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Last Update: 2014-03-06
Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.
Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science", with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.
While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.
Last Update: 2014-06-13
The present investigation was carried out at the Rice Research
and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr EL-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2007 and
2008 seasons to study the developmental pattern of different growth
stages four very early maturing (below 115 days) as compared with
that of an early (up to 125 days), medium maturing (up to 140 days)
and late maturing (above 140 days). The genetic variability of some
physiological traits and grain yield and its components for the tested
genotypes were also assessed. All the twenty four varieties required
almost 3 weeks to reach 3-leaf stage although they differed in total
duration, seedling height and plant height. Vegetative phase was
mainly responsible for the variation in the total duration of the variety.
Marginal variation observed in reproductive and ripening phases
among the varieties. The period from 5- leaf stage to panicle initiation
which represents panicle development stage was shorter for early
maturing varieties and overlap's both vegetative developmental stage
with the reproductive developmental stage (panicle initiation).Broad
sense heritability estimates were high ( ranged between 86 to 99.4%
)for all studied traits. The expected genetic advance from selection
appeared to be effective and ranged between 3.56 % to 44.88 %over
the two seasons. The cluster analysis were carried out using 3
parameters i.e, vegetative period, days to heading and reproductive
period. Since reproductive phase was almost constant and had a very
low range, the cluster was mainly influenced with days to heading and
vegetative stage period.
Last Update: 2014-06-12
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