you think. There is some evidence that boys tend to be more easily agitated than girls and have a harder time self-soothing. According to one study, even when 6-month-old boys appeared as calm as the girls in the face of frustration, measures of heart rate and breathing suggested that they were actually experiencing greater distress. They love a crowd. Boys prefer looking at groups of faces (future teammates, perhaps?) rather than individual ones. In fact, given the choice, newborn boys would rather look at a mobile than a single face. They're (comparatively) fearless. Boys express fear later than girls, and less often. According to a recent survey, the parents of boys ages 3 to 12 months were much less likely than the parents of girls the same age to report that their child startles in response to loud noises or stimuli. Another study revealed that when moms made a fearful face as their 12-month-olds approached a toy, the boys disregarded the mom and went for the plaything anyway. Girls slowed their approach. It's a Girl! Raising a little lady? Then prepare to gab with your girl. Whether they're trying to maintain eye contact with you as newborns (research shows they excel at this more than infant boys) or saying their first words sooner, girls thrive on communicating with you. You can expect all or some of those characteristics to blossom in your baby girl: They're made to mimic. As early as three hours of age, girls excel at imitation, a precursor to back-and-forth interaction. In a study conducted last year, newborn girls did better than boys in trying to copy finger movements. As toddlers, girls zoom ahead of boys on imitative behaviors such as pretending to take care of a baby but, interestingly, are no different from little guys when it comes to pretending to drive a car or water the plants, actions that are much less about human interaction. They're good with their hands. Infant girls exceed boys when it comes to fine motor tasks, a head start that will stick with them until preschool. They're faster to manipulate toys; they use eating utensils sooner; and they write sooner (and more neatly), too. They may be better listeners. Recent research shows that girls are more attuned to the sound of human voices and seem to actually prefer the sound to other sounds. Shake a rattle and you'll see no difference between newborn girls and boys, but when you talk, the girls will be more likely to become engaged. They like face time. Girls are more likely to establish and maintain eye contact, and are attracted to individual faces—especially women's. They're also more skilled at reading emotional expressions; if shown a frightening face, for example, they'll look at Mom or get distressed, but they'll be fine if they see a happy one. Boys take longer to notice the difference, according to a meta-analysis of 26 studies on kids' capacity to recognize facial expressions. They talk sooner. All that watching and listening pays off: Girls start using gestures like pointing or waving bye-bye earlier than their brothers, and they play games like patty-cake and "So Big" sooner, according to a study of children ages 8 to 30 months. Girls understand what you're saying before boys do, start speaking earlier (at around 12 months versus 13 to 14 months for boys), and will continue to talk more through the toddler years. At 16 months, they produce as many as 100 words, while the average boy utters closer to 30. Although girls remain somewhat ahead through toddlerhood, the gap does begin to narrow and at 2 ½, both boys and girls have 500 words, more or less. Speaking of words, my daughter's first was "shiz" (as in "shoes," lots of them). But despite her obsession with fashion, she always surprises me with a confidence that often makes her tougher than her brothers. And my boys can be incredibly sensitive when I least expect it. The truth is, gender is only a part of what makes them who they are. If only science could study, and I could understand, the rest of them so well! Want to hear more about gender differences? Hear one mom's story of gender preferences.

Хинди

लड़के और लड़की के बीच हिंदी निबंध का अंतरAs a good postfeminist-era mom, I certainly didn't push my son toward trucks and my daughter toward tutus. If anything, I went out of my way to avoid giving them gender-stereotyped toys, offering glittery finger paint to my son and trains to my daughter. But it didn't matter: My son turned his doll's crib into a race car and my daughter was obsessed with shoes. Even though I'm a psychologist who specializes in early education, it took having kids to make me realize that sex differences aren't just the stuff of Brady Bunch reruns. In fact, one study found that when 18-month-old boys and girls were shown pictures of a doll and a vehicle, for example, most of the girls opted for the doll, while the majority of the boys chose the vehicle. And while 18 months is old enough to have been influenced by stereotyped gifts, research suggests that many of the differences we see are evident from birth, and may even be hardwired. And that's just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to gender research. To see what else I unearthed, read on. Do you recognize your little XY or XX babe in what the science says? It's a Boy! If you've got a James or Brian at home, you've probably already learned that boys love action—watching it and being a part of it (hint: stock up on Band-Aids!). But they're also more emotional than the stereotypes give them credit for. Here, some of the milestones and traits you can look forward to as your little man grows: They like motion. According to psychologists at the University of Cambridge in England, boys prefer to watch mechanical motion over human motion. When they gave 12-month-old boys the choice of looking at people talking or windshield wipers moving, you can guess which the tots picked. And it turns out that baby boys are more adept at keeping track of moving objects; recent research shows that boys are about two months ahead of girls when it comes to figuring out the laws of motion (that if you roll a ball under a couch, say, it will take a few seconds to pop out on the other side). They've got the moves. You know that old saying, "Girls are talkers, boys are walkers"? Well, it's only half true. Girls do talk first, but boys are likely to start walking—and hit all the major motor milestones—around the same time as girls. It's easy to see how this misconception arose: Boys squirm, kick, and wiggle more than their female counterparts. To wit, according to new research, infant boys are more likely to end up in the ER for injuries. But all that activity does not pay off in meeting early-childhood milestones any sooner. (Boys' gross motor skills do take off, however, during the preschool years, at which point they outpace their female peers in most measures of physical ability.) They're more emotional than you think. There is some evidence that boys tend to be more easily agitated than girls and have a harder time self-soothing. According to one study, even when 6-month-old boys appeared as calm as the girls in the face of frustration, measures of heart rate and breathing suggested that they were actually experiencing greater distress. They love a crowd. Boys prefer looking at groups of faces (future teammates, perhaps?) rather than individual ones. In fact, given the choice, newborn boys would rather look at a mobile than a single face. They're (comparatively) fearless. Boys express fear later than girls, and less often. According to a recent survey, the parents of boys ages 3 to 12 months were much less likely than the parents of girls the same age to report that their child startles in response to loud noises or stimuli. Another study revealed that when moms made a fearful face as their 12-month-olds approached a toy, the boys disregarded the mom and went for the plaything anyway. Girls slowed their approach. It's a Girl! Raising a little lady? Then prepare to gab with your girl. Whether they're trying to maintain eye contact with you as newborns (research shows they excel at this more than infant boys) or saying their first words sooner, girls thrive on communicating with you. You can expect all or some of those characteristics to blossom in your baby girl: They're made to mimic. As early as three hours of age, girls excel at imitation, a precursor to back-and-forth interaction. In a study conducted last year, newborn girls did better than boys in trying to copy finger movements. As toddlers, girls zoom ahead of boys on imitative behaviors such as pretending to take care of a baby but, interestingly, are no different from little guys when it comes to pretending to drive a car or water the plants, actions that are much less about human interaction. They're good with their hands. Infant girls exceed boys when it comes to fine motor tasks, a head start that will stick with them until preschool. They're faster to manipulate toys; they use eating utensils sooner; and they write sooner (and more neatly), too. They may be better listeners. Recent research shows that girls are more attuned to the sound of human voices and seem to actually prefer the sound to other sounds. Shake a rattle and you'll see no difference between newborn girls and boys, but when you talk, the girls will be more likely to become engaged. They like face time. Girls are more likely to establish and maintain eye contact, and are attracted to individual faces—especially women's. They're also more skilled at reading emotional expressions; if shown a frightening face, for example, they'll look at Mom or get distressed, but they'll be fine if they see a happy one. Boys take longer to notice the difference, according to a meta-analysis of 26 studies on kids' capacity to recognize facial expressions. They talk sooner. All that watching and listening pays off: Girls start using gestures like pointing or waving bye-bye earlier than their brothers, and they play games like patty-cake and "So Big" sooner, according to a study of children ages 8 to 30 months. Girls understand what you're saying before boys do, start speaking earlier (at around 12 months versus 13 to 14 months for boys), and will continue to talk more through the toddler years. At 16 months, they produce as many as 100 words, while the average boy utters closer to 30. Although girls remain somewhat ahead through toddlerhood, the gap does begin to narrow and at 2 ½, both boys and girls have 500 words, more or less. Speaking of words, my daughter's first was "shiz" (as in "shoes," lots of them). But despite her obsession with fashion, she always surprises me with a confidence that often makes her tougher than her brothers. And my boys can be incredibly sensitive when I least expect it. The truth is, gender is only a part of what makes them who they are. If only science could study, and I could understand, the rest of them so well! Want to hear more about gender differences? Hear one mom's story of gender preferences.

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Английский

google Zaleplon is a hypnotic which is drug that has the ability to cause sleep. It is indicated for use in patients that have difficulty falling asleep and is not indented to treat those who have difficulty staying asleep or who wake too early. It is different in chemical structure from benzodiazepines but acts at the same receptors in the brain as benzodiazepines. While benzodiazepines are used primarily in the treatment of anxiety, zaleplon and similar drugs are used almost exclusively for the treatment of insomnia. In the United States and many other countries, Zaleplon is marketed as Sonata by King Pharmaceuticals. In Canada, zaleplon was sold under the brand name Starnoc however it was taken from the market; the reasons for this discontinuation are not clear. Zaleplon is available in some countries as Hegon, Zalep, Zaplon, or Zerene. The patent on Sonata began to expire on June 6, 2008 and King Pharmaceuticals does not have exclusivity as listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. More on zaleplon. Sonata is available in 5 mg and 10 mg dosages; however, physicians sometimes prescribe a 20 mg treatment (two 10 mg capsules). Clinical safety studies were conducted using doses as high as 60 mg. Zaleplon is indicated for short term treatment of insomnia, that is, insomnia that is corrected by seven to ten days of treatment. The FDA has approved use of zaleplon for up to 30 days. Zaleplon is known to cause CNS depression and its affects are relatively rapid. Zaleplon causes sedation and sleep within one hour of administration therefore it should only be taken before bed and never before any activity that requires alertness. Like benzodiazepines, alcohol use can potentiate the CNS depressant effects and alcohol should not be consumed while taking zaleplon. Of note, zaleplon is potentially habit forming and dependency may occur. Once the drug is discontinued, one may experience rebound insomnia simply because the medicine has been taken away. Because of its sedative and euphoric effects, zaleplon may be abused i.e. used for non-medical, illegal reasons. NIH Information on Zaleplon Zolpidem Zolpidem is sedative-hypnotic medicine that is used to treat short-term insomnia. Its chemical structure is different than benzodiazepines but exerts its sedative affect by acting on so-called benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Zolpidem does not have the same disruptive effects on sleep as benzodiazepines. Zolpidem is marketed in the United States as Ambien but is known commercially by many other names worldwide. (The Guardian reports that 5.3 million people in England alone take zolpidem.) Ambien is available as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets and the maximum and usual treatment dose is 10 mg. This medication should not be taken with alcohol as excessive CNS depression can occur. There is also a potential for dependence and abuse with zolpidem. The most common side effects were headache, sleepiness and dizziness. A less common side effect is the "zombie" effect - unusual behavior while asleep. Ambien is sold by Sanofi Aventis although at least 13 companies manufacture and sell a generic version of the rapid-acting form of zolpidem. Sanofi Aventis has extended the commercial viability of this drug by patenting and selling a CR or Controlled Release formulation. The CR formulation combines both a rapid-acting form and a slow-release form in a layered pill. According to the manufacturers, this allows a person suffering from insomnia to achieve sleep, from the rapid-acting component, and stay asleep, from the slow-acting component. Importantly, the chemical structure of the drug is the same in both the fast and slow layers, however the slow release layer contains a proprietary mixture of inactive ingredients that delays absorption and prolongs the hypnotic effect. Ambien CR is available in 6.25 and 12.5 mg strengths. NIH Information on Zolpidem. Triazolam Triazolam is related in structure to benzodiazepines but is of a slightly different class than classic benzodiazepines such as Ativan and Valium. Despite this subtle structural difference, triazolam achieves its biological effect by acting at benzodiazepine receptors in various regions of brain. Triazolam is indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia and should not be used for longer than three consecutive weeks. In clinical studies, triazolam was able to decrease sleep latency (you get to sleep faster), increase the duration of sleep and decrease the number of times people with insomnia wake during the night. Triazolam was originally branded as Halcion; however there is no longer patent protection or exclusivity on this brand. It is still manufactured and sold as Halcion by Pharmacia and Upjohn yet generic versions exist. Triazolam is available in 0.125 and 0.25 mg tablets and a single dose of either strength is usually sufficient for uncomplicated insomnia. The maximum dose per day should not exceed 0.5 mg. Caution should be taken in elderly patients and they should receive lower doses. The most common side effects were drowsiness, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, difficulty with coordination and nausea/vomiting. Ramelteon Ramelteon was introduced as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America. Rozerem is indicated for treatment of the type of insomnia that is interferes with sleep onset. Ramelteon is rather unique among commonly prescribed sleep aids in that it is unrelated to benzodiazepines in both its chemical structure and its mechanism of action. Rozerem binds with high affinity (strongly) to two of the three main melatonin receptors in the brain. Melatonin is a hormone that is present naturally in humans. Melatonin is also available without a prescription as an OTC sleep aid. According to Takeda, Rozerem’s affinity and selectivity for specific melatonin receptors make it a more effective sleep aid and less likely to cause side effects than non-prescription melatonin. Because it does not interact with benzodiazepine receptors, ramelteon is essentially without risk of abuse and is therefore not a controlled substance. Clinical studies have shown that ramelteon does not cause physical dependence or rebound insomnia. Ramelteon is available in 8 mg tablets though it occasionally prescribed as two 8 mg tablets to be taken 30 thirty minutes prior to the desired onset of sleep. The most common side effects are drowsiness and dizziness. More on ramelteon. Ramelteon is under patent to Takeda until March 6, 2017. Eszopiclone Eszopiclone is marketed as Lunesta by Sepracor Inc. for the treatment of insomnia. Lunesta is under patent until 2012 with exclusivity until December 15, 2009. Eszopiclone is available in 1, 2 and 3 mg film-coated tablets. The precise mechanism of action of eszopiclone as a hypnotic is unknown, but it most likely interacts with benzodiazepine receptors. Because of this interaction, eszopiclone is a controlled substance and there is potential for abuse of the drug. Unlike zaleplon, zolpidem and triazolam which are only prescribed for up to three to four weeks, Lunesta has been approved by the FDA for long term use (greater than six months). Long-term trials showed that Lunesta did not cause tolerance meaning that patients did not need larger doses to obtain the same effect. Lunesta is touted as superior to competing medications since it not only initiates sleep but also prevents nighttime waking. The most common side effects of Lunesta include an unpleasant taste or dry mouth, dizziness, headache, cold symptoms and drowsiness. Serious side effects of eszopiclone, while rare, include sleep walking/driving, abnormal thoughts, memory loss, anxiety and allergic reactions. These rare and serious side effecttransleter

Хинди

गूगल transleter

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hindi essay about hiv aids

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एचआईवी एड्स के बारे में हिंदी निबंध

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