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Short story

Short story

Last Update: 2014-10-15
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

benedicta

benedicta margaret bakkies

Last Update: 2014-10-09
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Benedicta

waar

Last Update: 2014-09-17
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

three bears story

drie bere storie

Last Update: 2014-10-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Short Message Service

SMS

Last Update: 2014-10-13
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Benedicta at bakkes english translation

benedicta by bakkes english translation

Last Update: 2014-10-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;
Romans 3.23

want almal het gesondig en dit ontbreek hulle aan die heerlikheid van God,
Romans 3.23

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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They change the night into day: the light is short because of darkness.
Job 17.12

Van die nag maak hulle 'n dag; lig, sê hulle, is naby vanweë die duisternis.
Job 17.12

Last Update: 2013-02-23
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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write your own story about a famous person

oloo

Last Update: 2014-10-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

That the triumphing of the wicked is short, and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment?
Job 20.5

dat die gejubel van die goddelose kort van duur is en die vreugde van die roekelose net vir 'n oomblik?
Job 20.5

Last Update: 2014-05-15
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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In those days the LORD began to cut Israel short: and Hazael smote them in all the coasts of Israel;
2 Kings 10.32

In dié dae het die HERE Israel begin inkort, en Hásael het hulle in die hele gebied van Israel verslaan:
2 Kings 10.32

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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For he will finish the work, and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.
Romans 9.28

want Hy volbring 'n saak en verkort dit in geregtigheid, omdat die Here 'n saak wat verkort is, op die aarde sal doen.
Romans 9.28

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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Let us therefore fear, lest, a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it.
Hebrews 4.1

Laat ons dan vrees dat, terwyl die belofte om in sy rus in te gaan nog standhou, dit nie miskien sal blyk dat iemand van julle agtergebly het nie.
Hebrews 4.1

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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But we, brethren, being taken from you for a short time in presence, not in heart, endeavoured the more abundantly to see your face with great desire.
1 Thessalonians 2.17

Maar nadat ons, broeders, 'n kort tydjie van julle geskeie was--in persoon, nie met die hart nie--het ons met groot verlange ons des te meer beywer om julle aangesig te sien.
1 Thessalonians 2.17

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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And the LORD said unto Moses, Is the LORD's hand waxed short? thou shalt see now whether my word shall come to pass unto thee or not.
Numbers 11.23

Maar die HERE sê vir Moses: Sou die hand van die HERE te kort wees? Nou sal jy sien of my woord vir jou uitkom of nie.
Numbers 11.23

Last Update: 2012-05-06
Subject: Religion
Usage Frequency: 1
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Once upoon a time there was a buslife the was two different crews and the name of the crews were billabong and eighty seven. The crews had no peice aall they wanted to do when they meet is to show off that who has way more sound.and billabong would always win the competition until one day. The eighty seven crew got so jelous they started burning billabong cars they started 2 the billabong queen nd after few months the children where killed thats how the story of the buslyf changed now only the father is left nd he is bc 40 yv

as ek maar net na my ouers geluister het

Last Update: 2014-10-17
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

my you please read me a bedtime storie

may you please read me a bed time story

Last Update: 2014-10-02
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Fischer–Tropsch process From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It was first developed by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung" in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany in 1925. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass.[1] The Fischer–Tropsch process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel and to address the supply or cost of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Contents [hide] 1 Reaction mechanism 2 Feedstocks: gasification 2.1 Feedstocks: GTL 2.2 Process conditions 2.3 Design of the Fischer-Tropsch process reactor 2.4 Product distribution 2.5 Catalysts 2.6 LTFT and HTFT 3 History 4 Commercialization 4.1 Sasol 4.2 PetroSA 4.3 Shell middle distillate synthesis 4.4 Ras Laffan, Qatar 4.5 UPM (Finland) 4.6 Rentech 4.7 Other 5 Research developments 5.1 U.S. Air Force certification 5.2 Carbon dioxide reuse 6 Process efficiency 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Reaction mechanism[edit] The Fischer–Tropsch process involves a series of chemical reactions that produce a variety of hydrocarbons, ideally having the formula (CnH(2n+2)). The more useful reactions produce alkanes as follows: (2n + 1) H2 + n CO → CnH(2n+2) + n H2O where n is typically 10-20. The formation of methane (n = 1) is unwanted. Most of the alkanes produced tend to be straight-chain, suitable as diesel fuel. In addition to alkane formation, competing reactions give small amounts of alkenes, as well as alcohols and other oxygenated hydrocarbons.[2] Fischer Tropsch intermediates and elemental reactions Converting a mixture of H2 and CO into aliphatic products obviously should be a multi-step reaction with several sorts of intermediates. The growth of the hydrocarbon chain may be visualized as involving a repeated sequence in which hydrogen atoms are added to carbon and oxygen, the C/O-bond is split and a new C/C-bond is formed. For one CH2-group produced CO + 2H2 → (CH2) + H2O, several reactions are necessary • Associative adsorption of CO • Splitting of the C/O-bond • Dissociative adsorption of 2H2 • Transfer of 2H to the oxygen to yield H2O • Desorption of H2O • Transfer of 2H to the carbon to yield CH2 The conversion of CO to alkanes involves hydrogenation of CO, the hydrogenolysis (cleavage with H2) of C-O bonds, and the formation of C-C bonds. Such reactions are assumed to proceed via initial formation of surface-bound metal carbonyls. The CO ligand is speculated to undergo dissociation, possibly into oxide and carbide ligands.[3] Other potential intermediates are various C-1 fragments including formyl (CHO), hydroxycarbene (HCOH), hydroxymethyl (CH2OH), methyl (CH3), methylene (CH2), methylidyne (CH), and hydroxymethylidyne (COH). Furthermore, and critical to the production of liquid fuels, are reactions that form C-C bonds, such as migratory insertion. Many related stoichiometric reactions have been simulated on discrete metal clusters, but homogeneous Fischer–Tropsch catalysts are poorly developed and of no commercial importance. Addition of isotopically labelled alcohol to the feed stream results in incorporation of alcohols into product. This observation establishes the facility of C-O bond scission. Using 14C-labelled ethylene and propene over cobalt catalysts results in incorporation of these olefins into the growing chain. Chain growth reaction thus appears to involve both ‘olefin insertion’ as well as ‘CO-insertion’.[4] Feedstocks: gasification[edit] Fischer–Tropsch plants associated with coal or related solid feedstocks (sources of carbon) must first convert the solid fuel into gaseous reactants, i.e., CO, H2, and alkanes. This conversion is called gasification and the product is called synthesis gas ("Syn gas"). Synthesis gas obtained from coal gasification tends to have a H2/CO ratio of ~0.7 compared to the ideal ratio of ~2. This ratio is adjusted via the water-gas shift reaction. Coal-based Fischer–Tropsch plants produce varying amounts of CO2, depending upon the energy source of the gasification process. However, most coal-based plants rely on the feed coal to supply all the energy requirements of the Fischer–Tropsch process. Feedstocks: GTL[edit] Carbon monoxide for FT catalysis is derived from hydrocarbons. In gas to liquids (GTL) technology, the hydrocarbons are low molecular weight materials that often would be discarded or flared. GTL is economically viable when the gas price is relatively cheap on an energy equivalency basis to oil. Stranded gas provides relatively cheap gas. GTL is viable provided gas remains relatively cheaper than oil. Several reactions are required to obtain the gaseous reactants required for Fischer–Tropsch catalysis. First, reactant gases entering a Fischer–Tropsch reactor must be desulfurized. Otherwise, sulfur-containing impurities deactivate ("poison") the catalysts required for Fischer–Tropsch reactions.[2] Several reactions are employed to adjust the H2/CO ratio. Most important is the water gas shift reaction, which provides a source of hydrogen at the expense of carbon monoxide:[2] H2O + CO → H2 + CO2 For Fischer–Tropsch plants that use methane as the feedstock, another important reaction is steam reforming, which converts the methane into CO and H2: H2O + CH4 → CO + 3 H2 Process conditions[edit] Generally, the Fischer–Tropsch process is operated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C (302–572 °F). Higher temperatures lead to faster reactions and higher conversion rates but also tend to favor methane production. For this reason, the temperature is usually maintained at the low to middle part of the range. Increasing the pressure leads to higher conversion rates and also favors formation of long-chained alkanes, both of which are desirable. Typical pressures range from one to several tens of atmospheres. Even higher pressures would be favorable, but the benefits may not justify the additional costs of high-pressure equipment, and higher pressures can lead to catalyst deactivation via coke formation. A variety of synthesis-gas compositions can be used. For cobalt-based catalysts the optimal H2:CO ratio is around 1.8–2.1. Iron-based catalysts promote the water-gas-shift reaction and thus can tolerate lower ratios. This reactivity can be important for synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, which tend to have relatively low H2:CO ratios ( 570 K) gives undesirable products spectrum. However separation of the product from catalyst is a problem. Fluid-bed- and circulating catalyst(riser) reactors: These are used for high temperature Fischer Tropsch synthesis (nearly 340oC) to produce low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons on alkalised fused iron catalysts. The fluid bed technology (as adapted from catalytic cracking of heavy petroleum distillates)was introduced by Hydrocarbon Research in the years 1946–1950 and named ‘Hydrocol’ process. A large scale Fischer Tropsch Hydrocol plant (3,50,000 tons per annum) operated during the years 1951–1957 in Brownsville, Texas. Due to technical problems and lacking economy at increasing petroleum availability this development was discontinued. Fluid bed Fischer Tropsch synthesis has recently been very successfully reinvestigated by Sasol. One reactor with a capacity of 5,00,000 tons per annum is now in operation and even larger ones are being built (nearly 8,50,000 tons per annum). The process is now used for mainly olefins C2, C7 production. This new development can be regarded as an important progress in Fischer Tropsch technology. A high temperature process with a circulating iron catalyst (‘Circulating fluid bed’, ‘riser reactor’, ‘entrained catalyst process’) was introduced by the Kellogg Company and a respective plant built at Sasol in 1956. It was improved by Sasol for successful operation. At Secunda, South Africa, Sasol has operated 16 advanced reactors of this type with a capacity of Approx. 3,30,000 tons per annum each. Now the circulating catalyst process is being replaced by the superior Sasol advanced fluid bed technology. Early experiments with cobalt-catalyst particles suspended in oil have been performed by Fischer. The bubble column reactor with a powdered iron slurry catalyst and a CO-rich syngas was particularly developed to pilot plant scale by Kölbel at the Rheinpreuben Company in 1953. Recently (since 1990) low temperature Fischer Tropsch slurry processes are under investigation for the use of iron and cobalt catalysts, particularly for the production of a hydrocarbon wax, to be used as such, or to be hydrocracked and isomerised to mainly Diesel fuel by Exxon and Sasol. Today slurry phase (bubble column) low temperature Fischer Tropsch synthesis is regarded by many authors as the most efficient process for Fischer Tropsch clean Diesel production. This Fischer Tropsch technology is also under development by the Statoil Company (Norway) for use on a vessel to convert associated gas at offshore oil fields into a hydrocarbon liquid. [5] Product distribution[edit] In general the product distribution of hydrocarbons formed during the Fischer–Tropsch process follows an Anderson–Schulz–Flory distribution,[6] which can be expressed as: Wn/n = (1 − α)2αn−1 where Wn is the weight fraction of hydrocarbons containing n carbon atoms. α is the chain growth probability or the probability that a molecule will continue reacting to form a longer chain. In general, α is largely determined by the catalyst and the specific process conditions. Examination of the above equation reveals that methane will always be the largest single product so long as alpha is less than 0.5; however, by increasing α close to one, the total amount of methane formed can be minimized compared to the sum of all of the various long-chained products. Increasing α increases the formation of long-chained hydrocarbons. The very long-chained hydrocarbons are waxes, which are solid at room temperature. Therefore, for production of liquid transportation fuels it may be necessary to crack some of the Fischer–Tropsch products. In order to avoid this, some researchers have proposed using zeolites or other catalyst substrates with fixed sized pores that can restrict the formation of hydrocarbons longer than some characteristic size (usually n<10). This way they can drive the reaction so as to minimize methane formation without producing lots of long-chained hydrocarbons. Such efforts have met with only limited success. Catalysts[edit] A variety of catalysts can be used for the Fischer–Tropsch process, but the most common are the transition metals cobalt, iron, and ruthenium. Nickel can also be used, but tends to favor methane formation ("methanation"). Cobalt-based catalysts are highly active, although iron may be more suitable for certain applications. Cobalt catalysts are more active for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis when the feedstock is natural gas. Natural gas has a high hydrogen to carbon ratio, so the water-gas-shift is not needed for cobalt catalysts. Iron catalysts are preferred for lower quality feedstocks such as coal or biomass. Synthesis gases derived from these hydrogen-poor feedstocks has a low-hydrogen-content and require the water-gas-shift reaction. Unlike the other metals used for this process (Co, Ni, Ru), which remain in the metallic state during synthesis, iron catalysts tend to form a number of phases, including various oxides and carbides during the reaction. Control of these phase transformations can be important in maintaining catalytic activity and preventing breakdown of the catalyst particles. In addition to the active metal the catalysts typically contain a number of "promoters," including potassium and copper. Group 1 alkali metals, including potassium, are a poison for cobalt catalysts but are promoters for iron catalysts. Catalysts are supported on high-surface-area binders/supports such as silica, alumina, or zeolites.[7] Promotors also have an important influence on activity. Alkali metal oxides and copper are common promotors, but the formulation depends on the primary metal, iron vs cobalt.[8] Alkali oxides on cobalt catalysts generally cause activity to drop severely even with very low alkali loadings. C5+ and CO2 selectivity increase while methane and C2-C4 selectivity decrease. In addition, the olefin to parafin ratio increases. Fischer–Tropsch catalysts are sensitive to poisoning by sulfur-containing compounds. Cobalt-based catalysts are more sensitive than for their iron counterparts. Iron as catalyst:Fischer Tropsch iron catalysts need alkali promotion to attain high activity and stability (e.g. 0.5 wt.% K2O).Addition of Cu for reduction promotion, addition of SiO2, Al2O3 for structural promotion and maybe some manganese can be applied for selectivity control (e.g. high olefinicity). The working catalyst is only obtained when – after reduction with hydrogen– in the initial period of synthesis several iron carbide phases and elemental carbon are formed whereas iron oxides are still present in addition to some metallic iron.With iron catalysts two directions of selectivity have been pursued. One direction has aimed at a low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbon mixture to be produced in an entrained phase or fluid bed process (Sasol Synthol process).Due to the relatively high reaction temperature (approx. 340oC), the average molecular weight of the product is so low that no liquid product phase occurs under reaction conditions. The catalyst particles moving around in the reactor are small (particle diameter 100 mm) and carbon deposition on the catalyst does not disturb reactor operation. Thus a low catalyst porosity with small pore diameters as obtained from fused magnetite (plus promotors) after reduction with hydrogen is appropriate. For maximising the overall gasoline yield the olefins C3, C4 have been oligomerised at Sasol. However, recovering the olefins for use as chemicals in e.g. polymerization processes is advantageous today.The second direction of iron catalyst development has aimed at highest catalyst activity to be used at low reaction temperature where most of the hydrocarbon product is in the liquid phase under reaction conditions. Typically, such catalysts are obtained through precipitation from nitrate solutions. A high content of a carrier provides mechanical strength and wide pores for easy mass transfer of the reactants in the liquid product filling the pores. The main product fraction then is a paraffin wax, which is refined to marketable wax materials at Sasol, however, also can be very selectively hydrocracked to a high quality Diesel fuel.Thus iron catalysts are very flexible. Ruthenium as a Fischer Tropsch catalyst:It is most active working at the lowest reaction temperature. It produces the highest molecular weight hydrocarbons (‘polymethylene synthesis’ Pichler and Buffleb performing thus the chain growth reaction in the cleanest mode; it acts as a Fischer Tropsch catalyst as the pure metal, without any promotors, thus providing the simplest catalytic system of Fischer Tropsch synthesis, where mechanistic conclusions should be the easiest – much easier than e.g. with iron as the catalyst.Like with nickel, the selectivity changes to mainly methane at elevated temperature. Its high price and limited world resources exclude industrial application. Systematic Fischer Tropsch studies with ruthenium catalysts should contribute substantially to the further exploration of the fundamentals of Fischer Tropsch synthesis.There is an interesting question to consider: what features have the metals nickel, iron, cobalt and ruthenium in common to let them be – and only them – Fischer Tropsch catalysts, converting the CO/H2 mixture to aliphatic (long chain) hydrocarbons in a ‘one step reaction’. The term ‘one step reaction’ means that reaction intermediates are not desorbed from the catalyst surface. In particular, it is amazing that the much carbided alkalized iron catalyst gives this reaction similarly as the just metallic ruthenium catalyst. It will be seen in the next section that the kinetic principle of ‘selective inhibition’ might be the common feature which applies,in spite of differences in catalyst composition, reaction intermediates, steps of reaction and corresponding kinetic schemes. [9] LTFT and HTFT[edit] High-temperature Fischer–Tropsch (or HTFT) is operated at temperatures of 330 °C–350 °C and uses an iron-based catalyst. This process was used extensively by Sasol in their coal-to-liquid plants (CTL). Low-Temperature Fischer–Tropsch (LTFT) is operated at lower temperatures and uses a cobalt based catalyst. This process is best known for being used in the first integrated Gas-to

y the year 2500most likely ,Japanese people en masse will have left the country for far away northen regions to find shelter in U-N found climats refuges in places suck as Russia Canada and Alaska. Israel climate refugees will join millions of others from India, Vietnam ,Thailand and the Philipines. we humans cannot engineer our way out of globle warming,

Last Update: 2014-10-02
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous
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rapunzel storie

Raponsie Storie

Last Update: 2014-09-25
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Of all the characters that I've "met" through books and movies, two stand out as people that I most want to emulate. They are Attacus Finch from To Kill a Mockingbird and DR Archibald "Moonlight" Graham from Field of Dreams. They appeal to me because they embody what I strive to be. They are influential people in small towns who have a direct positive effect on those around them. I, too, plan to live in a small town after graduating from college, and that positive effect is something I must give in order to be satisfied with my life. Both Mr. Finch and DR Graham are strong supporting characters in wonderful stories. They symbolize good, honesty, and wisdom. When the story of my town is written I want to symbolize those things. The base has been formed for me to live a productive, helpful life. As an Eagle Scout I represent those things that Mr. Finch and DR Graham represent. In the child/adolescent world I am Mr. Finch and DR Graham, but soon I'll be entering the adult world, a world in which I'm not yet prepared to lead. I'm quite sure that as teenagers Attacus Finch and Moonlight Graham often wondered what they could do to help others. They probably emulated someone who they had seen live a successful life. They saw someone like my grandfather, 40-year president of our hometown bank, enjoy a lifetime of leading, sharing, and giving. I have seen him spend his Christmas Eves taking gifts of food and joy to indigent families. Often when his bank could not justify a loan to someone in need, my grandfather made the loan from his own pocket. He is a real-life Moonlight Graham, a man who has shown me that characters like DR Graham and Mr. Finch do much much more than elicit tears and smiles from readers and movie watchers. Through him and others in my family I feel I have acquired the values and the burning desire to benefit others that will form the foundation for a great life. I also feel that that foundation is not enough. I do not yet have the sophistication, knowledge, and wisdom necessary to succeed as I want to in the adult world. I feel that Harvard, above all others, can guide me toward the life of greatness that will make me the Attacus Finch of my town.

hik

Last Update: 2014-08-07
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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