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sinhala

promissory court simple

Last Update: 2014-09-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Danayasacraments sinhala trans

Sakiya

Last Update: 2014-09-15
Subject: General
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sigiriya information of translate sinhala

HOUSTON – NASA confirmed today that aliens are invading earth – and they are attacking us because of global warming! WWN has been the ONLY media source reporting on the ongoing alien invasion. WWN’s own Frank Lake has been the top investigative reporter in the world on this issue. Governments around the globe have been covering up the invasion in order to avoid worldwide panic. But WWN feels we must report the truth, and if we take peaceful actions now – we can avoid a war with aliens. As reported here many times, the U.N. Panel on Extraterrestrials has confirmed that aliens from Planet Zeeba began invading our planet – in large numbers – in October, 2011. The U.N. Panel, led by Dr. John Malley, predicts that the invasion will last until December 2015 – at which time earth will be under full control of the aliens from Zeeba. If we act now, we can co-exist peacefully with the aliens. In a stunning announcement today, NASA confirmed Frank Lake’s reportage. ”Aliens have been invading our planet in ever-increasing numbers,” warns a report from NASA. The reason? NASA says that rising greenhouse emissions may have tipped off aliens that we are a rapidly expanding threat. “Watching from afar, extraterrestrials have viewed changes in Earth’s atmosphere as symptomatic of a civilization out of control – and are taking drastic action to keep us from becoming a more serious threat,” NASA researchers explain. Scientists at Pennsylvania State University predict that humans and aliens from Zeeba will make direct contact with each other by the end of 2012. Jessica Wygal-Markum of NASA’s Planetary Science Division and her colleagues compiled a list of plausible outcomes that could unfold in the aftermath of a close encounter, to help humanity “prepare for actual contact”. In the report, “When Humans Meet Zee bans,” the researchers divide alien contacts into three broad categories: beneficial, neutral or harmful. Beneficial encounters were productive and peaceful meetings held with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). These meetings will help us advance our knowledge and solve global problems such as hunger, poverty and disease. One of the scientists, Joyti Aggarwalla, thought another beneficial outcome would be humanity triumph over a more powerful alien aggressor, or even being saved by a second group of ETs – possibly from Mars. “In these scenarios, humanity benefits not only from the major moral victory of having defeated a daunting rival, but also from the opportunity to reverse-engineer ETI technology,” the authors write. Other kinds of close encounters may be less rewarding and leave much of human society feeling indifferent towards aliens. The Zee bans may be too different from us for meaningful communication to take place. They might invite

Last Update: 2014-08-29
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

sigiriya information of translate sinhala

ASA confirmed today that aliens are

Last Update: 2014-09-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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The baby's heartbeat has slowed down

babage had gasma aduwenawa.

Last Update: 2013-12-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Sunil Santha was born on April 14, 1915 on the Sinhala New Year's Day in Dehiyagatha, Jaela.

විකි

Last Update: 2014-07-13
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

The Pinnewela Elephant Orphanage is situated northwest of the town of Kegalle, halfway between the present capital Colombo and the ancient royal residence Kandy in the hills of central Sri Lanka. It was established in 1975 by the Sri Lanka wildlife department in a 25-acre coconut property near the Maha Oya river. The orphanage was originally founded in order to afford care and protection to the many orphaned elephants found in the jungle. As of 2008, there are about 84 elephants. - English - Sinhala Online Dictionary. English-Sinhala-English Multilingual Dictionary. Translate From English into Sinhala. www.lankadictionary.com is a free service Sinhala Meaning of The Pinnewela Elephant Orphanage is situated northwest of the town of Kegalle, halfway between the present capital Colombo and the ancient royal residence Kandy in the hills of central Sri Lanka. It was established in 1975 by the Sri Lanka wildlife department in a 25-acre coconut property near the Maha Oya river. The orphanage was originally founded in order to afford care and protection to the many orphaned elephants found in the jungle. As of 2008, there are about 84 elephants. from English.Special Thanks to all Sinhala Dictionarys including Malalasekara, Kapruka, MaduraOnline, Trilingualdictionary. Improve your language knowledge, education and move forward with www.lankadictionary.com.

tea

Last Update: 2014-09-15
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

The bard of Wanni by Premasara EPASINGHE A poem is a piece of creative writing in verse, a writing arranged in lines, often with a regular rhythm or rhyme scheme, one expressing deep feelings or noble thoughts in beautiful language, written with the intention of communicating an experience. It is a metrical composition, especially one concerned with feelings or imaginative description. A poet should possess high power of imagination. It is a piece of creative writing in verse. To be poetic, is being graceful and authentically pleasing. In short, poetry is the work of a poet. It is an imaginative expression of emotion and thought or narration. My most loved and favourite Colombo Yugaya Poet, or "Colombo Era Poet is late Wimalaratne Kumaragama, whose, name is identified with Wanni. As this great poet Wimalaratne Kumaragama's 91st birth anniversary falls today (18, January 2009) I pen these few lines as a humble tribute to a man who shone like a bright star in the firmament of sinhala poetry. He loved Wanni or jungle surroundings and its innocent villagers, like the famous Leonard Woolf. His poems were centred round Wanniand the people of Wanni. They emanate the life of the villagers and its characters, surroundings, environment, animals and their experiences. Kumaragama, centred his thoughts round the innocent lives of the villagers of the Wanniya. Wimalaratne Kumaragama was born on 18th January 1918 at Narampanawa, Patadumbara, Pallispattu Korale West. His beloved parents were Punchi Bandara Kumaragama and Bandara Menike Kumaragama. He was the second, in a family of seven. He possessed a majestic, charming and charismatic personality. He had his primary Education at Werapitiye school and later attended bilingual schools at Teldeniya and Sri Rahula Vidyalaya, Katugastoda. He ended his schooling at Dharmaraja College, Kandy, one of the crest-jewels of Buddhist Education in Sri Lanka. Even as a student, he was interested in Sinhala Literature and he used to write poems to the school magazine. At Dharmaraja, he was an outstanding student and passed the Matriculation Examination with distinctions. After passing the Government Clerical Competitive Examination, he started his career as a clerk at the Kaccheri, Anuradhapura. In 1942, he was successful in the D.R.O. Examination. In 1944, he assumed duties as an Assistant Government Agent at Anamaduwa. Some of his outstanding, famous and popular poems - "Wanniye mal", "Harak Hora", "Iiyanayake", "Yantamberuna", "Game-wewa" "Herath Hami" depicts the true life of the villager of Wanniya. Kumaragama's poems sometimes portray the progressive intellectual thinking. A fine example is a poem from "Herath Hami", a name popular even today in Wanniya. This particular Herath Hami, assists Medical officers and Coroner, who attend on post-mortems. Aliya Vetunu Wewa Siti Herath Hami Ma Venniyaku Uwada mama Vedagath Veemi Mini Kapana muth Ehe Herath Hami Ohu mata vada visithis Gunayak Demi Here, he gives due credit to Herath Hami, the man who assists the J. M. O. in dissecting, dead bodies. Further, he pays a tribute to him for his untiring efforts and his qualities. In another poem, Iyanayake, Kumaragama in a subtle manner describes the beliefs of the poor innocent villagers. Although, he does not agree with the their beliefs , he never criticises the acts performed by the villagers. Sanhinda langadi bareta kiri Ithireema Kemmura Dewaswala Pahanin Seraseema Vana atu kada gas debaleka Devateema Ma nokeruvath nokelemi eya geraheema A speciality of this great poet Wimalaratne Kumaragama, that he gives life to the environment and touches our hearts with poetic language. A good example is his Walas Dadayama. Pulai Mai Palugas Debalaka Messe Saima Samaga Kadiya Ketawala Assie Mehi Ethi Hema Handata Mage Hadawatha Gesse Ada Handa Paluwa Ada Wana Roda Matha Issie This beautiful poem describes the environment and links with the characters of Vanniya. My mind goes to the African jungle safari I made in a couple of years back to Pillenesburg Game Park. The environment and the roar of the lion, high pitched giggle of hyena still echoes in my ears. Kumaragama's Walasdadyama which was etched to my mind came alive at the South African Jungle Safari. In another poem, he shows his prowess in describing nature. Sirimal Pipi Hema Turu Liyakama Bedde Siribara Gathiya Yana Ena Pawanehi Pedde Babaruni Kimada Ada Me Mangala Sadde Eka Dawasakin Me Siri Komada Ladde Wimalaratne was a fine student of English literature. He was a voracious reader and had a good knowledge on English Poetry. When he was serving in Sabaragamuwa District, the Government Agent of Ratnapura was an Englishman, On an official visit to Kalawana, he met Kumaragama - DRO. He knew that Kumaragama was a Sinhala Poet. The Government Agent, just to show his prowess in English Poetry, recited a poem and stated that it was written by T. S. Elliot. Kumaragama immediately corrected the mistake" Excuse me Sir, the poem you quoted belongs to William Shakespeare. The Englishman was taken aback about his knowledge in English Literature. His wide knowledge in English would have helped him and influence his Sinhala Poetry. Kumaragama was a fine human being, a warm-hearted man. When he was serving in Anuradhapura, he was in charge of Kalagam Korale. Once a Fortnight he visits Anuradhapura Kaccheri. The general public loved his company. Sometimes the innocent villagers came in search of him to solve their private and confidential problems. He kept, everyone happy and sometimes recited "Hitiwan Kav", or Instant verses. A villager from Mihintale once made a complaint against his wife. The old man, presented his case in two instant poetic lines, as he knew Kumaragama "DRO Hamuduruwo" as a popular poet in the island. His problem was that his wife is too old. The old man mentioned his problem in two lines. Gatthe Car eka Den Nam Eya Lorriya. Loriyak Ellavanna Mata Den Neta Piriya (I bought a car which is now like a lorry; I am not inclined now to drive a Lorry) With a beaming smile, Wimalaratne Kumaragama gave his reply to the old-man. Hulan gasa jak gahala hada ganin Loriya Langata aran senehe sithin karan ithuru hariya (Inflate and jackup the Lorry. Approach it, and do the needful) (One lorry will be sure to perform better) Unassuming Wimalaratne Kumaragama, whenever he visited Anuradhapura Kaccheri, he used to have his lunch in the canteen with the clerks. Once, a young lady clerk said "Dear Sir, you are a famous poet in our country. Sir, I request you to recite an "Instant poem" about me." "Dear Girl, you are still young. Therefore, I will recite only two lines considering your age. Nangi Inna Heti Dekkama Meseta Ana Ana Matath Wediya Pinkala Bawa Denai Mese Kona (Seeing the sister tapping on the Table, Methink the table is more fortunate than me) The life of this Great Poet Wimalaratne Kumaragama was so simple, but, he was full of life. He devoted his entire life to uplift the standard of living of the poor villagers of Vanni.

මොංගල්

Last Update: 2014-09-15
Usage Frequency: 1
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ding of the child hero — the horrendous crime committed by Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe, the last Malabar Monarch of Senkadagala. It was the day on which the entire Ehelepola clan was routed. This article is an attempt to look into the political back ground that prevailed in the Kandyan kingdom which culminated in the brutal assassination of 73 Kandyan Chiefs with their kith and kin. At the demise of Rajasinghe II in December 1684 his son Wimaladharmasuriya II succeeded him. The successor to the throne after Wimaladharmasuriya was his son Sri Weera Parakrama Narendrasinghe who ascended to the throne after gaining a majority consent consequent to a division of opinion in the Kandyan court. Opinion was divided among the Chiefs of Denuwara and Dedumbara and the majority will of the Dumbara people prevailed. The Nayakkara dynasty surfaced in the Kingdom after this incident. King Narendrasinghe had no issues from his Sinhalese Queens and a princess from India who was the daughter of a Malabar Chief was brought to Kandy as his consort. The accepted custom and tradition of the son succeeding to the throne after the father that prevailed hitherto was changed by Narendrasinghe to enable a brother of the Queen to succeed the king. It was as a result of this stupid decision of the King that the Sinhale kingship which lasted for thousands of years changed into the hands of the Malabar dynasty. Mampitiye Bandara an issue of the King born to a non-royal (Yakada doli) and the two Epas of Uva and Dumbara who had a claim to the throne due to their connections to the royalty were all deprived of their opportunity to succeed to the throne. This incident occurred exactly seventy five years before the child hero Madduma Bandara paid the supreme sacrifice. Weeraparakrama Narendrasinghe ascended to the throne on the 13th May 1739 and Madduma Bandara was beheaded on the 17th May 1814 after seventy five years of Malabar/Nayakkar rule. This day marks not only the death of the child hero but also the end of the Malabar regime ten months after this incident on the 19th February 1815 for which many a struggle were launched by our forefathers. It was the combination of King Wimaladharmasuriya I and Kusumasane Devi in 1592, that gave a Sinhalese Royalty to the country for nearly a one and half centuries up to Narendrasinghe of Kundasale until 1739. It was a period of constant wars waged against the Kandyan Kingdom by Rajasinghe I of Seethawaka on one side and the Portuguese from Menikkadawara fortress coming up to Balana via Ganetenna. It is an irony of fate that the grandson of Wimaladharmasooriya who helped to continue Sinhala Royalty for thousands of years surrendered the right to the Sinhala throne to Nayakkara dynasty as a gift for supplying concubines. Malabar dynasty The Sinhalese resented the Malabar regime so much that Narendrasingha’s successor Sri Wijaya Ragasinghe had to become a Buddhist to succeed to the throne. The accepted custom and tradition was that the King should be a Buddhist to be the custodian of the tooth relic. Hence all the Malabar successors to the throne became Buddhists while they had to provide for the practice of the religion of their consorts. Thus in Senkadagala kingdom and in the immediate neighbourhood of the temple of the Tooth there were several Devalas built, devoted to the Hindu Gods. The displeasure of the Kandyans however prevailed among all sections of the people in the Kandyan kingdom. The people believed that a non Buddhist had no right to be the King although the Malabars were to become Buddhist by circumstances forced on them. They also had to give patronage to the worship of Hindu Gods and attend to the Devala rituals. The Kings who ascended to the Kandyan throne subsequently Sri Wijaya Rajasinghe, Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe, Rajadi Rajasinghe and the last King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe had to face the problem of winning the confidence of their subjects to continue a smooth and a peaceful reign in the Kingdom. During the entire reign of seventy five years the Malabar/Nayakkar Kings had to face various conspiracies and coups planned to oust them from the throne. Intrigue in the kingdom An incident is recorded where attempts were made to kill Narendrasingha when he was engaged in water sports. The plan was to plant sharpened iron spikes under the waters where the king usually bathed so that these sharpened iron spikes will pierce the chest when the king performed acrobats on the water. This site is known as Ritigala up to date. King Narendrasingha was succeeded by his brother-in-law who was in-charge of the kings treasury at Hanguranketa — Sri Wijaya Rajasingha. Wijaya Rajasingha who was the first to establish a Nayakkar dynasty died in 1747 after a short reign of eight years. Narendrappa father-in-law of the King, a South Indian who accompanied the Queens and their brothers was a strong headed uppish person who became a law unto himself. He used the powers of the King to ill treat the Kandyans. It was reported that once he got Pilamatalawe Maha Adikaram locked up in a room in the palace and tortured and threatened him with death. The people having come to know of this incident were very angry and were impatiently waiting for an opportunity to take revenge. These were reasons for Manpitiya Disawa and Dumbara Epa to launch a coup to oust Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe from the throne. They were two Kandyan chiefs who detested the Malabar reign from the very beginning. In January 1765 Dutch troops attacked Senkadagala and Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe fled to Hanguranketa and Rev. Welivita Saranankara Thero escaped to Meda Mahanuwara taking the tooth relics with him. It was the Dumbara Epa and Adigar of Meda Mahanuwara, Mediwaka Seneviratna Rajakaruna Abeysinghe Abeykoon who collected troops from Dumbara and Hatara Korale and massacred the Dutch troops and chased the Dutch soldiers who escaped as far as Colombo. The successor to Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe faced an accidental death which incident is another interesting episode in the Kandyan history. The First Adigar Pilimatalawa who later on had to face serious consequences paved the way for Kannasamy a youth of 18 years to ascend the throne as Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe on 17th July 1798. Rule of Sri Wickrama Rajasingha The Court of the King included Pilimatalawa Maha Adikaram, Meegastenna (Senior), Ehelepola, Mullegama, Dehigama, Wettewa, Millawa, Galagoda, Palipana, Madugalla, Moladanda, Doranegama, Mattamagoda, Leuke, Ratwatte, Unambuwa, Meegastenna (Junior) the Kandyan Chiefs. Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe harboured a grudge against the first Adigar from the time of his marriage. The King was not impressed with the wedding present given to him by Pilimatalawa since he believed that it was not worth a present from his Prime Minister. The King also gathered intelligence that the first Adigar was having secret diplomatic relations with Governor Fredric North. These relations aroused a suspension in the King. At this time the Adigar had a secret meeting with North at Avissawella on 8th January 1800. An attack was launched by the British troops on the Kandyan Kingdom on 28th January 1805 under the command of Major Macdowell. Under the circumstances the King got Pilimatalawa and his nephew Ratwatte beheaded in 1812 and another nephew of Pilimatalawa-Ehelepola was appointed First Adigar. Ehelepola like his uncle had his own plans for the Kingdom. The people of the Kandyan Kingdom did not tolerate the alien rule throughout the seventy five years. They were waiting for an opportunity to get rid of the Malabar rulers. The field was set and what was necessary was a back ground to ignite. Two Pilimatalawa Adigars, Ehelepola, Ratwatta, Madugalla were the leading figures in these struggles. Sabaragamuwa where Ehelepola was the Disawa was already in revolt. Ehelepola earned the wrath of the King and fled to Colombo. Molligoda was sent to Sabaragamuwa to contain the rebels. Forty three chiefs from the area were brought to Kandy. The King was determined to take revenge. The innocent wife and children of Ehelepola were brought before the King. The males were ordered to be beheaded while the female children were put to the rice pounder. The wife of Ehelepola and her cousin sister were drowned in Bogambara lake. Jhon Doyly officially reported to Governor Brownrig on 23rd May 1814 that 73 rebels and their children and domestic aides were beheaded on this day. Among them were the nephews of Ehelepola, the Disava of Nuwarakalaviya — Pussella his wife and children. It was the innocent children of Ehelepola and Pussella who paid the supreme sacrifice for the struggle of their parents and grand patents. The entire Kingdom wept for weeks and no fire was lit in any house for three days. The curse and prayer of the people for vengeance was answered when the king could not live in peace in his Kingdom for the ten months until he was finally captured on the 19th February 1815 with the assistance of the people.(@ The Island) WWW Virtual Library - Sri Lanka

murukku

Last Update: 2014-09-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

googleQuestion 1) Explain the importance of credit rating agencies. List out the credit rating agencies operating in Sri Lanka and describe the rating system while highlighting the factors taken in to consideration in determining credit rating. 2) Critically evaluate the operations of Colombo stock exchange and discuses the shortcomings. 3) What is meant by "bullish and bearish"? Explain the attitudes of buyers and sellers of call and put options. Answer 1) Credit rating agencies play an important role in most modern capital markets. Credit rating agencies specialize in analyzing and evaluating the credit worthiness of corporate and sovereign issuers of debt securities. The rating agencies fall into two categories: I. Recognized; and II. Non-recognized. Credit ratings can play a significant role in the investment decisions of investors and the value investors place on such ratings is evident from, among other things, the impact ratings have on an issuer’s ability to access capital. Healthy capital markets require information and transparency. Credit rating agencies play an important role in providing one source of information that aids transparency and market efficiency, thereby reducing the imbalance of information that often exists between buyers and sellers of bonds. They provide improved efficiency in the credit markets and allow for more transparency in dealings. Ratings are a useful and valuable source of information for investors and other market participants and they help in healthy capital market development. Credit rating agencies help provide risk measures for various entities and make it easier for financial market participants to assess and understand the credit risk of the parties involved in the investing process. The credit ratings provided by these agencies are used by various banks and financial institutions in determining the risk premium they will charge on loans and corporate bonds. A poor credit rating implies a higher risk premium with an increase in the interest rate charged to corporations and individuals with a poor credit rating. Issuers with a good credit rating are able to raise funds at a lower interest rate. List of credit rating agencies operating in Sri Lanka ICRA Lanka Limited Ram ratings Lanka limited Fitch ratings Lanka Limited Lanka Orix factors Ltd The rating system Most credit agencies use their own methodology for determining credit ratings. They are designed to provide independent analysis of the credit worthiness. At the start of the rating process, the Credit Rating Agencies will assign a lead analyst. The analyst gathers information from the issuer and researches other available sources for information to provide the analyst with a better understanding of the issuer, including its financial condition, and its industry/economic environment. Using this information and the CRA’s rating methodology, the analyst prepares a draft report and recommendation with respect to proposed credit ratings for the issuer’s debt securities. This report is submitted to the rating committee, which then approves a final credit rating. Once the rating is published, many Credit Rating Agencies will continue to monitor the issuer and meet with senior management on a periodic basis in order to review whether the current ratings for the issuer and its securities should be maintained or adjusted. The frequency with which a rating is updated varies according to the Credit Rating Agencies, the type of issuer, and the security being rated. While some observers and market participants believe that a Credit Rating Agencies rating represents a judgment on the worthiness of an investment. 2) The Colombo Stock Exchange is the organization responsible for the operation of the stock market in Sri Lanka. It is one of the most modern exchanges in South Asia, providing a fully automated trading platform. . The Colombo Stock Exchange is a company limited by guarantee established under the Companies Act No. 17 of 1982 and licensed by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Sri Lanka to operate as a Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka. The vision of the Colombo Stock Exchange is to be the preferred choice for creation of wealth and value. The headquarters of the Colombo Stock Exchange have been located at the World Trade Center Towers in Colombo since 1995. For buy Shares in Colombo Stock Exchange,  Local Investors go to any member of Central Depository System and open Central Depository System Account. Once your CDS Account is opened you are ready to buy & sell shares.  Foreign Investors First go to any commercial bank operating in Sri Lanka & open Share Investment External Rupee Account then contact a broker to open CDS account with your Passport Copy. There are two ways to purchase shares  From a new issue of shares (Primary Market) The primary market is the market for new shares or debenture issues. In the primary market, the security is purchased directly from the company. In a primary issue, the company offering the share/debenture issue publishes a document known as the prospectus. It is an invitation to the general public to buy shares or debentures of that company  On the Secondary Market through a stock broker On the Secondary Market through a stock broker. A market in which an investor could either buy or sell shares, debentures and Government Securities from or to another investor, subsequent to the original issuance in the primary market. Shortcomings There are Disadvantages of Issuing Stock:  The loss of interest of ownership of the business and also the possible loss of complete control that can accompany a sharing of business ownership with shareholder.  Shareholders have a voice in policies that affect the company operations. There are Disadvantages of Debentures are:  Unlike ordinary shares, debenture holders are not considered the owners of the company. They are long term loan capital and holders will have no right to vote at the annual general meeting.  Debentures are more secure than stocks, but will lead to a lower rate of theoretical return.  It is a type of debt instrument which is not secured by collateral (or physical asset). In case of bankruptcy, the bond holders are given priority over the debenture holders. 3) "Bullish and bearish" are often used to describe the conditions in the market or the sentiment of investors. They are very important terms and are used in nearly all types of trading, from currencies to stocks. Investors who believe that a stock price will increase over time are said to be bullish. Investors who believe that a stock price will decline are said to be bearish. If you are bullish, you think prices will rise. If you are bearish, you believe they will fall. The terms are presumable named after the way each animal attacks. Bulls lower their horns and raise them high (low to high) while bears swipe with their paws from high to low. Traders can take advantage of both bullish and bearish markets if they have sufficient knowledge of the market conditions that are associated with these cycles. When traders understand the meaning of bearish and bullish and are able to identify the cycles, they will know how to profit off of any market condition. Calls Puts Buyers Bullish: Have right to buy stock, want stock price to rise Bearish: Have right to sell stock, want stock to fall Sellers Bearish: Have obligation to sell stock, want stock price to fall Bullish: Have obligation to buy stock, want stock price to rise

Question 1) Explain the importance of credit rating agencies. List out the credit rating agencies operating in Sri Lanka and describe the rating system while highlighting the factors taken in to consideration in determining credit rating. 2) Critically evaluate the operations of Colombo stock exchange and discuses the shortcomings. 3) What is meant by "bullish and bearish"? Explain the attitudes of buyers and sellers of call and put options. Answer 1) Credit rating agencies play an important role in most modern capital markets. Credit rating agencies specialize in analyzing and evaluating the credit worthiness of corporate and sovereign issuers of debt securities. The rating agencies fall into two categories: I. Recognized; and II. Non-recognized. Credit ratings can play a significant role in the investment decisions of investors and the value investors place on such ratings is evident from, among other things, the impact ratings have on an issuer’s ability to access capital. Healthy capital markets require information and transparency. Credit rating agencies play an important role in providing one source of information that aids transparency and market efficiency, thereby reducing the imbalance of information that often exists between buyers and sellers of bonds. They provide improved efficiency in the credit markets and allow for more transparency in dealings. Ratings are a useful and valuable source of information for investors and other market participants and they help in healthy capital market development. Credit rating agencies help provide risk measures for various entities and make it easier for financial market participants to assess and understand the credit risk of the parties involved in the investing process. The credit ratings provided by these agencies are used by various banks and financial institutions in determining the risk premium they will charge on loans and corporate bonds. A poor credit rating implies a higher risk premium with an increase in the interest rate charged to corporations and individuals with a poor credit rating. Issuers with a good credit rating are able to raise funds at a lower interest rate. List of credit rating agencies operating in Sri Lanka ICRA Lanka Limited Ram ratings Lanka limited Fitch ratings Lanka Limited Lanka Orix factors Ltd The rating system Most credit agencies use their own methodology for determining credit ratings. They are designed to provide independent analysis of the credit worthiness. At the start of the rating process, the Credit Rating Agencies will assign a lead analyst. The analyst gathers information from the issuer and researches other available sources for information to provide the analyst with a better understanding of the issuer, including its financial condition, and its industry/economic environment. Using this information and the CRA’s rating methodology, the analyst prepares a draft report and recommendation with respect to proposed credit ratings for the issuer’s debt securities. This report is submitted to the rating committee, which then approves a final credit rating. Once the rating is published, many Credit Rating Agencies will continue to monitor the issuer and meet with senior management on a periodic basis in order to review whether the current ratings for the issuer and its securities should be maintained or adjusted. The frequency with which a rating is updated varies according to the Credit Rating Agencies, the type of issuer, and the security being rated. While some observers and market participants believe that a Credit Rating Agencies rating represents a judgment on the worthiness of an investment. 2) The Colombo Stock Exchange is the organization responsible for the operation of the stock market in Sri Lanka. It is one of the most modern exchanges in South Asia, providing a fully automated trading platform. . The Colombo Stock Exchange is a company limited by guarantee established under the Companies Act No. 17 of 1982 and licensed by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Sri Lanka to operate as a Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka. The vision of the Colombo Stock Exchange is to be the preferred choice for creation of wealth and value. The headquarters of the Colombo Stock Exchange have been located at the World Trade Center Towers in Colombo since 1995. For buy Shares in Colombo Stock Exchange,  Local Investors go to any member of Central Depository System and open Central Depository System Account. Once your CDS Account is opened you are ready to buy & sell shares.  Foreign Investors First go to any commercial bank operating in Sri Lanka & open Share Investment External Rupee Account then contact a broker to open CDS account with your Passport Copy. There are two ways to purchase shares  From a new issue of shares (Primary Market) The primary market is the market for new shares or debenture issues. In the primary market, the security is purchased directly from the company. In a primary issue, the company offering the share/debenture issue publishes a document known as the prospectus. It is an invitation to the general public to buy shares or debentures of that company  On the Secondary Market through a stock broker On the Secondary Market through a stock broker. A market in which an investor could either buy or sell shares, debentures and Government Securities from or to another investor, subsequent to the original issuance in the primary market. Shortcomings There are Disadvantages of Issuing Stock:  The loss of interest of ownership of the business and also the possible loss of complete control that can accompany a sharing of business ownership with shareholder.  Shareholders have a voice in policies that affect the company operations. There are Disadvantages of Debentures are:  Unlike ordinary shares, debenture holders are not considered the owners of the company. They are long term loan capital and holders will have no right to vote at the annual general meeting.  Debentures are more secure than stocks, but will lead to a lower rate of theoretical return.  It is a type of debt instrument which is not secured by collateral (or physical asset). In case of bankruptcy, the bond holders are given priority over the debenture holders. 3) "Bullish and bearish" are often used to describe the conditions in the market or the sentiment of investors. They are very important terms and are used in nearly all types of trading, from currencies to stocks. Investors who believe that a stock price will increase over time are said to be bullish. Investors who believe that a stock price will decline are said to be bearish. If you are bullish, you think prices will rise. If you are bearish, you believe they will fall. The terms are presumable named after the way each animal attacks. Bulls lower their horns and raise them high (low to high) while bears swipe with their paws from high to low. Traders can take advantage of both bullish and bearish markets if they have sufficient knowledge of the market conditions that are associated with these cycles. When traders understand the meaning of bearish and bullish and are able to identify the cycles, they will know how to profit off of any market condition. Calls Puts Buyers Bullish: Have right to buy stock, want stock price to rise Bearish: Have right to sell stock, want stock to fall Sellers Bearish: Have obligation to sell stock, want stock price to fall Bullish: Have obligation to buy stock, want stock price to rise

Last Update: 2014-09-13
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The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS) was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a computer using massively parallel computing/processing. It was to be the result of a massive government/industry research project in Japan during the 1980s. It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with-supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence. There was also an unrelated Russian project also named as fifth-generation computer (see Kronos (computer)).

mama gedara giya

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වයස

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Maldives,[10] officially the Republic of the Maldives[nb 1] and also referred to as the Maldive Islands, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean–Arabian Sea area, consisting of a double chain of twenty-six atolls, oriented north-south, that lie between Minicoy Island (the southernmost part of Lakshadweep, India) and the Chagos Archipelago. The chains stand in the Laccadive Sea, about 700 kilometres (430 mi) south-west of Sri Lanka and 400 kilometres (250 mi) south-west of India. The Maldives has been an independent polity for the majority of its history, except for three periods in which it was ruled by outside forces. In the mid-16th century, for fifteen years, the Maldives was dominated by the Portuguese Empire. In the mid-17th century, the Dutch Empire (Malabar) dominated Maldives for four months. Finally, in the late 19th century, on the brink of war, the Maldives became a British protectorate from 1887 until 1965. The Dutch referred to the islands as the "Maldivische Eilanden" (pronounced [mɑlˈdivisə ˈɛi̯lɑndə(n)]), while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and later to the "Maldives". The islands gained independence from the British Empire in 1965, and in 1968 became a republic ruled by a president and an authoritarian government.

රචනා

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sri

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කමත

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The second ruler of Sri Lanka was King Panduvasudeva, the nephew of Vijaya. Panduvasudeva married Baddha-Kacchayana, a princess from India. The couple had ten sons, the eldest of whom was named Abhaya, and one daughter named Chitra. When a sage prophesied that Chitra would bear a son who would kill nine of his uncles and claim the throne, nine of Chitra's brothers told King Panduvasudeva to have her killed. However, Abhaya would not allow it and Chitra was spared. She married a prince named Digha-Gamini and had a son, who was named Pandukabhaya. Chitra and Digha-Gamini had been made aware of the prophesy at the time of their marriage and had promised to put to death any son that Chitra gave birth to. However, once Pandukabhaya was born, Chitra was unwilling to kill the infant, and so she exchanged babies with another woman who had given birth to a baby girl that same day. Chitra's brothers were not satisfied that their sister had, indeed, given birth to a girl. As a result, several attempts were made to kill Pandukhabaya, which resulted in many children dying. Pandukhabaya remained unharmed. Once he was old enough to become king, Pandukabhaya fought his uncles to claim his right to the throne. Eight of his ten uncles perished. Abhaya, who had never fought against Pandukabhaya, was not killed. Pandukabhaya was a good king and reigned over Sri Lanka for seventy years, leaving the country in a prosperous state when he died.

loonu witharak wagaa karayi

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ගූගල්

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hansi

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GoogleThe species was first described by English entomologist John Obadiah Westwood in 1848, as Hestia iasonia. For several years it was considered to be only an island race of I. lynceus, a species found in eastern Asia. However the two species have differences in their wing shapes and in the male genitalia. It is of the Idea genus, and belongs to the Danainae subfamily of the Nymphalidae family. Its binomial name is Idea iasonia.

jik

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