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If the stock price goes down to $10, the investor earns $5 per share.
Jika harga saham jatuh ke $10, pelabur mendapat $5 bagi setiap syer.
However, if the share goes up to $20, the investor would lose $5 per share.
Walau bagaimanapun, jika syer naik kepada $20, pelabur akan kehilangan $5 bagi setiap syer.
Latent factor structures affecting the occupational profile construct
of the training needs analysis scale
Joanna Carlisle, Ramudu Bhanugopan* and Alan Fish
School of Business, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia
This study evaluates the latent factor structure of the occupational profile construct of the
training needs analysis (TNA) scale proposed by Hicks, Hennessy and Barwell (1996).
Data were collected from 72 Australian nurses. Principal component analysis and
multi-dimensional scaling methods were employed to delineate a five-factor model.
This study demonstrates a good fit of data as opposed to asymmetrical disposition of
factor structures as promulgated by previous studies. This research confirms the original
latent factor structures; however, validation using a confirmatory framework to analyse
the TNA scale is required in future. This study suggests some practical implications for
human resource managers.
Keywords: Australia; nurse; occupational profile; training needs
The implementation of appropriate human resource practices can benefit the performance
of an organisation (Denby 2010). This is no different for the health-care industry.
In Australia, there are several issues, including patient/nurse ratios, pay levels and work
conditions among other things, affecting health-care organisations. The issue of adequately
identifying training needs and understanding the importance of occupational profile in
performance is under-represented in the research conducted to date. Despite a significant
degree of academic and practitioner interest, the topic of training needs analysis (TNA) for
nurses remains underdeveloped. It is difficult to consistently conduct thorough TNA within
the health-care industry, as there are often other issues for the organisation to focus on,
such as nurse shortages.
Gould, Kelly, White and Chidgey’s (2004) literature review focuses on empirical
research concerned with the need to conduct TNA within the health-care profession. This
review finds ‘of 266 articles identified, only 23 (8.6%) contained empirical findings’
(Gould et al. 2004, p. 473), and most of the studies were conducted in the UK. This
highlights the need for further empirical research to provide greater understanding of the
TNA process and the benefits that can result from appropriate implementation of TNA in
the training and development cycle. To further support this, Furze and Pearcey’s (1999)
review of nurses’ continuing professional development concludes that provision is
fragmented, inequitable, poorly funded and the cyclic process of the training strategy is
Although much of the research carried out on TNA for nurses has been conducted in
the UK, some research has been conducted involving training needs of nurses in Australia.
ISSN 0958-5192 print/ISSN 1466-4399 online
q 2012 Taylor & Francis
*Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The International Journal of Human Resource Management,
Vol. 23, No. 20, November 2012, 4319–4341
However, these studies do not focus on a TNA using a psychometrically valid scale nor do
they consider the factors that may influence the training needs of particular nurses or
organisations. Consequently, this current study looks at both these factors by conducting a
TNA using the occupational profile construct of the scale developed by Hicks, Hennessy
and Barwell (1996). Furthermore, it takes into account the qualifications and education of
participants by considering how these factors may influence the perception of nurses in
Australia in defining their job role and training needs. It is hoped this will fill the gap in
empirical research conducted into the TNA of nurses in Australia and promote further
research to provide deeper understanding of this topic to Australian nurses and
the organisations they work for.
Review of literature
A growing demand for professional training within the Australian health service has
created a proliferation of post-registration courses, many of which fail to reach
appropriate training objectives of organisations. This situation is reflected in a number of
studies conducted within Australia into the training needs of nurses (Farrell 1998;
Hicks and Hennessy 1998, 1999; Halcomb, Meadley and Streeter 2009). Whilst these
studies offer useful insights into understanding training needs in general, they create
particular problems for understanding the training needs of Australian nurses. These
include (1) Australian nurses were not their main focal point; (2) the TNA was for a
different purpose than that covered in this research or (3) they do not actually conduct a
TNA for establishing these needs. Also, two of these three studies (Farrell 1998; Hicks
and Hennessy 1998) were carried out over 10 years ago, thus the results may now be
outdated and the scale may need to be re-validated.
The paucity of recent, relevant research to address the contemporary and emerging
training needs of Australian nurses draws attention to a research gap; a gap that the
research reported in this paper has started to fill.
It is difficult to consistently conduct a thorough TNA in the health-care industry.
The need for and importance of TNA is often underestimated in many industries; however,
the nursing sector seems to have a poor record of developing and implementing TNA
strategies (Hennessy and Hicks 1998).
Gould et al. (2004) highlighted two key TNA areas requiring attention in the
health-care industry. First, the importance of using TNA strategically to obtain maximum
benefit to the organisation and the individuals involved. Second, the urgent need for
further research into the application of TNA in health care, particularly in relation to
nurses: ‘The climate of rapid change against the background of nursing recruitment
difficulties in the health service magnifies the need for TNA to be used appropriately’
(Gould et al. 2004, p. 472). Unfortunately, TNA often maximises the benefits to the
organisation while making it difficult for nurses to access training resources.
A study conducted in Ireland that found lack of employer’s support was the main cause
of nurses being unwilling to participate in continuing professional education: ‘Although
respondents understand and accept the positive outcomes, they believe that continuing
professional education is essentially a job related activity, specific to their employing
organisation’ (Murphy, Cross and McGuire 2006, p. 378). This shows that nurses who
want training and further education often go without simply because the organisation
offers insufficient encouragement.
A study conducted in Europe also found an unsupportive workplace and ineffective
leadership within health-care organisations results in low job satisfaction, which in turn
4320 J. Carlisle et al.
raises the likelihood of nurses intending to leave within 1 year (Van der Heijden, Van Dam
and Hasselhorn 2009). This research highlights the need for appropriately trained staff,
which requires a TNA that will ensure who employees are suited for their jobs, one are
competent and receive the training necessary to further build the competencies they
require in their workplace.
The benefits of TNA can be immense; however, often the TNA process for nurses is
not implemented appropriately to maximise the benefits. Gould et al. (2004, p. 474), when
reappraising empirical research, concluded that ‘smaller scale (micro level) TNA
concerned with staff in a single organisation (or similar smaller organisations) emerged as
the most useful in practical terms as well as having the most to contribute towards theory’.
On the other hand, the macro level TNA, concerned with more than one large organisation,
did very little to address organisational goals and training needs. Despite this, of the 23
empirical research studies reviewed by Gould et al. (2004) only seven fell into the category
of micro level. This emphasises the need for TNA to be implemented to provide maximum
benefit to both the nurses and the organisation they work for.
Issues facing rural hospitals
There are many issues that regional Australian nurses must contend with over and above
the current issues facing the Australian health-care industry. Issues, such as stress,
burnout, nurse shortages, lack of resources and limited access to information and specialist
advice, all impact on the job satisfaction and retention of nurses working in rural settings.
These concerns are not specific to Australia, with several researchers contending that this
is an international issue (Hannigan, Edwards, Coyle, Fothergill and Burnard 2000;
Kidd, Kenny and Meehan-Andrews 2012). A study conducted in Wales, regarding the
burnout of rural mental health nurses, states that one in two respondents indicated that they
were highly emotionally exhausted, one in four possessed a negative attitude towards
clients and one in seven experienced little or no sense of achievement in or satisfaction
with their work (Hannigan et al. 2000).
Kidd et al. (2012, p. 1) stated that ‘rural nurses often work outside of their professional
scope of practice and cite isolation and maintaining professional competency as their
greatest difficulty’. Further, the sustainability of rural services is threatened by workforce
shortages due to inadequate funding (Kidd et al. 2012).
Rural nurses also face a higher workload, less support and higher dissatisfaction with
their jobs. A Victorian study on rural psychiatric nurses and stress found that a mean of
82.7% of respondents (n ¼ 136) saw workload as a primary stressor, 61.3% cited lack of
support and inadequate preparation as a stressor and 82.4% saw the job role itself as a
stressor (Pinikahana and Happell 2004). This is further shown in a study conducted
on Queensland rural practice nurses, which cites management practices, workload,
workplace support and job satisfaction as among the top 10 most important influences on
their decision to leave rural nursing (Hegney, McCarthy, Rogers-Clark and Gorman
The job description of the rural nurse has also expanded, causing burnout, stress, job
dissatisfaction and a feeling by nurses that they are inadequately trained and supported
(Hannigan et al. 2000; Hegney et al. 2002; Pinikahana and Happell 2004; Hegney 2007).
The health of rural Australians is poorer than those living in metropolitan areas, with
higher rates of illness or injury such as diabetes, heart disease, pulmonary disease and
motor vehicle accident injuries (Hegney 2007); the issues facing rural nurses need to be
The International Journal of Human Resource Management 4321
Previous studies conducted using a psychometrically valid TAN scale
Hicks et al. (1996, p. 262) developed a ‘psychometrically valid training needs analysis tool
for use with primary health care teams’. The TNA scale was shown to be valid – it has
significant reliability – and appears to be unique. The scale incorporates 30 items where
participants are asked to rate four aspects: (1) how important certain tasks are in order to
successfully perform their jobs, referred to as ‘rating A’ in Hicks et al. (1996, p. 268), and
used to provide an occupational profile; (2) how well they currently perform their
responsibilities, referred to as ‘rating B’ in Hicks et al. (1996, p. 268), and which identifies
particular training needs and (3) whether it is likely that their performance of these
activities will be improved by organisational change or training, referred to as ‘rating C
and D’ in Hicks et al. (1996, p. 268), and used to determine the most appropriate means of
This scale is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be modified to suit different
health-care scenarios, and second, it is translatable for employment in different cultures
without appearing to compromise its validity and reliability. For example, the scale has been
employed in many studies conducted both in Australia and overseas in various cultural
settings including the UK (Hicks et al. 1996), the USA (Hennessy and Hicks 1998),
Australia (Hicks and Hennessy 1999), Greece (Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks and Lionis 2007)
and Indonesia (Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan and Kawonal 2006a; Hennessy, Hicks and Koesno
2006c). Whilst the scale has primarily been used in the UK, several studies in different
cultural contexts also show its high reliability, its construct validity and its accuracy
(see Table 1). Nevertheless, the majority of studies have been conducted in the UK, yielding
a five-factor solution, namely (1) research and audit; (2) communication and teamwork;
(3) management and supervisory tasks; (4) administrative tasks and (5) clinical tasks.
Importantly, the Greek study (Markaki et al. 2007) establishes that the scale can be
translated, and employed in quite a different cultural setting from where it was originally
developed, while maintaining its validity and reliability (a 0.98). This was also shown to
be true for Indonesia, where the reliability of the scale in an Asian context also demonstrates
its validity and reliability in identifying the training and professional development needs
of midwives (a 0.91 highest factor, 0.71 lowest factor).
Significant for its cross-cultural application, the scale was altered with a number of
identified central themes cross-referenced with the original five central themes. Any
themes not covered were then converted to additional items, to ensure that all items
relevant to Indonesia were represented (Hennessy et al. 2006a). Hence, additional 10 items
were employed to not only establish the training needs of midwives, but also compare the
different training needs of midwives among different grades of nurses, and in the different
provinces of Indonesia.
Furthermore, in a study conducted by Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan and Kawonal (2006b),
a six-factor solution was derived. This led to yet another study (Hennessy et al. 2006c) that
discerned a three-factor solution. Hence, the factorial structures thus far inferred in all these
studies were asymmetrical. Of key importance to the study reported here though, is that
these studies highlight the potential adaptability of the scale, and the ability to use this scale
in multiple cultural settings, and in the process, retain the scale’s reliability and validity.
The TNA scale was also used in a comparative study between the UK, USA and
Australia (Hennessy and Hicks 1998), as well as in a study that aimed to define the role of
the nurse practitioner (Hicks and Hennessy 1999).
The comparative study (Hicks and Hennessy 1998) was one of the first studies
involving TNA for nurses conducted in Australia. The results show that when
4322 J. Carlisle et al.
Table 1. Summary of latent factor structure anomalies in previous studies.
Previous studies Country Subject and sample size Items Factors Cronbach a
Hennessy and Hicks (1998) UK, USA and Australia Primary and secondary care
30 Latent factor structure unclear Unknown
Hicks and Hennessy (1998) UK Nurse practitioner 420 31 Latent factor structure unclear Unknown
Hicks and Hennessy (1999) Australia Nurse practitioner 46 30 Latent factor structure unclear Unknown
Hicks et al. (1996) UK Health-care workers 198 30 6 0.70
Hennessy et al. (2006a) Indonesia Nurses and midwives 856 40 6 Factor 1: 0.86, Factor
2: 0.85, Factor 3:
0.42, Factor 4: 0.84,
Factor 5: 0.77, Factor
Hennessy et al. (2006b) Indonesia Nurses 524 40 3 Factor 1: 0.91, Factor
2: 0.89, Factor 3:
Hennessy et al. (2006c) Indonesia Midwives 332 40 3 Factor 1: 0.89, Factor
2: 0.87, Factor 3:
Markaki et al. (2007) Greece Health-care workers 55 30 7 0.98
The International Journal of Human Resource Management 4323
compared to the USA and the UK, Australian nurses placed higher training needs
importance on clinical tasks such as (1) treating patients; (2) planning and organising
patient’s care and (3) undertaking health promotion activities. In addition, the study
demonstrates the need for higher training needs in research and audit, such as
(4) identifying viable research topics; (5) writing research studies reports and
(6) designing a research study.
However, the results of this study cannot generally be applied to nurses Australia-wide
as the results merely indicate between-group differences regarding higher or lower
training needs, with no clear indication about the training gaps between countries.
Hicks and Hennessy (1999) also conducted a second Australian study, using their
original TNA scale. This study was conducted in a Victorian not-for-profit hospital and
involved 46 nurses. The results show that training needs were apparent in the research
and audit area; however, this was not perceived as important to the nurse’s role. Key areas
where training needs did exist included (1) communicating with patients and their carers
and (2) supervision of colleagues. The focus of this study was, however, on defining the
role of a nurse practitioner, rather than on their training needs.
The study ‘indicates that the instrument is appropriate for use in the Australian context,
to determine specific service delivery according to locally determined needs’ (Hicks and
Hennessy 1999, p. 32). While this study does not provide good insight into the training
needs of nurses in Australia, it does establish the reliability and validity of the TNA scale
for use in an Australian context; this is of great help for further research, including the
current study. A summary of the latent factor structure anomalies found in previous studies
is presented in Table 1.
Considering the indistinct disposition of the factor structure and dimensionality of the
TNA scale, this study was undertaken to explore and examine the latent factor structures
of the occupational profile construct of the scale through nurses’ perceptions of those
activities, which constitute their successful performance. The study focuses on the
occupational profile aspect of the TNA scale, and examines the perceived importance
that particular activities have on the successful performance of nurses. The purpose of
this current study then is to analyse the perceptions of registered Australian nurses by
employing Hicks et al.’s (1996) TNA scale, and to identify those activities affecting
nurses’ on-the-job performance which are perceived to be critical to their occupational
Last Update: 2014-10-21
The Motive for the Investment
The motive for a foreign investment is crucial in determining how linkages and
externalities develop. There are four main motives for investment: 1) seek natural
resources; 2) seek new markets; 3) restructure existing foreign production; and
4) seek new strategic assets [Narula and Dunning, 2000]. These can be placed into
two categories. The first category includes the first three motives: asset-exploiting,
to generate economic rent by using existing firm-specific assets. The second
category is the fourth motive: asset-augmenting, to acquire new assets that protect
or enhance existing assets. In general, developing countries are unlikely to attract
the second category of FDI; they primarily attract the first category.
The relative importance of each motive partly reflects the stage of economic
development [Narula and Dunning, 2000; Narula, 1996, 2004]. Least developed
countries would tend to have mainly resource-seeking FDI and countries at the
catching-up stage mostly market-seeking FDI. Efficiency-seeking investments,
with the most stringent capability needs, will tend to focus on the more
industrialised developing economies (though three or four decades ago they went
to countries with relatively low capabilities, e.g. the electronics industry in
Southeast Asia in the 1970s).
Not all affiliates offer the same spillovers to host economies. A sales office,
for instance, may have a high turnover and employ many people, but its
technological spillovers will be limited relative to a manufacturing facility.
Likewise, resource-seeking activities like mining tend to be capital intensive and
provide fewer spillovers compared to market-seeking manufacturing FDI. During
import substitution, most MNEs set up miniature replicas of their facilities at
home, though many functions were not reproduced (they were ‘truncated’). The
extent of truncation, however, varied by host country. The most important
determinants of truncation – and thus the scope of activities and competence of
the subsidiary – were market size and local industrial capabilities [Dunning and
Narula, 2004]. Countries with small markets and weak local industries had the
most truncated subsidiaries, often only single-activity subsidiaries (sales and
marketing or natural resource extraction). Larger countries with domestic
technological capacity (such as Brazil and India) had the least truncated
subsidiaries, often with research and development departments.
With liberalisation, MNE strategies on affiliate competence and scope have
changed in four ways [Dunning and Narula, 2004]. First, there has been
investment in new affiliates. Second, there has been sequential investment in
upgrading existing subsidiaries. Third, there has been some downgrading of
subsidiaries, whereby MNEs have divested in response to location advantages
elsewhere or reduced the level of competence and scope of subsidiaries.
DO WE NEED A NEW AGENDA? 451
Fourth, there has been some redistribution of ownership as the result of
privatisation or acquisitions of local private firms. In many, but certainly not
all, cases this also led to a downgrading of activities.
MNEs are taking advantage of liberalisation to concentrate production
capacity in a few locations, exploiting scale and agglomeration economies,
favourable location and strong capabilities. Some miniature replicas have been
downgraded to sales and marketing affiliates, with fewer opportunities for
spillovers. Countries that receive FDI with the highest potential for capability
development are, ironically, those with strong domestic absorptive capacities.
The article by Lorentzen and Barnes on South Africa shows that domestic
capacity – in the form of infrastructure or an efficient domestic industrial sector
– is a primary determinant of high competence affiliates. They base their analysis
on eight case studies in the South African automotive sector, and show that
indigenous firms can compete with MNEs, and – given the appropriate domestic
capabilities and infrastructure – can maintain and improve their competitive
advantages through indigenous innovation.
Like South Africa, other countries have succeeded in attracting such FDI,
notably Mexico and the Caribbean Basin [ECLAC, 2000, 2001; Mortimore,
2000]. In addition to providing a threshold level of domestic capabilities and
infrastructure, these countries have invested in developing their knowledge
base (although to a lesser extent in the case of Mexico). Mortimore 
argues that much of this FDI has created export platforms for MNEs with
limited benefits for the host countries [ECLAC, 2001]. This is a point
reiterated by Mytelka and Barclay here in the case of Trinidad, where FDI has
not been leveraged to develop the skills and capabilities of local downstream
and supporting firms. The state has largely failed to act as a facilitator to
stimulate and support domestic absorptive capacities and linkages with MNE
FDI transfers technology to local firms in four ways: backward linkages, labour
turnover, horizontal linkages and international technology spillovers. Studies of
backward linkages have identified various determinants, including those internal
to MNEs and those associated with host economies. The ability of the host
economy to benefit from MNE linkages has been found to depend crucially on the
relative technological capabilities of recipient and transmitter: the greater the
distance between them, the lower the intensity of linkages.
Again, MNE motives and strategies matter. Domestic market oriented
affiliates generally purchase more locally than export-oriented firms because of
lower quality requirements and technical specifications [Reuber et al., 1973;
Altenburg, 2000]. MNE affiliates are more likely to be integrated with host
countries where they source relatively simple inputs [Ganiatsos, 2000; Carillo,
Last Update: 2014-10-10
THE COMPANIES ACT 1965
PRIVATE COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES
ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
PELABUHAN HUTAN MELINTANG HOLDING SDN. BHD.
1. Subjects as hereinafter provided, the regulations in Table ‘A’ in Fourth Schedule of the Companies Act 1965 (‘the Act’ ) shall apply to the company with the exception of Regulation 22, 48, 71 and 90 of Table A.
2. The Company is a Private Company, and accordingly :
a) The right to transfer shares is restricted in the manner hereinafter prescribed;
b) The number of members of the Company ( counting joint holders of shares as one person and not counting any person in the employment of the Company or of its subsidiary was and thereafter has continued to be a member of the Company ) shall be limited to fifty; provided that where two or more persons hold one or more shares in the Company jointly they shall for the purposes of this paragraph be treated as single member;
c) Any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares in or debentures of the Company is prohibited; and;
d) Any invitation to the public to deposit money with the Company for fixed periods or payable at call, whether bearing or not bearing interests, is prohibited.
3. The directors may, in their absolute discretion and without assigning any reason therefore, decline to register any transfer of any share, whether or not it is fully paid shares.
4. If within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting a quorum is not present, the meeting, if convened upon the requisition of members, shall be dissolved; in any case it shall stand adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and place, or to such other day and at such other time and place the directors may determine; and if at the adjourned meeting of quorum is not present within half an hour from the time appointed therefore, those present shall constitute a quorum.
5. The first directors shall be ZAHARI BIN SHADAN, RAZALI BIN ESA and AHMAD FIZAL BIN AZRAT GULL. The number of directors shall not less than two and not more than nine.
6. A resolution in writing, signed by majority of the Directors for the time being entitled to receive notice of a meeting of the Directors, shall be as valid and effectual is if it had been passed at a meeting of the Directors duly convened and held. Any such resolution may consist of several documents in like form each signed by one or more Directors.
7. The first secretary shall be DR. RUZIAH BINTI GHAZALI (LS 05611)
8. The office of the Secretary shall be vacated if he signed by notice in writing to the Company, left at the registered office and copies lodged with the directors for the time being at their last known addresses.
We, the several persons whose names and addresses are subscribed hereunder being subscribers, hereby agree to the foregoing Articles of Association.
Last Update: 2014-10-09
INITIAL REGISTRATION OF TITLES
Division 1 — Bringing land under the Act on alienation
Alienation by State
—(1) Where at any time, whether before or after 1st March 1994, the State alienates or has alienated —
an estate in fee simple;
an estate in perpetuity; or
a leasehold estate,
in any land, the Collector shall furnish to the Registrar such particulars of the alienation in such manner as may be required by the Registrar to enable the Registrar to bring the land under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more folios for that land.
(2) Any land brought under the provisions of this Act under subsection (1) shall be held subject to such exceptions, reservations, covenants and conditions expressed or implied by law in the relevant State title.
(3) Pending the issue of a State title, the land brought under the provisions of this Act under this section shall be held subject to such exceptions, reservations, covenants and conditions expressed or implied by law in the State title executed in escrow by the grantee or lessee of the land.
(4) Where any land has been brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to any certificate issued by the Collector before 1st March 1994, the Collector shall upon the issue of the relevant State title deliver the full particulars of the State title to the Registrar who shall create a new edition of the relevant folio or make necessary alterations to the land-register to show the particulars of the State title and the boundaries and dimensions of the land and indicate whether the boundaries and dimensions are conclusive.
Surrender and reissue of title to land
—(1) Where the President agrees to accept the surrender of the title to land (whether registered or unregistered, and whether of the same or different tenure), for the reissue of one or more fresh State titles of one type of tenure, the President may accept the surrender of title to land, subject to all or any of the following:
any subsisting mortgage with the consent of the mortgagee, the Collector, and the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be;
any subsisting statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or any caveat notified under this Act or registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269) with the consent of the Collector, and the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be.
(2) Upon the acceptance by the President under subsection (1), the surrender may be lodged with the Registry of Deeds or Land Titles Registry, as the case may be.
(3) The fresh State title or titles in respect of the whole or part of the land surrendered may be issued by the President only when the Registrar of Deeds or the Registrar, as the case may be, has notified the Collector that the surrender has been finally registered.
(4) Upon the creation of one or more folios for the land, the Registrar shall, where applicable, notify any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in subsection (1)(a) and (b), and cancel the previously existing folio or folios for the land.
(5) Any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in subsection (4) and notified on one or more folios for the land comprised in the fresh State title or titles issued by the President shall be deemed to be registered or notified against the estate and interest of the proprietor of land in whose name such folio or folios are issued.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
10. [Repealed by Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
11. [Repealed by Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
Restriction on registration or notification of assurance, instrument or caveat pending issue of fresh State title
12. After the surrender of the title to land is lodged with the Registry of Deeds or the Land Titles Registry, as the case may be, under section 9, and pending the issuance of a fresh State title or titles by the President —
except for a discharge of a statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or a withdrawal of a subsisting caveat registered under the Registration of Deeds Act —
no assurance or caveat in respect of the unregistered land surrendered shall be capable of being registered under the provisions of that Act; and
where such assurance or caveat has been registered, the Registrar of Deeds shall have the power to cancel the registration of such assurance or caveat and any entries relating thereto from the records kept by the Registry of Deeds; and
except for a discharge of a statutory charge in favour of the Central Provident Fund Board or an extension or withdrawal of a subsisting caveat notified under this Act —
no dealing or caveat in respect of the registered land surrendered shall be capable of being registered or notified under the provisions of this Act; and
where such dealing or caveat has been registered or notified, the Registrar shall have the power to cancel the registration or notification of such dealing or caveat and any entries relating thereto from the records kept by the Land Titles Registry.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
Collector to furnish Registrar with particulars of fresh State title
—(1) Where at the time of the lodgment of any surrender of the title to land under section 9, the land is subject to any subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat, the fresh State title or titles to be issued by the President under section 9 shall be endorsed with a statement by the Collector that the fresh State title or titles are subject to such subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat referred to in that section.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(2) Upon the issue of the fresh State title by the President for the land surrendered under section 9, the Collector shall furnish to the Registrar such particulars of the fresh State title in such manner as may be required by the Registrar to enable the Registrar —
to bring the land under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more new folios for the land; and
to notify the subsisting mortgage, statutory charge or caveat on the relevant folio or folios and, where applicable, cancel the previously existing folio or folios for the land.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(3) Section 27(5) and (6) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the mortgage, statutory charge or caveat notified on the relevant folio under subsection (2).
Power of Registrar of Deeds to refuse registration of assurances
14. Where an assurance which requires the prior written consent of either the Collector or the Registrar or both of them, as the case may be, has been made without the endorsement of his or their written consent thereon —
the Registrar of Deeds shall not accept that assurance for registration or, in the case where that assurance has been registered under the provisions of the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269), shall cancel the registration of that assurance and any entries relating thereto; and
the Collector shall disregard that assurance and may issue one or more fresh State titles as if that assurance had not been made.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
Application of section 8
—(1) Section 8(2) and (3) shall apply to any land brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to the issue of fresh State title after the surrender of an existing title.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(2) Section 8(4) shall apply to any land brought under the provisions of this Act pursuant to the surrender of an existing title and the issue of a certificate by the Collector before 1st March 1994.
Registrar to make an entry on folio as to conclusiveness of boundaries, etc.
—(1) Where any land alienated by the President is brought under the provisions of this Act and a folio has been created for the land, the Registrar shall —
where the boundaries and dimensions as shown in the plan filed with and approved by the Chief Surveyor are inconclusive, make an entry in the folio to show —
that the boundaries and dimensions are inconclusive; and
the reference number of the plan; or
where in the plan filed with and approved by the Chief Surveyor the boundaries and dimensions have been approved as conclusive, make an entry in the folio of the reference number of the plan.
(2) Where the Registrar has entered a caution on the folio created for the land as to the inconclusiveness of its boundaries and dimensions under subsection (1), he shall cancel that caution when the boundaries and dimensions shown in the plan filed with the Chief Surveyor have been approved as conclusive by the Chief Surveyor.
(3) Upon the cancellation of the caution referred to in subsection (2), the Registrar shall make the appropriate entry on the folio as to the conclusiveness of the boundaries and dimensions.
Priority of interests protected by caveats, mortgages and statutory charges registered or notified on land-register
—(1) Where any land has been surrendered to the President under section 9, with subsisting mortgages, statutory charges and caveats registered or notified on the land-register, the priority of these mortgages, statutory charges and caveats shall be determined as follows:
the priority for caveats lodged under section 115 and notified in the land-register shall be determined in accordance with section 119; and
the priority for mortgages, statutory charges or caveats (including those registered under the Registration of Deeds Act and subsequently notified on the folio or folios when created) shall be determined in accordance with section 48.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(2) Where any instrument (including a mortgage, statutory charge or caveat) was materially amended pending its final registration or notification in the land-register, as the case may be, section 48(2) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the determination of its priority in accordance with this section.
(3) The respective priorities of mortgages, statutory charges and caveats as determined in subsection (1) shall apply only to those mortgages, statutory charges and caveats which were subsisting at the date of surrender and have not been discharged, withdrawn or cancelled at the date of the issue of fresh State title to the land or part thereof.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
Collector may refuse to accept surrender of title to land for reissue of title
18. The Collector may refuse to accept the surrender of any title to land for the reissue of title where he is satisfied that the proprietor or owner of the land intended for surrender has not complied with any existing law or the lawful requirements of any Government authority.
Division 2 — Applications and schemes to bring land under this Act
Bringing lands under this Act
—(1) Unregistered land of whatever tenure may be brought under the provisions of this Act upon any primary application or at the instance of the Registrar in accordance with this Division.
(2) The Registrar may bring unregistered land under the provisions of this Act by the creation of one or more folios for the land which shall be either qualified or unqualified as to title, and shall notify on the folio, in such manner as to preserve their priority, such particulars as the Registrar thinks fit of all subsisting mortgages or other encumbrances to which the land is subject at the time of bringing the land under the provisions of this Act.
(3) Any folio, qualified or unqualified as to title, created under this Division for any land may, if the circumstances so require, be qualified as to the boundaries and dimensions of the land, and section 165 shall apply with such modifications as are necessary to that land.
—(1) A person entitled to bring unregistered land under the provisions of this Act may lodge a primary application with the Registrar to bring the land under this Act together with any deed, conveyance or instrument affecting the land.
(2) The following persons shall be entitled to have unregistered land brought under the provisions of this Act:
the person claiming to be the owner (either at law or in equity) or persons who collectively claim to be the owners (either at law or in equity) of the fee simple, an estate in perpetuity or leasehold estate; or
trustees for the sale of the fee simple, an estate in perpetuity or leasehold estate where the application to bring the land under the provisions of this Act has been consented to by a majority in number of persons required to give that consent.
(3) A primary application to bring land under the provisions of this Act shall —
be in the approved form; and
be accompanied by such documents of title or other evidence as the Registrar may require, including but not limited to a statutory declaration (in a form acceptable to the Registrar) executed by an applicant who is unable to produce any such documents of title or other evidence to substantiate his claim or from any person connected with the loss of those documents.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a mortgagor is not entitled to apply to bring land under the provisions of this Act unless the mortgagee consents to the primary application.
(5) Unless expressly prohibited by the terms of its memorandum of association, constitution, charter, limited liability partnership agreement or other constituting document, as the case may be, a corporation (whether sole or aggregate) or a limited liability partnership shall be deemed to have power to apply to the Registrar to bring land under the provisions of this Act.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(6) Any primary application under subsection (5) may be made —
on behalf of a corporation (other than a limited liability partnership), by its director, manager or secretary; or
on behalf of a limited liability partnership, by its partner or manager, or an attorney appointed in that behalf by the limited liability partnership,
under its common seal in accordance with the memorandum of association, constitution, charter, limited liability partnership agreement or other constituting document, as the case may be.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(7) The Registrar may refer any primary application to any legally qualified person for investigation of and report on the applicant’s title.
(8) On the creation of a folio for the land, the Registrar shall cancel —
all assurances lodged to support the primary application if the folio is unqualified as to title; or
in any other case, the last deed lodged with the Registry of Deeds prior to the creation of the folio.
Unregistered land may be brought under this Act at instance of Registrar or on registration of conveyance
—(1) The Registrar may, if he thinks fit, bring under the provisions of this Act any unregistered land comprised in any conveyance registered under the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269).
(2) If the Registrar intends to bring any unregistered land under the provisions of this Act in accordance with subsection (1), the Registrar shall —
give notice of his intention to do so to the owner of the land (as shown from the records in the Registry of Deeds); and
require the owner to produce for cancellation, within the time specified in the notice, his documents of title or any other evidence substantiating his ownership of the land.
(3) Where the owner of the land fails, neglects or refuses to comply with the notice under subsection (2), the Registrar shall insert a notice in one or more local daily newspapers circulating in Singapore stating the Registrar’s intention to bring the unregistered land under the provisions of this Act, including particulars of the owner of the land as shown from the records in the Registry of Deeds or such other particulars as the Registrar may in his discretion deem appropriate.
(4) After the Registrar has given notice under subsection (2) or (3), as the case may be, he shall bring the land specified in the notice under the provisions of this Act by creating one or more folios for that land.
(5) Where a person entitled to the unregistered land does not or is unable to produce the documents of title or any other evidence substantiating his claim, the Registrar may, in his discretion, issue a certificate of title to that person if a statutory declaration (in a form acceptable to the Registrar) has been executed by that person, his successor in title, his mortgagee or any person who has possession or control of the documents of title, and produced to the Registrar for his inspection and, if the Registrar so requires, retention.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(6) On registering a conveyance in accordance with section 7(2) of the Registration of Deeds Act (Cap. 269), the Registrar of Deeds shall forward the conveyance to the Registrar who may, if he thinks fit, bring the land comprised in the conveyance under the provisions of this Act.
(7) The Registrar shall cancel the last deed pertaining to any land brought under the provisions of this Act in accordance with this section.
Land may be brought under this Act upon subdivision
—(1) Where permission has been granted to develop or subdivide any unregistered land, the owner is not entitled to deal with the land or any part thereof whether under the Registration of Deeds Act or under this Act, unless the entire parcel is brought under the provisions of this Act in accordance with Division 1 or this Division.
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Registrar of Deeds may register any assurance of the land or part thereof under the Registration of Deeds Act where the Registrar has issued to the owner a certificate exempting the land from the application of subsection (1).
[Act 8 of 2014 wef 15/08/2014]
(3) Subject to subsection (4), subsection (2) shall not apply to unregistered land where permission for the subdivision of any building erected thereon was previously granted and an assurance of part of that subdivided building was registered under the Registration of Deeds Act before 15th May 1968.
(4) Where the whole of the estate in an unregistered land referred to in subsection (3) comprising the subdivided building has wholly become vested or subsequently vests in th
Last Update: 2014-09-27
Please answer the following questions as accurately as possible. Put a check mark by the answer that best describes you.
2. With whom do you live?
3. Who in your household works outside the home?
4. When do your parent(s) or guardian(s) leave for work?
Before I get up in the morning
Before I eat breakfast
Same time that I leave for school
After I have already left for school
5. How often do you eat breakfast during the week?
1-2 days per week
3-4 days per week
5-6 days per week
Never (If you check this option, please skip to question
6. Why do you eat breakfast? (Please check all that apply to you.)
I am hungry in the morning
I feel better if I eat breakfast
My parents make me
I enjoy eating
I feel it is important to eat breakfast
7. If you skip breakfast occasionally, how do you feel mid-morning (9:30-
10:00)? Check one that best describes how you feel.
8. If you skip breakfast occasionally, what are the reasons for doing so?
(Please check all that apply to you.)
I was not hungry
I didn't have enough time
I didn't like what was available to eat
I didn't want to eat alone
No one prepared anything for me
9. Who prepares your breakfast? (Please check all that apply to you.)
I prepare my own breakfast
My Father or Mother
My Sister or Brother
I eat at school (how many times per week do you eat at school?
10. Breakfast eaters. What did you have this morning for breakfast?
Please list all of the food.
THANK YOU FOR FILLING OUT THIS SURVEY.
11. Non-breakfast eaters. You checked never to question number Why don’t you eat breakfast? Please check all that apply to you.
_I am not hungry at that time of the morning
_I don’t have enough time
_I want to lose weight
_I don’t like what’s available to eat
_I don’t like eating alone
_No one prepares it for me
12. When you skip breakfast, how do you feel mid-morning (9:30 to
10:00)? Check one that best describes how you feel.
THANK YOU FOR FILLING OUT THIS SURVEY
Last Update: 2014-09-26
ARIES.21 march-April 20 .... After your last difference of opinion, you thought you'd never speak wind, but ir seems that you ex boyfriend willing to put all that in the past if you "ll do the same. you're still very fond of each each other, and you're much better together than apart, so say yes and be happy again.
ARIES.21 march-20 april....After your last difference of opinion,you thought you'd never speak angin,but ir seems that you ex boyfriend willing to put all that in the past if you"ll do the same.you're still very fond each of each other,and you're much better together than apart,so say yes and be happy again.
Last Update: 2014-08-11
Multiplication Tips and Tricks
Some Tips and Tricks
It is best to put the whole table into your memory using Math Trainer - Multiplication, but here are some tricks that may help you remember your times tables.
Everyone thinks differently, so just ignore any tricks that don't make sense to you.
The Best Trick
Every multiplication has a twin, which may be easier to remember.
For example if you forget 8×5, you might remember 5×8. This way, you only have to remember half the table.
Tricks by Number
add the number to itself (example 2×9 = 9+9)
the last digit goes 5, 0, 5, 0, ...
is always half of 10× (Example: 5x6 = half of 10x6 = half of 60 = 30)
is half the number times 10 (Example: 5x6 = 10x3 = 30)
when you multiply 6 by an even number, they both end in the same digit.
Example: 6×2=12, 6×4=24, 6×6=36, etc
the last digit goes 9, 8, 7, 6, ...
your hands can help! Example: to multiply 9 by 8, hold your 8th finger down, and count "7" and "2", the answer is 72
is 10× the number minus the number. Example: 9×6 = 10×6−6 = 60−6 = 54
when you add the answer's digits together, you get 9.
Example: 9×5=45 and 4+5=9. (But not with 9×11=99)
put a zero after it
up to 9x11: just repeat the digit (Example: 4x11 = 44)
for 10x11 to 18x11: write the sum of the digits between the digits
Example: 15x11 = 1(1+5)5 = 165
Note: this works for any two-digit number, but when the sum of the digits is more than 9, we need to"carry the one". Example: 75x11 = 7(7+5)5 = 7(12)5 = 825.
is 10× plus 2×
Remembering Squares Can Help
This may not work for you, but it worked for me. I like remembering the squares (where you multiply a number by itself):
1×1=1 2×2=4 3×3=9 4×4=16 5×5=25 6×6=36
7×7=49 8×8=64 9×9=81 10×10=100 11×11=121 12×12=144
And this gives us one more trick. When the numbers we are multiplying are separated by 2 (example 7 and 5), then multiply the number in the middle by itself and subtract one. See this:
5×5 = 25 is just one bigger than 6×4 = 24
6×6 = 36 is just one bigger than 7×5 = 35
7×7 = 49 is just one bigger than 8×6 = 48
8×8 = 64 is just one bigger than 9×7 = 63
Last Update: 2014-06-10
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