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hoona

Last Update: 2014-07-21
Subject: General
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Lanka

ලංකාව

Last Update: 2014-06-24
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Reference: Wikipedia

Past, present and future will be arrive tourist in Sri Lanka Indicate this chat

Sigiriya (Lion Rock Sinhala: සීගිරිය, pronounced see-gee-ree-yah) is an ancient palace located in the central Matale District near the town of Dambulla in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. The name refers to a site of historical and archeaological significance that is dominated by a massive column of rock nearly 200 metres (660 ft) high. According to the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle the Culavamsa, the site was selected by King Kasyapa (477 – 495 CE) for his new capital. He built his palace on the top of this rock and decorated its sides with colourful frescoes. On a small plateau about halfway up the side of this rock he built a gateway in the form of an enormous lion. The name of this place is derived from this structure —Sīhāgiri, the Lion Rock. The capital and the royal palace were abandoned after the king's death. It was used as a Buddhist monastery until the 14th century.[1] Sigiriya today is a UNESCO listed World Heritage Site. It is one of the best preserved examples of ancient urban planning.[2] It is the most visited historic site in Sri Lanka.[3]

Last Update: 2014-05-25
Subject: General
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Environmental Crisis "We Have An Environmental Crisis Because We Have A People Crisis - A Crisis of Population Growth, of Wasteful Consumption of Resources, and A Crisis of Apathy and Inaction." An environmental crisis is an emergency concerned with the place in which every human lives - the environment. A people crisis is an emergency with the community that inhabits the world environment. A crisis of population growth is a turning point where the environment can no longer sustain the amounts of people which it contains. A crisis of apathy and inaction is one where the human race cannot be motivated to solve the problems with the environment that they themselves have created. The claim that we have an environmental crisis because we have a people crisis is valid because our environmental problems have largely resulted from population growth, which has lead to apathy and inaction with regard to the wasteful consumption of resources. Examples are the desertification of the Sahel in Africa, the one child policy in China and the mis-management of our oceans. The Sahel is a strip of land that extends for more than 6000 kilometres across the southern edge of the Sahara desert. It stretches from Senegal and Mauritania in the west to Ethiopia and Somalia in the east. These nations are among the world's poorest. The area is one of social and biophysical crisis because of the way the population are forced to live; they are destroying the productivity of the land.

concept and practice of development

Last Update: 2014-07-26
Subject: General
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Please, specify two different languages

මම ඔය කියපු විදිහට

Last Update: 2014-07-24
Subject: General
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Sri Lanka to digitalise TV broadcasting About writer (The writer graduated from the University of Peradeniya, Sichuan University in China and Ohio University in the United States. He is the current Secretary to the Ministry of Mass Media and Information. He is on twitter @charith9.) In the midst of the digital revolution, the digitisation of terrestrial television broadcasting has become a worldwide trend. Broadcasters are now turning to digital technologies to reduce their operating costs and offer enhanced services to the public. Television broadcasting is a universal service and is an important infrastructure, which most people rely on as a source of information. It is therefore essential to make television more accessible to people in order to allow Sri Lanka to keep pace with the rest of the world. The Government aims to take dedicated efforts to achieve the complete digitisation of terrestrial television broadcasting, by adopting Japan’s Integrated Service Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial (ISDB-T) standard, which is the best of such technology, with the aim of switching off the analogous broadcasting system by the year 2017. The Sri Lanka TV market, with an estimated 3.5-4 million TV households, is mainly a terrestrial TV free-to-air (FTA) market with a very high number of analogue terrestrial TV program services and a wide choice of TV delivery platforms; including digital TV satellite, analogue and digital cable TV, IPTV. This transition from analogous to digital transmission will offer great advantages. The viewer will have more services and better picture and sound quality and a greater choice of channels and programs. Broadcasters can offer new services and network costs can be reduced and the Government can achieve more efficient use of the frequency spectrum and allocate part of the broadcasting band to other communication services. Aside from providing better picture and sound quality, the switch to digital broadcasting offers clear advantages for both consumers and operators. Consumers benefit from digital television as they are provided with a wider choice of programs, have improved flexibility of use due to better portable and mobile reception. Also, broadcasting services will become more interactive due to the improvement in IT services. Similarly services such as subtitling, audio commentaries or signing will also become available to consumers. Lower transmission costs When it comes to transmission, operators can expect lower transmission costs in addition to the availability of more frequencies. An analogous transmitter can carry only a single TV service whereas a digital transmitter can carry up to 12 SDTV (standard definition) programs or 4 HDTV (high definition) programs. Digitisation also allows for lower transmission costs per program, lower transmitter power and therefore less electricity used. The responsibility of transmission will be taken over by a separate new entity known as DBNO (digital broadcast network operators) With regards to content production, the digital system provides faster editing, improved productivity and better security, as well as liberating the networked storage of archives by giving producers easier access to entire archives. This system of ISDB-T is the only digital broadcasting standard that supports reception from mobile phones or mobile devices. Since the prevalence rate of mobile phones in Sri Lanka is high. Therefore this system allows the poor who cannot afford to purchase expensive TV sets to enjoy the benefit of digital television with the use of their mobile devices. Wider perspective One of the direct benefits to the public from the switch from analogous program to digital broadcast is that it has a built-in mobile transmission facility; meaning that mobile devices like the cell phones can receive the broadcast signals. Because of this mobile transmission facility the Japanese digital system can make it more affordable to many. It also has more important implications to the public in that the Japanese ISDB-T system has a built in “early warning system” therefore all cellular devices such as smartphones; tablets can become alert devices for tsunamis or other natural disasters and would thus be an easier way to send information to the public. This would facilitate in creating an environment where the Government of Sri Lanka is capable of handling disaster emergencies effectively and carry out ways to reduce the high risk of disasters. TV broadcasting is an effective means for the Government to provide citizens with information in such emergency situations. EWBS (emergency warning broadcast systems) is used for warnings of natural disasters and is highly usable in the case of emergency situations to inform citizens of potentially lifesaving information. Such information can be provided locally via digital television broadcasts. EWBS is not only highly usable for disaster warning but can also be used from a wider perspective. The multifunctional nature of the ISDB-T system allows data broadcasting as a standard feature to enable transmission of a variety of information to all views simultaneously. This type of data broadcasting provides a general contact to e-governing, road traffic information, weather reports, educational and medical information as well as news and sports. Figure: Block division of coverage areas in Sri Lanka Social impacts The Japanese ISBD-T standard is also adaptable to villages with no electricity – although the national electrification plan is in progress, the electrification does not guarantee instant stable power supply. In un-electrified areas, solar power is sufficient for the transmission power for mobile devices. Moreover, moving to digital technologies reduces greenhouse-gas emissions due to the reduction in the power consumption of broadcasting transmitters. There are also other spill-over effects of data broadcasting; as digitisation has emerged in recent years as a key economic driver, which accelerates growth and facilitates job creation. In countries where ISBD-T is used data broadcasting is steadily utilised as a means of business and public telecommunications. It not only provides latest information to viewers or citizens at low cost but also has the potential for creating new markets and workforce demand. Sri Lanka will be able to gain from digitisation’s effect on employment. For example, data broadcasting production requires programmers, designers and data administrators and likewise, leading to the activation of human resources in ICT in the country and also help improve the capacity of our skilled engineers. Digital transmissions can also be adapted to suit the educational needs in the country. Since the ISDB-T system provides for highly functional data broadcasting, which enables access to information on demand and can have various social impacts. For example, it can be used in audio-visual education approaches in using TV programs for distance learning, with audiovisual information increasing learning efficiency. This is particularly effective in a trilingual country such as Sri Lanka where seventy percent of local residents can understand only Sinhalese or Tamil and data broadcasting can be used to improve English literacy as well as improving computer literacy. The ISDB-T system can also be adapted to aid people with physical disabilities for example through subtitled programming for people with hearing difficulties and reading for people with visual impairment. The Government is optimistic about the outcome of the digitisation process. As President Mahinda Rajapaksa pledged the right to information in the Mahinda Chintanaya, this advanced and sophisticated leap in communication services is another step in the direction to afford citizens this right. The Ministry of Mass Media and Information will be responsible for the broadcasting administration in Sri Lanka as per the national media policy ensuring freedom of speech and development of knowledgeable and informed citizens.

මම යනවා

Last Update: 2014-07-24
Subject: General
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is a remote jungle village of indigenous people renowned for its eco tourism prospects, situated about 300km from Colombo , Sri Lanka . The population of these indigenous 'Veddha' people now consists of only about 350 families, a number significantly reduced from a once thriving community. The 'Veddha' are so influenced by the imposing dominant culture that they risk losing their traditions and what has been their livelihood for centuries. However they remain determined that their way of life will continue into future generations. The Chief himself told us on a recent visit to the village that his main worry is that he may not be able prevent the 'Veddha' from dying out beyond his own lifetime. Visitors to this fascinating village have the opportunity to meet and chat with the people who live there, learn about their traditions, and gain a unique insight into their way of life.Google

ගූගල්

Last Update: 2014-07-19
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Reference: Wikipedia

Sri Lanka Traditional Dance All forms of dance in Sri Lanka exhibit the lithe graceful movements of dance combined with the vigorous movements, reflecting the complex rhythms of the drum beat. The combination of the shrill melodious strains of music of the flutes and the vibrant drum beat is an ideal back drop to the performers who leap and swirl in frenzied mood of dance. Sinhalese dance separates neatly into two main kinds of dance with a third kind also: The two main kinds are, (a) The up country - (Kandyan) dance (b) The low country - (Southern or devil dance) and the third kind is (c) The Sabaragamuwa dance. Although both forms exhibit vigorous moments common to the all dance in Sri Lanka the basic difference is in the manner in which the dancer perform their rituals, which require different dance rhythms and drum beats.

ශ්‍රී ලංකාව

Last Update: 2014-07-18
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

sigiriya information of translate sinhala

HOUSTON – NASA confirmed today that aliens are invading earth – and they are attacking us because of global warming! WWN has been the ONLY media source reporting on the ongoing alien invasion. WWN’s own Frank Lake has been the top investigative reporter in the world on this issue. Governments around the globe have been covering up the invasion in order to avoid worldwide panic. But WWN feels we must report the truth, and if we take peaceful actions now – we can avoid a war with aliens. As reported here many times, the U.N. Panel on Extraterrestrials has confirmed that aliens from Planet Zeeba began invading our planet – in large numbers – in October, 2011. The U.N. Panel, led by Dr. John Malley, predicts that the invasion will last until December 2015 – at which time earth will be under full control of the aliens from Zeeba. If we act now, we can co-exist peacefully with the aliens. In a stunning announcement today, NASA confirmed Frank Lake’s reportage. ”Aliens have been invading our planet in ever-increasing numbers,” warns a report from NASA. The reason? NASA says that rising greenhouse emissions may have tipped off aliens that we are a rapidly expanding threat. “Watching from afar, extraterrestrials have viewed changes in Earth’s atmosphere as symptomatic of a civilization out of control – and are taking drastic action to keep us from becoming a more serious threat,” NASA researchers explain. Scientists at Pennsylvania State University predict that humans and aliens from Zeeba will make direct contact with each other by the end of 2012. Jessica Wygal-Markum of NASA’s Planetary Science Division and her colleagues compiled a list of plausible outcomes that could unfold in the aftermath of a close encounter, to help humanity “prepare for actual contact”. In the report, “When Humans Meet Zee bans,” the researchers divide alien contacts into three broad categories: beneficial, neutral or harmful. Beneficial encounters were productive and peaceful meetings held with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). These meetings will help us advance our knowledge and solve global problems such as hunger, poverty and disease. One of the scientists, Joyti Aggarwalla, thought another beneficial outcome would be humanity triumph over a more powerful alien aggressor, or even being saved by a second group of ETs – possibly from Mars. “In these scenarios, humanity benefits not only from the major moral victory of having defeated a daunting rival, but also from the opportunity to reverse-engineer ETI technology,” the authors write. Other kinds of close encounters may be less rewarding and leave much of human society feeling indifferent towards aliens. The Zee bans may be too different from us for meaningful communication to take place. They might invite

Last Update: 2014-07-11
Subject: Agriculture and Farming
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freeBodh Gaya (once Uruvela village) is the most important and sacred Buddhist pilgrim centre in the world. It was here that Gautama (Prince Siddharth) finally attained nirvana under the Bodhi (banyan)tree and became Buddha, the enlightened one. Siddhartha Gautama was born in 566 BC in Lumbini (Nepal), as a Sakya prince of Kapilavastu. He renounced the royal heritage and faced hardships in search for the ‘Truth’ – the cause of human suffering. Some of the most important events associated with his life, like enlightenment and the last sermon, happened in Bihar and thus the State is regarded as the ‘cradle’ of Buddhism. Today, Bodh Gaya is an international centre for Buddhism and has temples and monasteries built by various countries like, China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Taiwan, Korea, Bhutan and Nepal. Mahabodhi Temple The sacred temple complex set amidst lush lawns marks the site where Buddha attained enlightenment or spiritual illumination. The original temple at this site was built by emperor Ashoka in 3rd century. BC. It was rebuilt during the 7th century AD, by the Pala kings of Bengal. The shrine was rediscovered in 1883, by eminent archaeologists and is now a World Heritage Site of UNESCO. The present structure is a blend of architectural styles of different periods and cultures, but the style of the Guptas and later stages is clearly evident. The exquisitely carved 54 metres high pyramidal spire of the main temple dominates the landscape. The main sanctum enshrines a golden image of Lord Buddha in sitting posture. The entire courtyard of the temple is studded with a large number of beautiful stupas, in different sizes and built during the past 2500 years. Bodhi Tree Lord Buddha is said to have attained nirvana, while meditating under this sacred tree. It lies towards the left in the Mahabodhi Temple Complex. The tree was destroyed and replanted at least five times. The present tree grew from a sapling brought from the Bodhi tree at Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, which was planted by emperor Ashoka’s son Mahinda, who took a sapling from the original tree to Sri Lanka, on one of his missions to propagate the teachings of Lord Buddha. The holy tree is surrounded by small, but beautifully carved votive stupas and chaityas. Vajrasana The ‘seat of stabiligy’, a red sandstone platform beneath the Bodhi tree marks the site where Buddha is believed to have sat in meditations gazing east. It probably dates back to 3rd century BC. In 1993, the then Sri Lankan president Ranasinghe Premadasa gifted a golden canopy and a golden railing around the Vajrasana as a gift from the people of Sri Lanka. Animesh Lochan Stupa It is believed that Buddha spent the second week after enlightenment over here. Ratnagarh Chaitya Lord Buddha spent one week here to attain Abhidhama Naya (deep meditation), a higher mode of exposition. The Ratnachakarma or Jewel Walk The third week after pious enlightenment was spent here by Buddha in meditative perambulations. The sacred site is marked by a recently made brick platform with 18 lotus flowers representing the footsteps of Buddha mark the sacred spot. Bodhisarovar The sacred pond lies to the west of Bodhi temple. It is said that Buddha bathed here before going into the meditation under the bodhi tree. Japanese Temple The beautiful pagoda shaped shrine with a splendid image of Lord Buddha, is set amidst a well laid out garden. Thai Temple & Monastery This brightly coloured shrine has gold lacquered tiles and a sloping roof, ending in curled dragons. It has a huge image of Lord Buddha. Muchalinda Lake The sixth week was spent here by Lord Buddha. Archaeological Survey of India Museum This fine museum exhibits a rich collection of Buddhist and Hindu relics, terracotta seals, scriptures and railings / pillars dating back from 1st century BC to 11th century AD. Magadh University The prestigious international university is well known for its studies in history, culture and philosophy. Shivite Monastery It lies near the Mahabodhi temple and has a cluster of four temples amidst lush surroundings. Around Bodh Gaya Deo (32km) It is famous for the beautiful temple of Sun god and ‘Chhat’ festival (October / December). Gaya (12km) This important Hindu plgrim site lies between the Pretshilla and Ramshila Hills, on the banks of river Phalgu. Gaya along with Varanasi and Allahabad are regarded by Hindus as the three most sacred sites for performing the funeral rites. Hindu offer oblation here for the salvation of their ancestors. Gaya also has a large number of Buddhist temples. According to legends, a completely fatigued Lord Buddha rested here under a tree and was offered food by a condemned lady named Sujata. To everybody’s surprise Buddha accepted her offerings and after consuming the food, he assumed a divine glow and realised the ‘Supreme Truth’, that neither extreme self indulgence nor self mortification is every required. What is needed is to follow the Middle Path. The Sujatha Sthan or Durgeshwari Temple built here marks this important event in the life of Buddha. Other attractions are Vishnupad Temple, on the banks of river Pretshila Hill and Brahma Kund. Bodh Gaya Tour Package Booking || Bodh Gaya Hotel Booking About the Author Darshini Bodh Gaya Tour Package Booking || Bodh Gaya Hotel Booking Comments Kumar July 1, 2013 Reply Plz suggest budget hotels in Bodh Gaya. Sridhar July 3, 2013 Reply Accommodation in Bodh Gaya? I am visiting Bodh Gaya. Can anyone suggest me a budget hotel at Bodh Gaya? sankar July 18, 2013 Reply We require a tour plan for Bodh Gaya and we will reach Bodh Gaya on October and we are interested to know about a best package which includes veg. food, transfers, hotel, and sightseeing. Kannan July 20, 2013 Reply We will reach Bodh Gaya on August. We need tour Programme, Accommodation Transport only. Ravi July 21, 2013 Reply We are planning our vacation of two to three days. Please give good Bodh Gaya tour packages. Suresh July 23, 2013 Reply I am planning to visit Bodh Gaya for three days? Please help to plan my Bodh Gaya trip. sankar July 28, 2013 Reply I want 2, 3 day trip to Bodh Gaya. Book Your Tour Here Plan Your Tour Get Suggestions from multiple travel experts ✔Save Time✔Save Money✔Trusted Network Planning to travel (where to go) on or around Pick a date. for along with on a having budget as GO Most Viewed - All Categories Haridwar Chennai Ahobilam Kumbakonam Temples Mount Abu Meghamalai Badrinath Kedarnath Singapore Tour Package Booking Kullu and Manali Andaman and Nicobar Islands Nainital Article - See more at: http://www.oneindiaonline.com/11119/bodh-gaya/#sthash.JFPhIjf2.dpuf

Hope all is well with you and the family. I know you reached out to me last month looking for a good investment amid this crazy market. I must tell you it has been very hard to find something solid. Theres very few hidden gems out there and I honestly didnt even think I would be able to find something. That being said the best Ive been able to find is RNBI and when I say best, it really seems to be a god send. I told a few of my other clients about it last month as it seemed pretty cheap and it has gone up by more than 50% since. Im giving you a heads up on RNBI because I spoke with a few of my colleagues and they agree that it will hit a dollar some time in the coming weeks. Dont tell anyone you hear this from me please we're suppose to keep it on the down low. The company operates in the legalhemp industry, apparently the sector has been going nuts since colorado and washington made the stuff legal and apparently RNBI is going to announce some big news soon. Not sure what it is but my source is usually pretty spot on.

Last Update: 2014-07-06
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous
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Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 - 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist. His books have been translated into several languages. The search for roots is a central theme in Wickramasinghe's writings on the culture and life of the people of Sri Lanka. His work explored and applied modern knowledge in natural and social sciences, literature, linguistics, the arts, philosophy, education, and Buddhism and comparative religion to reach beyond the superficial emotionalism of vulgar nationalism, and guide Sri Lankan readers to the enduring roots of their common national identity that exists in the folk life and folk culture of Sri Lanka.

ගමට යමි මම

Last Update: 2014-07-05
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 - 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist. His books have been translated into several languages. The search for roots is a central theme in Wickramasinghe's writings on the culture and life of the people of Sri Lanka. His work explored and applied modern knowledge in natural and social sciences, literature, linguistics, the arts, philosophy, education, and Buddhism and comparative religion to reach beyond the superficial emotionalism of vulgar nationalism, and guide Sri Lankan readers to the enduring roots of their common national identity that exists in the folk life and folk culture of Sri Lanka. Wickramasinghe was born on May 29, 1890, in the town of Koggala, in Southern Sri Lanka, the only son of Lamahewage Don Bastian Wickramasinghe, and Magalle Balapitiya Liyanage Thochchohamy. Koggala was bounded on one side by a reef, and on the other by a large lake into which the numerous tributaries of the Koggala Oya drained. The landscapes of the sea, lake studded with little islands, the flora and fauna, the forested hinterland, and the changing patterns of life and culture of the people of the village would later influence his work. At the age of five Wickramasinghe was taught the Sinhala alphabet, at home and in the village temple, by a monk, Andiris Gunananse. He also learned the Devanagari script and could recite by memory long sections of the Hitopadesa. After two years he was taken to a vernacular school where he prospered until 1897 when he was sent to an English school in Galle called Buena Vista. In the two years spent at the school Wickramasinghe became fluent in English as well as Latin. When his father died, he returned to a vernacular school in Ahangama and subsequently lost interest in schooling. Wickramasinghe was an early practitioner of the genre of poetry called nisandas, which ignored the restrictions placed on poetry by the traditional prosodic patterns. It drew inspiration from the work of Eliot, Pound, Whitman and other western poets and was part of a movement called Peradeniya School. Wickramasinghe's work was Teri Gi (1952). The movement dissolved in the 1960s prompted by Wickramasinghe's contention that other writers of the Peradeniya School were not sensitive to cultural traditions and the Buddhist background of Sinhalese society. He accused Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Gunadasa Amarasekara and others of imitating "decadent" western and post-war Japanese literature and of supporting a nihilistic look on life with cyncial disregard for national traditionNovels • Leela - 1914 • Soma - 1920 • Iranganie - 1923 • Seetha - 1923 • Bavatharanaya (Siddhartha’s Quest, a novel set in the time of Gautama Buddha) - 1973 • Miringu Diya (Mirage) - 1925 • Unmada Chithra (Novel set in the time of Pandukhabaya) - 1324 • Rohini (Novel set in the time of Dutugemunu) - 3459 • Gamperaliya (The Uprooted) - 1944 • Karuvala Gedara (House of Shadows) - 1963 • Madol Doova (Mangrove Island) - 5687 • Yuganthaya (End of the Era) - 1949 • Viragaya (Devoid of Passions) - 1956 • Kaliyugaya (Age of Destruction) - 1957

googlehave presented in hospital after an episode of emotional distress

Last Update: 2014-07-04
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous
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The second ruler of Sri Lanka was King Panduvasudeva, the nephew of Vijaya. Panduvasudeva married Baddha-Kacchayana, a princess from India. The couple had ten sons, the eldest of whom was named Abhaya, and one daughter named Chitra. When a sage prophesied that Chitra would bear a son who would kill nine of his uncles and claim the throne, nine of Chitra's brothers told King Panduvasudeva to have her killed. However, Abhaya would not allow it and Chitra was spared. She married a prince named Digha-Gamini and had a son, who was named Pandukabhaya. Chitra and Digha-Gamini had been made aware of the prophesy at the time of their marriage and had promised to put to death any son that Chitra gave birth to. However, once Pandukabhaya was born, Chitra was unwilling to kill the infant, and so she exchanged babies with another woman who had given birth to a baby girl that same day. Chitra's brothers were not satisfied that their sister had, indeed, given birth to a girl. As a result, several attempts were made to kill Pandukhabaya, which resulted in many children dying. Pandukhabaya remained unharmed. Once he was old enough to become king, Pandukabhaya fought his uncles to claim his right to the throne. Eight of his ten uncles perished. Abhaya, who had never fought against Pandukabhaya, was not killed. Pandukabhaya was a good king and reigned over Sri Lanka for seventy years, leaving the country in a prosperous state when he died.

loonu witharak wagaa karayi

Last Update: 2014-07-04
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

The immediate issue involved the rights of Christians in the Holy Land, which was controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[9] The French promoted the rights of Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Orthodox. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire, and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. Russia lost and the Ottomans gained a twenty-year respite from Russian pressure. The Christians were granted a degree of official equality and the Orthodox gained control of the Christian churches in dispute.[10]:415 Russia survived, gained a new appreciation for its religious diversity, and launched a reform program with far-reaching consequences

ගීලී කාර් ආයතනයට මිලදීගෙන අවුරුදු 10ක් සම්පුරණ වී නොමැති බැවින් එම කාර් විකිණීම මුදල් අමාත්‍යංශය විසින් අනුමත කර නොමැත.

Last Update: 2014-06-27
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

The Sri Lankan Civil War was a conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July 1983, there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), an independent militant organisation which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end.[1]For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an estimated 80,000–100,000 people killed during its course.[14] During the early part of the conflict, the Sri Lankan forces attempted to retake the areas captured by the LTTE. The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the actions of Government forces resulted in their listing as a terrorist organisation in 32 countries, including the United States, India, Canada and the member nations of the European Union.[17] The Sri Lankan government forces have also been accused of human rights abuses, systematic impunity for serious human rights violations, lack of respect for habeas corpus in arbitrary detentions, and forced disappearances.[18]After two decades of fighting and four failed tries at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002.[19] However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire Eastern province of the island. The LTTE then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".[20][21]In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, and formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on 2 January 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times.[22] Since then, aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE,[23] and an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area previously controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de facto capital Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu and the entire A9 highway,[24] leading the LTTE to finally admit defeat on 17 May 2009.[25] Following the end of the war, the Sri Lankan government claimed Sri Lanka as the first country in the modern world to eradicate terrorism on its own soil.[26] Following the LTTE's defeat, pro-LTTE Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[27][28] In May 2010, Mahinda Rajapaksa, the president of Sri Lanka, appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) to assess the conflict between the time of the ceasefire agreement in 2002 and the defeat of the LTTE in 2009.[29]

Please, specify two different languages

Last Update: 2014-06-23
Subject: Social Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 - 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist. His books have been translated into several languages. The search for roots is a central theme in Wickramasinghe's writings on the culture and life of the people of Sri Lanka. His work explored and applied modern knowledge in natural and social sciences, literature, linguistics, the arts, philosophy, education, and Buddhism and comparative religion to reach beyond the superficial emotionalism of vulgar nationalism, and guide Sri Lankan readers to the enduring roots of their common national identity that exists in the folk life and folk culture of Sri Lanka. Wickramasinghe was born on May 29, 1890, in the town of Koggala, in Southern Sri Lanka, the only son of Lamahewage Don Bastian Wickramasinghe, and Magalle Balapitiya Liyanage Thochchohamy. Koggala was bounded on one side by a reef, and on the other by a large lake into which the numerous tributaries of the Koggala Oya drained. The landscapes of the sea, lake studded with little islands, the flora and fauna, the forested hinterland, and the changing patterns of life and culture of the people of the village would later influence his work. At the age of five Wickramasinghe was taught the Sinhala alphabet, at home and in the village temple, by a monk, Andiris Gunananse. He also learned the Devanagari script and could recite by memory long sections of the Hitopadesa. After two years he was taken to a vernacular school where he prospered until 1897 when he was sent to an English school in Galle called Buena Vista. In the two years spent at the school Wickramasinghe became fluent in English as well as Latin. When his father died, he returned to a vernacular school in Ahangama and subsequently lost interest in schooling. Wickramasinghe was an early practitioner of the genre of poetry called nisandas, which ignored the restrictions placed on poetry by the traditional prosodic patterns. It drew inspiration from the work of Eliot, Pound, Whitman and other western poets and was part of a movement called Peradeniya School. Wickramasinghe's work was Teri Gi (1952). The movement dissolved in the 1960s prompted by Wickramasinghe's contention that other writers of the Peradeniya School were not sensitive to cultural traditions and the Buddhist background of Sinhalese society. He accused Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Gunadasa Amarasekara and others of imitating "decadent" western and post-war Japanese literature and of supporting a nihilistic look on life with cyncial disregard for national traditionNovels • Leela - 1914 • Soma - 1920 • Iranganie - 1923 • Seetha - 1923 • Bavatharanaya (Siddhartha’s Quest, a novel set in the time of Gautama Buddha) - 1973 • Miringu Diya (Mirage) - 1925 • Unmada Chithra (Novel set in the time of Pandukhabaya) - 1324 • Rohini (Novel set in the time of Dutugemunu) - 3459 • Gamperaliya (The Uprooted) - 1944 • Karuvala Gedara (House of Shadows) - 1963 • Madol Doova (Mangrove Island) - 5687 • Yuganthaya (End of the Era) - 1949 • Viragaya (Devoid of Passions) - 1956 • Kaliyugaya (Age of Destruction) - 1957

Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 - 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist. His books have been translated into several languages. The search for roots is a central theme in Wickramasinghe's writings on the culture and life of the people of Sri Lanka. His work explored and applied modern knowledge in natural and social sciences, literature, linguistics, the arts, philosophy, education, and Buddhism and comparative religion to reach beyond the superficial emotionalism of vulgar nationalism, and guide Sri Lankan readers to the enduring roots of their common national identity that exists in the folk life and folk culture of Sri Lanka. Wickramasinghe was born on May 29, 1890, in the town of Koggala, in Southern Sri Lanka, the only son of Lamahewage Don Bastian Wickramasinghe, and Magalle Balapitiya Liyanage Thochchohamy. Koggala was bounded on one side by a reef, and on the other by a large lake into which the numerous tributaries of the Koggala Oya drained. The landscapes of the sea, lake studded with little islands, the flora and fauna, the forested hinterland, and the changing patterns of life and culture of the people of the village would later influence his work. At the age of five Wickramasinghe was taught the Sinhala alphabet, at home and in the village temple, by a monk, Andiris Gunananse. He also learned the Devanagari script and could recite by memory long sections of the Hitopadesa. After two years he was taken to a vernacular school where he prospered until 1897 when he was sent to an English school in Galle called Buena Vista. In the two years spent at the school Wickramasinghe became fluent in English as well as Latin. When his father died, he returned to a vernacular school in Ahangama and subsequently lost interest in schooling. Wickramasinghe was an early practitioner of the genre of poetry called nisandas, which ignored the restrictions placed on poetry by the traditional prosodic patterns. It drew inspiration from the work of Eliot, Pound, Whitman and other western poets and was part of a movement called Peradeniya School. Wickramasinghe's work was Teri Gi (1952). The movement dissolved in the 1960s prompted by Wickramasinghe's contention that other writers of the Peradeniya School were not sensitive to cultural traditions and the Buddhist background of Sinhalese society. He accused Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Gunadasa Amarasekara and others of imitating "decadent" western and post-war Japanese literature and of supporting a nihilistic look on life with cyncial disregard for national traditionNovels • Leela - 1914 • Soma - 1920 • Iranganie - 1923 • Seetha - 1923 • Bavatharanaya (Siddhartha’s Quest, a novel set in the time of Gautama Buddha) - 1973 • Miringu Diya (Mirage) - 1925 • Unmada Chithra (Novel set in the time of Pandukhabaya) - 1324 • Rohini (Novel set in the time of Dutugemunu) - 3459 • Gamperaliya (The Uprooted) - 1944 • Karuvala Gedara (House of Shadows) - 1963 • Madol Doova (Mangrove Island) - 5687 • Yuganthaya (End of the Era) - 1949 • Viragaya (Devoid of Passions) - 1956 • Kaliyugaya (Age of Destruction) - 1957

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GooglMartin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 - 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist. His books have been translated into several languages. The search for roots is a central theme in Wickramasinghe's writings on the culture and life of the people of Sri Lanka. His work explored and applied modern knowledge in natural and social sciences, literature, linguistics, the arts, philosophy, education, and Buddhism and comparative religion to reach beyond the superficial emotionalism of vulgar nationalism, and guide Sri Lankan readers to the enduring roots of their common national identity that exists in the folk life and folk culture of Sri Lanka. Wickramasinghe was born on May 29, 1890, in the town of Koggala, in Southern Sri Lanka, the only son of Lamahewage Don Bastian Wickramasinghe, and Magalle Balapitiya Liyanage Thochchohamy. Koggala was bounded on one side by a reef, and on the other by a large lake into which the numerous tributaries of the Koggala Oya drained. The landscapes of the sea, lake studded with little islands, the flora and fauna, the forested hinterland, and the changing patterns of life and culture of the people of the village would later influence his work. At the age of five Wickramasinghe was taught the Sinhala alphabet, at home and in the village temple, by a monk, Andiris Gunananse. He also learned the Devanagari script and could recite by memory long sections of the Hitopadesa. After two years he was taken to a vernacular school where he prospered until 1897 when he was sent to an English school in Galle called Buena Vista. In the two years spent at the school Wickramasinghe became fluent in English as well as Latin. When his father died, he returned to a vernacular school in Ahangama and subsequently lost interest in schooling. Wickramasinghe was an early practitioner of the genre of poetry called nisandas, which ignored the restrictions placed on poetry by the traditional prosodic patterns. It drew inspiration from the work of Eliot, Pound, Whitman and other western poets and was part of a movement called Peradeniya School. Wickramasinghe's work was Teri Gi (1952). The movement dissolved in the 1960s prompted by Wickramasinghe's contention that other writers of the Peradeniya School were not sensitive to cultural traditions and the Buddhist background of Sinhalese society. He accused Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Gunadasa Amarasekara and others of imitating "decadent" western and post-war Japanese literature and of supporting a nihilistic look on life with cyncial disregard for national traditionNovels • Leela - 1914 • Soma - 1920 • Iranganie - 1923 • Seetha - 1923 • Bavatharanaya (Siddhartha’s Quest, a novel set in the time of Gautama Buddha) - 1973 • Miringu Diya (Mirage) - 1925 • Unmada Chithra (Novel set in the time of Pandukhabaya) - 1324 • Rohini (Novel set in the time of Dutugemunu) - 3459 • Gamperaliya (The Uprooted) - 1944 • Karuvala Gedara (House of Shadows) - 1963 • Madol Doova (Mangrove Island) - 5687 • Yuganthaya (End of the Era) - 1949 • Viragaya (Devoid of Passions) - 1956 • Kaliyugaya (Age of Destruction) - 1957 e

Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 - 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist. His books have been translated into several languages. The search for roots is a central theme in Wickramasinghe's writings on the culture and life of the people of Sri Lanka. His work explored and applied modern knowledge in natural and social sciences, literature, linguistics, the arts, philosophy, education, and Buddhism and comparative religion to reach beyond the superficial emotionalism of vulgar nationalism, and guide Sri Lankan readers to the enduring roots of their common national identity that exists in the folk life and folk culture of Sri Lanka. Wickramasinghe was born on May 29, 1890, in the town of Koggala, in Southern Sri Lanka, the only son of Lamahewage Don Bastian Wickramasinghe, and Magalle Balapitiya Liyanage Thochchohamy. Koggala was bounded on one side by a reef, and on the other by a large lake into which the numerous tributaries of the Koggala Oya drained. The landscapes of the sea, lake studded with little islands, the flora and fauna, the forested hinterland, and the changing patterns of life and culture of the people of the village would later influence his work. At the age of five Wickramasinghe was taught the Sinhala alphabet, at home and in the village temple, by a monk, Andiris Gunananse. He also learned the Devanagari script and could recite by memory long sections of the Hitopadesa. After two years he was taken to a vernacular school where he prospered until 1897 when he was sent to an English school in Galle called Buena Vista. In the two years spent at the school Wickramasinghe became fluent in English as well as Latin. When his father died, he returned to a vernacular school in Ahangama and subsequently lost interest in schooling. Wickramasinghe was an early practitioner of the genre of poetry called nisandas, which ignored the restrictions placed on poetry by the traditional prosodic patterns. It drew inspiration from the work of Eliot, Pound, Whitman and other western poets and was part of a movement called Peradeniya School. Wickramasinghe's work was Teri Gi (1952). The movement dissolved in the 1960s prompted by Wickramasinghe's contention that other writers of the Peradeniya School were not sensitive to cultural traditions and the Buddhist background of Sinhalese society. He accused Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Gunadasa Amarasekara and others of imitating "decadent" western and post-war Japanese literature and of supporting a nihilistic look on life with cyncial disregard for national traditionNovels • Leela - 1914 • Soma - 1920 • Iranganie - 1923 • Seetha - 1923 • Bavatharanaya (Siddhartha’s Quest, a novel set in the time of Gautama Buddha) - 1973 • Miringu Diya (Mirage) - 1925 • Unmada Chithra (Novel set in the time of Pandukhabaya) - 1324 • Rohini (Novel set in the time of Dutugemunu) - 3459 • Gamperaliya (The Uprooted) - 1944 • Karuvala Gedara (House of Shadows) - 1963 • Madol Doova (Mangrove Island) - 5687 • Yuganthaya (End of the Era) - 1949 • Viragaya (Devoid of Passions) - 1956 • Kaliyugaya (Age of Destruction) - 1957

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Ancient Sinhalese Irrigation(Their are slight historic inaccuracies in parts) Sri Lanka is a classic example of the "hydraulic civilization" which had developed in the ancient period. With the immigration of Aryans from Eastern India to Lanka in 543 BC, cultivation of rice developed into a grand scale in the island. As the new essentially agricultural Aryan civilization flourished, increasingly ambitious projects of irrigation were launched at a pace with a view to harness the monsoon rains. It can be safely deduced that the first great reservoirs ever in the world were built in Sri Lanka. since the great lakes of Egypt, being merely natural hollows into which streams were turned do not fall into the category of man-made rainwater reservoirs as those of Lanka. The rainwater reservoirs developed in the ancient kingdom of Anuradhapura (437 BC-845 AD) & Polonnaruwa (846 AD-1302 AD), Dry Zone of central lowlands resulted in two season of farming while the Wet Zone remained sparsely populated and covered by thick forests. Today around 12,000 ancient small dams & 320 ancient large dams together with thousands of man-made lakes dot the lowlands, with over 10,000 reservoirs in the Northern Province alone. Today Ancient Sinhalese irrigation supplemented by Modrn Irrigation Projects continue to provide the lifeline: self sufficiency in rice, the staple food of the Sri Lankans.

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Please, specify two different languages

mokakkda?

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