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Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh rendahnya hasil belajar dan kurangnya aktivitas di dalam pembelajaran matematika dikelas VIII SMP Negeri 2 Seputih Banyak. hal ini disebabkan oleh kurangnya partisipasi dan keaktifan siswa dalam pembelajaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap dua kelas sampel yang diberikan perlakuan yang berbeda. Data penelitian diperoleh dengan memberikan test kepada kedua kelas sampel.
Dari Hasil penelitian rata-rata hasil belajar yang diperoleh kelas yang menggunakan pembelajaran metode Collabotative Learning adalah 79,06. Dan rata-rata hasil belajar yang diperoleh kelas yang menggunakan pembelajaran metode Ekspositori adalah 65,82. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa hasil belajar matematika siswa yang menggunkan pembelajran metode Collaborative Learning lebih tinggi dari pada hasil belajar siswa yang menggunakan pembelajaran Ekspositori.
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Mah mungkin terlalu banyak ke salahan caca yng udah caca lakuin sama mamah caca minta maaf sama mamah tetap semangat mah semua ini pasti aka berakhir bahagia jangan lupa terus berdoa sama allah
caca sayang sama mamah
caca kangen mamah
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The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 35
3 The focus of the DP planning and control activity (moving from a
primarily internal focus in the first three stages to an external focus in the
latter stages), and
4 The level of user awareness [moving from a primarily reactive stance
(reactive, that is, to centralized DP initiatives) in the first two stages, to
being a driving force for change in the middle stages, through to a
partnership in maturity].
Nolan argues that the information systems management focus is very much
concerned with technology per se during the earlier stages of growth, with a
transformation point occurring at the completion of stage three, after which
the focus is on managing the organization’s data resources, utilizing database
technology and methods.
As indicated earlier, the model has been criticized because it has not proved
possible to substantiate its claims to represent reality, either as a means to
describe the phases through which organizations pass when utilizing IT, or as
a predictor of change (Benbasat et al., 1984; King and Kraemer, 1984). In
addition, its focus on database technology clearly dates the model. Earl
(1989), for example, argues that organizations will pass through a number of
different learning curves with respect to different ITs, as illustrated in Figure
2.3. In addition, it is now clear that different parts of a single organization may
well be at different stages of growth with respect to a particular IT.
Figure 2.2 Nolan’s six-stage growth model (amended from Nolan, 1979)
36 Strategic Information Management
The Earl model
Unlike Nolan’s model, Earl’s concentrates attention on the stages through
which organizations pass in planning their information systems. First
described in 1983 (Earl, 1983), the model has been revised on a number of
occasions (Earl, 1986, 1988, 1989). The version presented here is based on the
two earlier versions, as amended by Galliers (1987a, 1989), bearing in mind
Earl’s own subsequent changes. As can be seen from Table 2.1, Earl illustrates
the changing agenda for information systems planning by concentrating
attention on what is seen as the primary task of the process: its major
objective, the driving forces of the planning process (in terms of those
involved), the methodological emphasis, and the context within which the
planning takes place. Following research on current information systems
planning practice, Galliers adds to this a supplementary early stage of
planning (which is essentially ad hoc in nature) and an additional factor,
concerning the focus of the planning effort. In the latter context, he argues that
the focus has tended to change over the years from a predominantly isolated,
Information Systems function orientation, through an organizational focus, to
a competitive, environmental focus.
Earl’s argument is essentially that organizations begin their planning efforts
by the first attempting to assess the current ‘state of play’ with respect to
information systems coverage and IT utilization. Increasingly, the focus shifts
Figure 2.3 Multiple learning curves (amended from Earl, 1989, p.31)
Table 2.1 Earl’s planning in stages model (amended from Earl, 1986, 1988, 1989) and Galliers (1987a, 1989)
I II III IV V
IS/IT audit Business support Detailed
Limit demand Agree priorities Balance IS
Driving force IS reaction IS led Senior
Ad hoc Bottom-up
IS for competitive
Focus IS department Organization-wide Environment
38 Strategic Information Management
to management concern for a stronger linkage with business objectives.
Finally, the orientation shifts to a strategic focus, with a balance being
maintained in relation to the make-up of planning teams (between information
systems staff, management and users), environmental and organizational
information (with the likelihood of inter-organizational systems being
developed, cf. Cash and Konsynski, 1985), and the range of approaches
adopted (with multiple methods being accepted).
The Bhabuta model
Based on earlier work by Gluck et al. (1980), which proposes a four-stage
process of evolution towards strategic planning, and a somewhat similar
model of IT assimilation and diffusion postulated by McFarlan et al. (1982,
1983), Bhabuta (1988) developed a model which attempts to map the progress
towards formal strategic planning of information systems. This is illustrated in
Underpinning Bhabuta’s argument is the contention that strategies based on
productivity improvement (and the information systems needed to support
them) ‘will become the dominant paradigm in the turbulent and fiercely
competitive markets of the next decade’ (Bhabuta, 1988, p.1.72). His model
is more widely focused than either the Nolan or Earl models, in that it attempts
to bring together elements of, for example, strategy formulation, information
systems, and the mechanisms by which the information systems function is
managed. The value systems associated with each phase of the model are also
identified (cf. Ackoff, 1981).
In interpreting the Bhabuta model, it should be noted that the categories
used are not distinct nor absolute. With the maturing of IT utilization, and
managerial sophistication with respect to IT, it can be expected that some of
the attributes associated with, for example, Phase 3 and 4 organizations will
emerge within Phase 1 and 2 organizations. This point takes account of some
of the criticism of the Nolan model (Benbasat et al., 1984), which is itself
based on earlier work by Greiner (1972), regarding the discontinuities that
organizations experience in growth.
The Hirschheim et al. model
The Hirschheim et al. (1988) model also builds on the earlier work of Nolan
(1979) and arises from research, undertaken during the first half of 1986, into
the evolution and management of the IT function in a number of British
organizations. As a result of this research. Hirschheim and his colleagues
contend that in companies where top management had begun to realize that
information systems are vital to their business, organizations move through
three evolutionary phases in their management of the IS/IT function. The three
Table 2.2 Bhabuta’s model linking the evaluation of strategic planning with information systems and the organization of the information
systems function (amended from Bhabuta, 1988, p.1.76; Sutherland and Galliers, 1989, p.10)
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4
of strategic planning
Value System Meet the budget Predict the future Think strategically Create the future
Focused innovation and
Systemic innovation and
Led by Top management Top and senior
Application of IT/IS Resource management
Planning and analysis
Support key division
IT-based products and
Direct competitive tool
Inter-organizational IS (link
Formalized IS and
Processing of internal
Ad hoc processing of
Systematic external data
activities to external data
Management of IT,
location in hierarchy
Formal planning of IS
Data sharing and
Focus on IT infusion
Couple IT and business
IT planning at SBU/
Systemic support of
IT planning at SBU/
40 Strategic Information Management
phases are labelled ‘delivery’, ‘reorientation’ and ‘reorganization’ (see also
Earl, 1989, p.197).
The ‘delivery’ phase is characterized by top management concern about the
ability of the IS/IT function to ‘deliver the goods’. Senior executives have
begun to take the subject very seriously, but there is often dissatisfaction with
the quality of the available information systems and the efficiency of the IS/IT
function, together with mounting concern regarding IT expenditure and the
consistency of hardware and infrastructure policies. It would appear that often
this phase is initiated by replacing the DP manager with an external recruit
with a good track record and substantial computing experience.
The emphasis in this phase is on the ‘delivery’ of information systems and,
accordingly, the newly appointed IS executive spends most of the time on
matters internal to the IS department. The primary role is to restore credibility
to the function and/or to create confidence in user/top management that the
function really is supporting current needs and is run efficiently. During this
phase, IS education is sparse, but where it is provided, it is targeted on DP
personnel with a view to improving skills, techniques and project
In the ‘reorientation’ phase, top management (or the Director ultimately
responsible for IS) changes the focus of attention from the delivery of basic
IS services to the exploitation of IT for competitive advantage. An attempt is
made to align IS/IT investment with business strategy. In short, it is in this
‘reorientation’ phase that ‘the business is put into computing’. With this
change of direction/emphasis, it is common to appoint an IS executive over
the DP Manager. The new post is filled, typically, by an insider: a senior
executive who has run a business unit or been active in a corporate role, such
as marketing or strategy formulation. They are likely to have only limited
experience of DP, but are respected by top management for an ability to bring
about change. The focus during this second phase is on the marketplace; on
the external environment of the enterprise; on using IT for competitive
advantage, and in extending the value chain through inter-organizational
systems (cf. Cash and Konsynski, 1985).
In the ‘reorganization’ phase, the senior IS executive (by now the IT
Director) is concerned with managing the interfaces or relationships between
the IS function and the rest of the organization. Some areas will be
strategically dependent on IS, others will be looking to IS more in a support
role. Some will have significant IT capability, particularly with the advance of
end-user computing, and some business executives will be driving IT and IS
development. Increasingly IS will be managed along ‘federal’ lines (Edwards
et al., 1989) with IS capability in the centre and in business units/functions.
These changed and changing relationships require careful management and
often ‘reorganization’, and once again attention is focused on internal
(organizational), as opposed to external (marketplace), concerns.
The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 41
The concerns and considerations associated with each of the phases of the
Hirschheim et al. model are summarized in Table 2.3.
Towards a revised ‘stages of growth’ model
The major inadequacies of the early Nolan models relate to their lack of
organizational and management focus, and the overly simplistic and
subjective assumptions on which they were based. More importantly, they
provided little help for the beleaguered DP manager attempting to create a
successful IS function within the organization. This, as has been demonstrated,
has been remedied in part by the subsequent work of Earl, Bhabuta
and Hirschheim et al. In all but the latter case, however, the models described
how an organization could place itself within a particular stage of IT planning
maturity, rather than describing what is needed to be done in order to progress
through to the more mature stages of growth.
The models that have been discussed thus far describe elements (technical,
managerial and organizational) in the growth of ‘computing’ within an
organization. Were these to be arranged and combined with a structure
describing the important elements of an organization generally, then a model
depicting the kinds of activities and organizational structures needed for an
enterprise to move through IT growth stages (a more comprehensive and
useful model) would result.
Such a model, dealing as it would with the growing maturity in the
management and use of IT in an organization, would indicate how an
organization might develop its use of the technology and its organization of
the IS function. However, a means has to be found of bringing together a
range of key elements associated with the operation and management of an
organization generally in order that the revised model could be developed.
Table 2.3 The Hirschheim et al. model of changing considerations towards
information systems management (amended from Hirschheim et al., 1988, p.4.33;
Sutherland and Galliers, 1989, p.11)
Phase/factor Delivery Reorientation Reorganization
IS executive External IS recruit Inside business Same person
Management focus Within IS/DP Into the business The interfaces
Education needs Credibility Strategy Relationship
CEO posture Concerned Visionary/champion Involved
Leadership The board The function Coalition
42 Strategic Information Management
After some considerable literature searching, the so-called Seven ‘S’s used
by McKinsey & Company in their management consultancy (Pascale and
Athos, 1981) were used to assist in the development of the model. The Seven
‘S’s used in analysis of organizational processes and management are
summarized in Table 2.4.
As a first step, the elements of each of the Seven ‘Ss’ were considered in the
context of each stage in the growth of IT utilization and management,
according to the models described. In other words, a description of each of the
‘S’ elements was attempted in terms of the IT function and the provision of
IT services generally, rather than the organization overall. Following a
description of each of the ‘S’ elements in each stage of the model, an
indication of what might be done to move into the next stage of the model can
be provided. These indicators are based on what constitutes the Seven ‘S’s in
the next stage.
Having produced a tentative model, it was then applied to four Perth-based
organizations, and amendments made. The approach was to interview four or
five senior executives from different areas in each of the organizations
studied. These executives were, typically:
Table 2.4 The Seven ‘S’s (Pascale and Athos, 1981, p.81)
Strategy Plan or course of action leading to the allocation of a firm’s
scarce resources, over time, to reach identified goals
Structure Characterization of the organization chart (i.e. functional,
Systems Procedural reports and routine processes such as meeting formats
Staff ‘Demographic’ description of important personnel categories
within the firm (i.e. engineers, entrepreneurs, MBAs, etc.). ‘Staff’
is not meant in line-staff terms
Style Characterization of how key managers behave in achieving the
organization’s goals; also the cultural style of the organization
Skills Distinctive capabilities of key personnel or the firm as a whole
The significant meanings or guiding concepts that an organization
imbues in its members.
Superordinate goals can be also described as the shared values or
culture of the organization
The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 43
(a) the Chief Executive Officer, or the Deputy
(b) the Head of a Strategic Business Unit (SBU)
(c) the IT Director, or Head of the IS function
(d) the Head of Corporate Planning, or equivalent.
In some instances, for example, where the particular circumstances
warranted broader coverage, more than one SBU head was interviewed. The
interviews focused on the experiences of each organization in planning,
managing and utilizing IT, and on their preparedness to utilize IT strategically.
As a result of these interviews, the tentative model was continually refined
and each organization eventually assessed in the context of the revised model.
As a result of this assessment, conclusions were drawn as to what steps each
organization might take (in relation to each of the Seven ‘S’s) in order to move
on to later growth stages.
Since then, the model has been ‘tested’ by numerous participants at
conferences and short courses, and by clients both in the UK and Australia. As
a result it has been further refined.
Revised stages of growth model
The growth in IT maturity in an organization can be represented as six stages,
each with its particular set of conditions associated with the Seven ‘S’s. These
stages are described in Table 2.5.
The following sections describe each of the stages in the model in detail,
using each of the Seven ‘S’s as a basis for the description. Each of the
elements constitute an important aspect of how the IT function within the
organization might operate at different stages of growth. The stages described
are not intended to include any overt (nor covert) negative overtones
associated with the early stages of the model. Some of the descriptions may
Table 2.5 Stages of IT growth in organizations
(Sutherland and Galliers, 1989, p.14)
One ‘Ad Hocracy’
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Api nan tak kunjung padam pada " DHANGKA " memiliki latar belakang kisah dari suatu legenda " KI MOKO ". Konon kira-kira pada abad XVI sekitar tahun 1605 saka atau tahun 1683 Masehi hiduplah seorang pengelana penyebar agama Islam yang memiliki kesaktian yang bernama KI MOKO dengan nama aslinya R. WIGNYO KENONGO.
Di tengah-tengah hutan yang tandus dimana dia bertempat tinggal, KI MOKO yang pekerjaannya sehari-hari mencari ikan di laut, berhasil menciptakan sumber-sumber kebutuhan hidup yang diupayakan guna memenuhi kebutuhan yang mendesak yaitu pada saat ia harus menyambut atau menjamu tamu dari kerajaan dalam rangka perayaan pernikahan dirinya dengan putri raja.
Kisah ini bermula ketika KI MOKO mendengar berita bahwa Raja Kerajaan Palembang sedang dirundung kesedihan karena seorang putrinya tengah menderita sakit yang tak kunjung sembuh, meski telah banyak tabib yang mengobatinya.
Pada kesempatan itu KI MOKO terpanggil untuk mencoba membantu mengobati penderitaan putri raja KI MOKO mempersembahkan sesuatu kepada Sang raja berupa tabung-tabung bambu yang penuh berbagai mata ikan dan dikirimkan melalui utusan, menerima persembahan dari KI MOKO Raja sangat terkejut karena barang yang semula dianggap kurang berharga menjelma menjadi barang berharga berupa Permata Intan dan Berlian. Sang raja sangat terkeut dan gembira begitu pula Sang Putri yang pada akhinya membuat ia sembuh dari sakitnya.
Melihat kejadian ini Sang Raja merasa berhutang budi kepada KI MOKO dan sesuai janjinya Sang Raja menganugerahkan hadiah berupa sebuah peti kepada KI MOKO dan dikirim melalui utusan, setelah peti tersebut sampai ke tangan KI MOKO dan dibukanya ternyata dari dalamnya terjelma seorang Putri yang amat cantik jelita, itulah SITI SUMENTEN Putri Raja yang sengaja dianugerahkan kepada KI MOKO untuk dijadikan istri, menghadapi kenyataan ini KI MOKO sangat masqul dan gembira hatinya. Namun kegembiraan itu sejenak berubah menjadi rasa risau karena kebersamaan dengan itu pula tersirat suatu berita bahwa tak lama lagi rombongan dari Kerajaan akan segera datang ke tempat kediaman KI MOKO untuk melangsungkan perayaan pernikahan. Kerisauan KI MOKO disebabkan karena tempat kediaman serta segala kebutuhan perayaan sangat tidak memungkinkan. Namun kerisauan tersebut akhirnya sirna setelah KI MOKO memusatkan batin melalui semedinya untuk memohon pertolongan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa.
Dengan menancapkan tongkat saktinya berdirilah bangunan istana yang sangat megah ( bangunan tersebut sirna setelah kegiatan perayaan selesai ).
Demikian pula untuk memenuhi kebutuhan yang lain seperti kebutuhan sumber air dan seterusnya dengan cara yang sama KI MOKO menancapkan tongkatnya pada tanah. Pada saat itulah tercipta sumber air yang akhirnya menjadi sebuah telaga serta pancaran kobaran api yang senantiasa menyala dan akan berguna untuk kebutuhan manusia.
Dengan demikian puaslah hati KI MOKO dan pelaksanaan pesta pernikahan dapat berjalan dengan lancar. Sampai saat ini, semburan api alam tersebut masih tetap abadi hingga dikenal dengan istilah " API NAN TAK KUNJUNG PADAM " "DHANGKA". Dhangka artinya rumah tempat kediaman / Istana yang kemudian sirna yang lokasinya terdapat di dusun Asem manis II Desa Larangan Tokol, Kec. Tlanakan, Kab. Pamekasan.
Sedangkan Patilasan / makam KI MOKO terletak di dusun Palanggaran Desa Branta Tinggi Kecamatan Tlanakan Kab. Pamekasan yang sampai saat ini oleh masyarakat sekitar masih dikeramatkan. Untuk merawat / menjaga sumber api dan sumber air tersebut, maka KI MOKO mengutus Ki Rahma dan Nyi Rahma ( Buju'Tonggah ) yang artinya sebagai penunggu yang kuburannya / astanya terletak di Pojok Barat Laut Lokasi Api Ala Mini.
Last Update: 2014-11-01
sepuluh tahun yang akan datang. saya menjadi orang yang sukses dalam bidang perhotelan. mempunyai restoran sendiri dan mempunyai usaha sendiri.Dan berkeluarga, dengan mempunyai dua anak.merawat orang tua dengan kasih sayang, seperti dia merawat dan menjagaku di masa kecil. selalu menyantuni anak-anak yatim dan piatu. mengikuti organisasi di masyarakat.
Last Update: 2014-06-06
Juries of the English Speech Contest
Teacher , My friends , and all the audiences
Good Morning and prosperous greeting to you all
First of all,let say thanks to our God , because of God’s blessing we can stand here at this place with good condition without any troubles. And also for my friends , because they are I can stand here. Secondly, I would like to introduce my self . My name is Ferdiyan Fendi Cahyono , But you can call me Ferdiyan. Let me tell you , how pleased I’m to have an opportunity to stand here and deliver a speech in front of you. Today, I would talk about “How Important is English for me and for us”.
English is an International Language. Because this language is very universal and used for communicate among people around the world. English is the window to acquire knowledge. As we know, a lot of book, like ensiklopedia, discoveries,and inventions are written and published in English. we will not be separated from the English language, because this language can exist everywhere. like, on the computer, the internet, even in mobilephone. From this statement we can know that english is exactly beneficial for our life.
For me , English is very important. Because English allows me to develop and interact as social beings. In this case, developing means to follow the modern era of globalization. And compete for success as a student. And also , in this case the interaction is where we can communicate with the other people around the world. So, Its very important . Do you agreewith me ? I hope so … That’s means English is very important for us
There is a saying, “If you can speak English, you will be able to control the world so easily”. However, there are still many people who can not speak english. The main reason is they are lazy to learn english , because it’s not used in their daily lives. Some of Indonesian people may be think that it’s not necessary to be able to master english , because we live in indonesia,we speak indonesian language, and all our families are indonesian people. The others think that english is difficult lesson, so they are reluctant to learn english. But from now, we have to change our mind . Why ? Because we lives in modern era ,we have to compete with the other people. We have to reach our dream. It will be happen if can communicate in english, right ? there so many information we can get from the Internet. Its very useful for us as students. By internet , we can find information about everything to support our school. It will be easier if we know english well.
I think that’s all of my speech. We can conclude, that the English is very important. So,learn English is also important.Those are some of the ways that I can suggest for you. If you are interested in one of them or some of them, why don’t you try to do it from now? I believe we can develop our English soon. Well, ladies and gentlemen, thank you for your attention and have a nice day!
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