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Last Update: 2014-10-03
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Home is the place where we are born and live. It is the sweetest place in the world. When we sense danger elsewhere we find safety in our home. When there is joy, we share it with other members of our home. Everybody loves home. For this reason are English poet has written:
“Home, home, sweet home,
There is no place like home.”
My home is situated in the middle of the village. There are six members in our family. They are my father, mother, grand-father, grand-mother, my sister and myself. I am the second and the youngest child of my parents. So, being the youngest member, I enjoy love and affection of all. My father is an advocate. My mother is a teacher. She works in the Primary School in our village. My sister is a student. She reads in Women’s College. My grand-mother and grand-father love my parents. I am their favourite grand son.
We live in a thatched house. The house indicates the simplicity of our family. It has mud walls. There are four rooms excluding the drawing room and the kitchen.
My parents share the room adjoining the kitchen. My grand-mother and grand-father share the room near the drawing room. Another room is used as the store room. There is a spacious courtyard. We have also a cowshed with two cows and a little calf.
I respect my parents and old grand-parents. I always obey their commands. My mother and grand-mother do not like to part with me for a moment. When I go to school, my grand-mother accompanies me up to the school. She waits for me at the school gate during the last period.
My mother cooks food for us. As she is a teacher, she prepares food in the morning and preserves it properly for lunch. My sister who stays in the college hostel often comes and helps my mother in her work. I sometimes play interesting jokes with my grand-father and grand-mother.
I am very fond of our garden. I water the flower plants at my leisure. When my grand-father goes to the cowshed, I go with him. I often kiss the little calf. When someone of my home falls ill, I take proper care.
My uncle comes to our family every month. He brings sweets for me. Sometimes the friends of my father come and take dinner here. My father is a good host. On my birthday my mother invites other teachers of her school. They all come and share the joy with us.
All the villagers respect my home. They say that ours is an ideal home.
Last Update: 2014-09-27
KNOWLEDGE EXPECTATIONS FOR PEST CONTROL ADVISERS:
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
1. Be familiar with the general uses and classification of the following plant growth
i. 1-naphthalenacetic acid (NAA)
iii. 3-indoleacetaldehyde acid (IAld)
iv. 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA)
v. 3-indolepyruvic acid (IPA)
vi. indolebutanoic acid (IBA)
b. Gibberellins (GA):
d. Ethylene/Ethylene releasers
i. abscisic acid (ABA)
v. chloro IPC
viii. hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2)
x. mepiquat chloride
xii. prohexadione calcium
xiii. succinic acid (SADH)
I. PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
1. Define plant growth regulator.
2. List the common classes of plant growth regulators. (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins,
growth retardants/inhibitors, ethylene, others)
3. List the plant growth regulators that play a major role in:
c. fruit abscission;
d. fruit ripening;
e. fruit set; 2
f. leaf expansion [ethylene];
g. plant senescence;
h. root initiation;
i. seed germination;
j. stem elongation.
4. Recognize that plant growth regulators can act at low concentrations.
5. Recognize that plant growth regulators can have undesirable effects when applied at
improper rates or times.
6. Describe how environmental conditions, the plant developmental stage, and plant
condition (e.g., stress, fruit load), on their own or in combination, can affect the
activity of plant growth regulators.
7. Compare/contrast the ability of a plant growth regulator or plant hormone to
stimulate growth and retard growth in different situations.
8. Differentiate between a plant growth regulator and a plant hormone (plant growth
a. plant hormone;
b. abscisic acid (ABA).
10. List the “classical” five naturally occurring plant hormone groups. (auxins,
cytokinins, ethylene, the gibberellins, abscisic acid)
11. Describe how each type of plant growth regulator affects:
a. seed dormancy;
b. seed growth;
c. vegetative growth;
d. flower and fruit growth;
e. organ abscission.
12. Describe the primary physiological processes in plants that are regulated by:
e. growth retardants/inhibitors.
13. Recognize that plant growth regulators interact with other organic compounds
(hormones and other growth regulating substances) in plants.
b. 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA).
15. Describe the effect of auxins on plant growth.
16. List the primary uses of auxins as plant growth regulators and identify the crops on
which they are used. (Reduces fruit drop, increases fruit drop, delays maturation,
blossom thinning agent, sets fruit, enhances adventitious root formation, delays
color development) 3
17. List the auxins contained in plant tissues. [3-indoleacetic acid (IAA), 3-
indoleacetaldehyde (IAld), 3-indolepyruvic acid (IPA), 3-indoleacetonitrile (IAN),
ethyl ester of indoleacetic acid (IAE)]
18. Describe the effect of auxin on ethylene and how leaf sensitivity changes as leaves
age. [Younger leaves are less sensitive to ethylene than older leaves due in part to
higher auxin levels in younger leaves.]
19. Recognize that auxins are also used as herbicides and give an example.
20. Define gibberellins (GA).
21. Describe the effect of gibberellin on plant growth.
22. List the primary uses of gibberellins as plant growth regulators and identify the
crops on which they are used. (cell elongation, cell division, overcoming dormancy,
overcoming or breaking bud dormancy, increases or reduces fruit set, affects fruit
shape, fruit maturation, delay of flowering in fruit trees, stimulates flowering and
bolting in biennials, delays senescence)
23. Describe how gibberellins stimulate plants to overcome dormancy.
24. Recognize that there are over 100 different chemical structures of gibberellins but
only a few are used commercially.
25. Compare/contrast GA3 and GA4GA7.
26. Identify the primary gibberellins used.
27. Identify the primary crop and use of GA4GA7.
28. Identify the primary use of GA3 in citrus.
29. Define cytokinins.
30. Describe the effects of cytokinins on plant growth.
Ethylene and ethylene releasers
31. Define ethylene.
32. Recognize that ethylene is a gas.
33. Understand the relationship of ethephon to ethylene.
34. Describe the effect of ethylene and ethephon on plant growth.
35. List the primary uses of ethylene and ethephon for the crops on which they are
a. citrus (fruit elimination, thinning agent, and postharvest degreening of fruit)
b. cotton (increases lint strength, hybrid seed production, and boll opening)
c. grain crops (induces fruit ripening, induces flowering, accelerates fruit and
leaf abscission, promotes lateral branching, promotes shortened stems)
d. pome fruit trees
e. tomato and table grapes (advances ripening and accelerates pigment
development or color accumulation)
Growth retardants and inhibitors
36. Define plant growth inhibitor (retardant). 4
37. List the materials that are primarily used as growth retardants and inhibitors,
identify the crops on which they are used, and describe how they inhibit plant
growth. (paclobutrazol, flurprimidol, prohexadione calcium, ancymidol,
chlormequat, mepiquat chloride, mefluidide, AVG–aminoethoxyvinylglycine) [AVG is
used on apples—delays fruit maturity to reduce preharvest fruit drop and improved
fruit quality; pears—help maintain fruit firmness; and ornamentals—reduce flower
senescence and flower bud abscission during shipping]
38. Describe the use of carbaryl as a plant growth regulator.
II. PLANT GROWTH CONCEPTS
b. apical dominance;
c. apical meristem;
o. rest period;
III. APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY
1. Define the following terms and describe their importance when using plant growth
b. parts per million.
2. Describe the relationship between dosage, volume and efficacy when applying plant
3. Describe the importance of the solution’s pH when using plant growth regulators.
4. Describe how to determine the need for a surfactant when using plant growth
5. Describe how to avoid drift in the application of plant growth regulators.
6. Recognize that plant growth regulators can be incompatible with other chemicals
when combined in a tank mix.
7. Describe how the following factors affect the appropriate dosage when using plant
b. pH; 5
c. plant growth stage;
d. plant condition (e.g., fruit load, water or disease stress);
8. Recognize the importance of reading and understanding the language on the label of
a plant growth regulator.
9. Be able to interpret all terms and concepts on a plant growth regulator label.
10. Recognize that specific hazards are associated with some formulations of the
following plant growth regulators:
a. corrosive – ethephon;
b. flammable – ethephon, gibberellin;
c. eye injury – ethephon, gibberellin;
d. skin irritant, may be fatal if swallowed or through contact with skin –
e. hazard to bees – carbaryl;
f. potential to drift and undesirably harm target and nontarget plants – all.
Last Update: 2014-09-26
asminum sambac is a species of
jasmine native to a small region in
the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan
and neighboring India . It is
cultivated in many places, especially
across much of South and
Southeast Asia . It is naturalized in
many scattered locales: Mauritius,
Madagascar, the Maldives ,
Cambodia, Java, Christmas Island,
Chiapas, Central America , southern
Florida , the Bahamas , Cuba,
Hispaniola, Jamaica , Puerto Rico ,
and the Lesser Antilles . 
Jasminum sambac is a small shrub
or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m
(1.6 to 9.8 ft) in height. It is widely
cultivated for its attractive and
sweetly fragrant flowers. The flowers
are also used for perfumes and for
making tea. It is known as the
Arabian jasmine in English . It is
the national flower of the
Philippines, where it is known as
sampaguita. It is also one of the
three national flowers of Indonesia ,
where it is known as melati putih .
Taxonomy and nomenclature
Jasminum sambac is classified
under the genus Jasminum under
the tribe Jasmineae . It belongs to
the olive family Oleaceae.
Despite the English common name
of "Arabian jasmine", Jasminum
sambac is not originally native to
Arabia . The habits of Jasminum
sambac support a native habitat of
humid tropical climates and not the
arid climates of the Middle East.
Early Chinese records of the plant
points to the origin of Jasminum
sambac as eastern South Asia and
Southeast Asia . Jasminum sambac
(and nine other species of the
genus ) were spread into Arabia and
Persia by man, where they were
cultivated in gardens. From there,
they were introduced to Europe
where they were grown as
ornamentals and were known under
the common name "sambac" in the
18th century. 
Last Update: 2014-09-12
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