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In the late 1960's, uncle' Pope Paul VI, priests, nuns and seminarians, particularly in Latin America, Africa and the MAHARLIKA, began teaching socialism, known as the 'Liberation Theology'. Because of close diplomatic ties between the Vatican and Communist Russia from 1917 to 1979, the Communists succeeded in attracting sympathizers and followers from among the Roman clergy and hierarchy. In 1962, Pope John XXIII, through French Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, signed the "Vatican-Moscow Agreement" stipulating, among other things, that the Roman Catholic Church would not denounce the errors of Communism. In Italy, a Roman Catholic country, communism was legalized. The Vatican, heavily infiltrated by Masons and Communists, spread its new theology that was a blend of Marxism and Christianity. The generous funding from the "SINDONA--MARCINKLIS—CALVI—P2 LODGE" partnership encouraged subversive catholic movements to disrupt and destabilize the governments in countries where the Vatican had abundance of "blind followers." in the Third World countries, the rich and the government often oppress the poor who constitute the larger portion of the populace. Class struggle ensues, oftentimes, both classes using violence. Countless seminarians, nuns and priests left the security of their convents and gave teach-ins, distributed subversive materials, marched on the streets, rallied and demonstrated in front of government offices and many, tragically, went to the mountains and joined the militant armed struggle. Some of them were killed during encounters with government forces. All this idealism and sacrifice by "sincere and dedicated" people was inspired by the Roman Catholic Church seemingly to bring justice and relief to the SUFFERING POOR of the Maharlika, putting all the blame on the government. What unwitting pawns to a FOREIGN POWER, the VATICAN CHURCH, still obsessed • in playing the oldest game in the world called DOMINATION! "Financial grants, often through religious organizations, sympathetic with left wing insurrections, meant the involvement, even if tangently, of the Vatican Bank whose financial bulk derives from deposits of religious organizations. Hence Catholic priests, being involved in actual armed insurrections in Latin America, the Philippines and Poland would automatically have spelled the potential traffic of clandestine sales of arms and, therefore, the involvement of shady banking concerns such as the mysterious 'shell' companies of the 10R, and as a result, indirectly of the Vatican itself." 1 If the Vatican indeed shed tears over the sufferings of the Filipino people, they were nothing but crocodile tears. As boldly exposed throughout this book, it was the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH that for 500 years perpetrated injustice, oppression and exploitation on the Filipino people. It LORDED OVER them with unequalled banditry and thievery. It coveted their wealth, trampled their dignity and messed up their future. Is it any wonder, then, that those countries .that for centuries were "evangelized," colonized and ravaged like young maidens by the Roman Catholic Spain and Portugal, have dramatically evolved into unjust societies and poverty stricken nations? After the tractors and chainsaws of greedy and irresponsible loggers have gone through virgin forests,. what do we see? Eroded mountains, swollen rivers and flooded valleys! When the TWO SWORDS OF POPE BONIFACE VIII were brought here by the Spanish conquistadors, they "raped" the spiritual, cultural and psychological identity of the people in the Maharlika Islands for 500 years. The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH left to the Filipinos nothing but a desolate economy, a desolate society, a desolate system of worship, a desolate self-image and a desolate spirit. As a Third World country today, the Filipinos were transformed by this Church to the wretched status of beggars, knocking at the doors of affluent nations for measly morsels of food, used clothes (sold as `ukay-ukay') and other amenities. Thanks, but no thanks, to the Roman Catholic Church with its 'Liberation Theology'. The Roman Catholic Church's preaching on the Liberation Theology was supposed to redeem downtrodden Filipinos from poverty and oppression caused by the 'unjust and oppressive Marcos dictatorship and his monies'. The ills of this country during the Marcos regime were not all caused by him. He merely inherited those same ills that were "inflicted by the Roman Catholic Church during the 333 years of lease to Spain for so much 'pound of flesh' by Pope Leo X. And even when this country‘ celebrated its 100 years of independence from Spain (the LESSEE), Filipinos are still dependent on the Vatican (the LESSOR) as evidenced by the manipulation of the country by the Roman Catholic Church's leftist indoctrination in the 70's and 80's. The Liberation Theology gospel spread fast, far and wide among the multitude of BLIND FOLLOWERES, THE ROMANO CATOLICO SARADO that still comprise the majority of the Filipinos today. If the Roman Catholic Church really meant what it taught in its Liberation Theology, this is what it should have done. Instead of just making the suffering poor aware of their miserable conditions (they called this "conscientization") and organizing them to put pressure on the rich ('class struggle') to distribute its wealth, this new theology should have first acknowledged, confessed and apologized that it was this Roman Catholic Church that put them in this pitiful condition in the first place. Say "mea culpa"! Second, it should have rehabilitated the psychologically damaged Filipinos much like a traumatized child before a psychiatrist. The offender (Roman Catholic Church) should have rehabilitated the victim (Filipino people) by promising to make amends. Third, this church, as an example to the rich, should have dug from its overflowing treasure chests and distributed its enormous surplus wealth to the poor, thereby empowering them to start a new and dignified life. This should have been true restitution by the Roman Catholic Church after its 500 years of plunder and exploitation of the Maharlika. THIS SHOULD HAVE BEEN A TRUE AND SINCERE LIBERATION THEOLOGY. It is liberating to the Roman Catholic Church that confesses its sins and makes amends for them. It is liberating as well to the poor, victimized Filipinos who will benefit from the honesty of that church. Instead, what the Roman Catholic Church does today is to give a small share from its overflowing coffers to help the poor and drumbeat the rich to give to its charitable programs. A perfect example in Manila is seen everyday on television. A plea is heard showing street children and scavengers in the garbage dumps and asking generous souls to give to CARITAS. This program belongs to the billionaire Archdiocese of Manila and the announcer belongs to one of the super, super rich religious Roman Catholic congregations in the world. Liberation Theology achieved its goal to topple the Marcos dictatorship, perceived as the root cause of the miseries of the Filipino people. But now after twenty years, the condition of the "oppressed poor" in the Maharlika has not changed. Instead, it has worsened by a millionfold. And the Roman Catholic Church until now is still mouthing its Liberation Theology refrain: "preferential option for the poor" and "solidarity with the poor." Until now a lot of Filipinos brainwashed with this Liberation Theology are on the mountains fighting and running for their survival, kill or be killed. The Modern Vatican Covets The Maharlika In the early 1930's, Europe was in a depression and Germany was financially bankrupt. An unknown party leader promised the German people that he could create jobs and boost its economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolph Hitler. In June 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic, signed a concordat for mutual protection and enhancement. Shortly after that, Hitler was loaded with money. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons for war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918, there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany. Throughout the Spanish occupation of the Maharlika„ members of the Tagean/Tallano clan have been visiting Europe since some of their relatives were English and Austrian. From 1866 to 1898, Prince -Julian 'Macleod Tallano had also been frequenting the Vatican. In 1934 under Pope Pius XII, the Vatican negotiated with a member of the Filipino Royal Family, the Christian Tallano clan in the Maharlika. An agreement was reached that 640,000 metric tons of the Tallano gold would be lent to the Pope. This was part of that gold accumulated by the Southeast Asian Srivijayan/Madjapahit Empire during its glorious reign of 900 years. In 1939, two members of the Tallano family and a Roman Catholic priest, Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, brought the gold from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, to the Vatican.2 After doing this, Fr. Diaz went back to the Maharlika and resided in Cabanatuan City. After World War II, he facilitated the safe return of the 640,000 metric tons of gold from the Vatican to the Maharlika. Manuel Acuna Roxas (a relative of the Acuna/Tageanfrallano clan), then a congressman and Bishop Enrique Sobrepena, Sr, in the presence of Atty. Lorenzo Tanada received the gold in Manila. A lease agreement was made between the Tallano clan and the Maharlika government. A total of 617,500 metric tons of gold was deposited in the newly installed Central Bank of the Maharlika to comply with its requirement for GOLD RESERVE. Under the terms of the contract, the Central Bank became the HOLDER of that gold. That lease agreement will expire in the year 2005.3 Having gained the trust and confidence of Fr. Diaz, the Tallano clan made him the main negotiator and trustee of their gold. Fr. Diaz, in turn, hired the services of Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos, then a highly recommended brilliant young lawyer having attained notoriety when he successfully defended himself in the "Naiundasan Case" in 1939. The Tallano clan paid commission to Fr. Diaz and Atty. Marcos in gold, 30% from the principal of 640,000 metric tons.4 In 1949, the two richest men in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Between the two of them they legitimately earned and owned 192,000 metric tons of gold. Ferdinand Marcos withdrew their share of the gold from the Central Bank and minted it "RP-CD." Sometime later, Fr. Diaz and Marcos brought their gold to Switzerland, in the Swiss Bank Corporation in Zurich. The remaining 400,000 metric tons of 1 Tallano gold is in the third floor basement of the Central Bank Minting Plant in East Ave., Quezon City. There are 950,000 metric tons of gold (declared missing in the International court of Justice) picked up by Yamashita from its European ally, Hitler. Another 250,000 tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Maharlika. This country then became the holder of 1.6 million metric tons of gold bars. Some of the Yamashita gold buried in the Maharlika has been found. But the bulk of it is still buried to this day. And even now, thousands are secretly digging for it, including Japanese treasure hunters. The World Street Journal in its November 15, 1985 issue wrote that two thirds of all the gold in the world is in the Maharlika. One third is divided among the rest of the countries in the world. Very few Filipinos know this. When Marcos took over the government in 1965, the Maharlika had a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. In 1986, when the Americans forcibly brought Marcos to Hawaii, President Aquino inherited a foreign debt of US$24 billion. But, of these, US$7 billion was incurred by the private sector. At his ouster, Marcos left US$2.5 billion in the Central Bank reserve. This means that Pres. Marcos during his 20 years of absolute rule only incurred a measly US$1 billion foreign debt to build up this nation with its fast growing population and numerous infrastructure projects. How did President Marcos manage this government financially? Aside from the annual national budget of P35 billion financed by the national treasury, he had all this gold at his disposal for building the infrastructure projects that today stand unequaled to all the four succeeding presidents. Today, this country has a foreign debt of around US$75 billion. From 1986 to 2000, the government under three presidents incurred a debt of US$51 billion on top of its original US$24 billion — in just 14 years! In the 1997 Philippine Yearbook (National Statistics Office) a Summary of Government Expenditures from 1966 to 1997 was made. From 1965-1986 (20 years) President Marcos spent P486, 273 Billion From 1986-1991 (6 years) President Aquino spent P1, 077,895 Trillion. From 1992-1997 (6 years) President Ramos spent P2, 237,907 Trillion. Between May 14 to June 5, 2003, a nationwide survey report conducted and administered by Asia Pacific Periscope put out this question: "Among our Presidents, who do you think had done most for the country?" The results were: Marcos 41%, Magsaysay 15%, Aquino 6%, Ramos 6%, Estrada 4%, Arroyo 2%, Quezon 0.3%, Quirino 0.3% and 22% could not give any name. Margin of error was +1- 2.7%. When Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana, died in 1974 all that 30% commission in gold became the legendary "MARCOS GOLD." After providing for his family in Marcos' Letter of Instruction, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. This was the "MARCOS WEALTH" that some politicians and churchmen kept on saying was the "ILL-GOTTEN" Marcos wealth that until today is in "Marcos secret accounts." On April 9, 1973 Marcos said: "My earthly goods have been placed in the custody and for the disposition of the Marcos Foundation dedicated to the welfare of the Filipino people." The Demolition Campaign In the 70's and 80's, "blood money" from the Roman Catholic Church, channeled into the Maharlika via the Vatican Bank and another foreign power, fueled the flames of dissension in the countryside and on the streets of Manila. A concerted church and foreign civil destabilization and demolition campaign was waged against Marcos. All that gold in the hands of one man like Marcos was a threat to those who have been used for so long with so much' money and power. Marcos became too powerful and would not tow the line of the two established power in the world, the VATICAN and the TRILATERAL COMMISSION (U.S.A.—GERMANY--JAPAN). But Marcos was no lap dog (lute') to any foreign power. In 1966, during President Marcos' First State Visit to the U.S.A., he renegotiated the Military Bases Agreement (MBA) of March 14, 1947. He refused to compromise the nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity and successfully negotiated the reduction of the Military Base Agreement lease, which was supposed to end in 2046 to just 25 more years — ending in 1991, instead of 2046. This made the USA angry. When the USA recognized Maharlika sovereignty over the military bases on January 7, 1979, President Marcos called it "the final liberation of the Philippines." Most significantly, the U.S. Ambassador Richard W. Murphy in • his letter to the Maharlika Minister for Foreign Affairs, Carlos P. Romulo, dated January 7, 1979 said: "Only the Philippine flag shall be flown singly at the Bases. The United States flag together with the Philippine flag that shall at all times occupy the place of honor, may be displayed within buildings anti other indoor sites on United States facilities and in front of headquarters of the United States Commanders and upon coordination with the Philippine Base Commanders for appropriate outdoor ceremonies such as military honors and parades on the facilities." In his grand plan, Marcos wanted to re-establish the former grandeur of the Maharlika and the whole region of Southeast Asia, the former Malayan Empire. In June 1983, Marcos appeared before the First World leaders in Toronto. He announced his plan to boost the economy of the Southeast Asian region by creating the ASIAN DOLLAR. This would be backed up by the 400,000 metric tons of gold in the Central Bank of the Maharlika and the other gold he scattered around the region. He would also add to this his own Personal 192,000 metric tons in Switzerland. his Asian Dollar, backed up by the "two thirds of all the gold in the World" that was in the Maharlika, would have made the Maharlika money more valuable and stronger than the American dollar. This was his vision to raise Southeast Asia to be at par with the rest of the First World countries. The very next day James Baker, the head of the C.I.A., replaced Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State. Subsequently, an intensified demolition job on Marcos and the destruction of his party were ingeniously planned and carried out. Two months later, on August 21, 1983 Senator Ninoy Aquino was assassinated at the Manila International Airport. The blame was placed on Marcos. To this day the assassination of Ninoy Aquino has not yet been solved. It has to be kept this way because solving it would open a Pandora's box and reveal skeletons in the closet of many prominent people very close to Ninoy Aquino who are still enjoying the high esteem of the public today. The Coup De Grace: EDSA Revolution A year and a half later, on December 26, 1984, the "CORY CONSTITUTION" was formulated. This was the first coup d'etat ever planned in the modern history of the Maharlika. The document was entitled: DECLARATION OF UNITY. It says: "WHEREAS it has become the imperative &Ay for all who oppose the Marcos regime to join forces to restore the freedom and sovereignty of the Filipino people and thereafter to reconstruct the national economy and improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, starting with the poor, the voiceless and the oppressed, and WHEREAS we believe that the foregoing objectives can best be attained by implementing the following values, principles and convictions which we all share.' There are eight points in the Cory Constitution. Point 6 says: "Belief in a Pluralistic Society. The new leadership will respect and protect freedom of expression and the right to disseminate all philosophies and non-violent programs. It trusts the capacity of the people to choose freely what is best for the nation, and will honor the choice of the people even if it differs from theirs. The Communist Party of the Philippines will be legalized. In order to remove obstacles to national unity, the new leadership will take steps, immediately upon assumption of office, to address all legitimate grievances of all who have resorted to armed struggle." Point 8.1 says: The new leadership commits itself to eliminate the social cancer of graft and corruption, public or private..." Point 8.3 says: "...(Marcos') Ill-gotten wealth, , property and assets shall be confiscated..." In conclusion, the CORY CONSTITUTION says. 'Therefore, we sign these presents to solemnly affirm our commitment to the foregoing values. principles and convictions and to signify our resolve to exhaust all means to unify all parties, organizations and fortes in opposition to the Marcos regime." Signed in Quezon City by: 1. Agapito "Butz" Aquino, 2. Jose W. Diokno, 3. Teofisto Guingona, 4. Eva Estrada Kalaw, 5. Salvador H. Laurel, 6. Raul S. Manglapus, 7. Ramon Mitra, Jr.. 8. Ambrosio Padilla, 9. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., 10. Rafael Sales, 11. Jovito Salonga. Signed by the conveyor group are: 1. Corazon C. Aquino, 2. Jaime V. Ongpin, 3. Lorenzo M. Tanada. U.S. Senator Paul Laxalt, in his article that appeared in the U.S. magazine Policy Review (1986) entitled "My Conversations with Ferdinand Marcos", said: "It appears from what I read in the papers that she (Cory Aquino) made a serious strategic mistake in releasing the

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flatwormsThe flatworms, or Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning worm)[2] are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously. In traditional zoology texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria, which are mostly nonparasitic animals such as planarians, and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic, this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments such as leaf litter. Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land vertebrates, and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of hermaphroditic, segment-like proglottids which detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host. Because they do not have internal body cavities, Platyhelminthes were regarded as a primitive stage in the evolution of bilaterians (animals with bilateral symmetry and hence with distinct front and rear ends). However, analyses since the mid-1980s have separated out one subgroup, the Acoelomorpha, as basal bilaterians - closer to the original bilaterians than to any other modern groups. The remaining Platyhelminthes form a monophyletic group - one that contains all and only descendants of a common ancestor that is itself a member of the group. The redefined Platyhelminthes is part of the Lophotrochozoa, one of the three main groups of more complex bilaterians. These analyses had concluded the redefined Platyhelminthes, excluding Acoelomorpha, consists of two monophyletic subgroups, Catenulida and Rhabditophora, with Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea forming a monophyletic subgroup within one branch of the Rhabditophora. Hence, the traditional platyhelminth subgroup "Turbellaria" is now regarded as paraphyletic, since it excludes the wholly parasitic groups, although these are descended from one group of "turbellarians". Over half of all known flatworm species are parasitic, and some do enormous harm to humans and their livestock. Schistosomiasis, caused by one genus of trematodes, is the second-most devastating of all human diseases caused by parasites, surpassed only by malaria. Neurocysticercosis, which arises when larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium penetrate the central nervous system, is the major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The threat of platyhelminth parasites to humans in developed countries is rising because of the popularity of raw or lightly cooked foods, and imports of food from high-risk areas. In less developed countries, people often cannot afford the fuel required to cook food thoroughly, and poorly designed water-supply and irrigation projects increase the dangers presented by poor sanitation and unhygienic farming. Two planarian species have been used successfully in the Philippines, Indonesia, Hawaii, New Guinea, and Guam to control populations of the imported giant African snail Achatina fulica, which was displacing native snails. However, there is now concern that these planarians may themselves become a serious threat to native snails. In northwest Europe, there are concerns about the spread of the New Zealand planarian Arthurdendyus triangulatus, which preys on earthworms.

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budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011) s example

What is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011)

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budding plantWhat is Budding, Its Advantages and Basic Procedures Budding, oftenly called bud grafting, is an artificial method of asexual or vegetative propagation in plants. Like grafting, this method is employed to convert one plant (the rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics. Similarly, the resulting plants in general have shortened stature and maturity as compared to plants propagated from seed. This method of plant propagation has the advantage of producing numerous clones from a single piece of stem or twig, each node being a potential source of one-budded scion. But in grafting, this same piece of stem may account for only a single scion. It is therefore advantageous where there is limited source of plant cuttings or scions for grafting. Likewise, the necessity of transporting bulky scions is eliminated. However, the clones produced take longer time to develop into the right sizes for outplanting than grafted seedlings. Various techniques are used, mostly applicable to young plants in active growth with stems in which the bark is easily separable from the wood. Basically, the procedure in budding consists of the following steps: 1. Preparation of the rootstock. Rootstocks about the size of an ordinary pencil (~0.8 cm) and up to ~1.5 cm in diameter are commonly used but there are no hard rules. Chip budding is applied in citrus ~1/2 cm in diameter while other methods can apply to rootstocks up to ~2.5 cm (1 in) or even thicker. Potted seedlings are widely used but, similar to grafting, established trees may be top-budded. The specific techniques used in preparing the portion of the stem where union is intended vary; 2. Preparation of the bark to be joined to the rootstock. This consists of a prominent axillary bud (a plant organ which serves as growing point) on a section of bark, with or without a small piece of wood attached. This piece of bark is often termed as either a bud patch, chip, or shield piece. They are also referred to as single-bud scions. Budsticks, small stems or twigs having multiple number of nodes from which the bud-containing barks are to be prepared, are obtained from well selected vigorous, disease-free mother plants having desirable characteristics and immediately defoliated. As in rootstocks, the preparation techniques are numerous; 3. Insertion of the prepared bark. The prepared patch, chip or shield piece is inserted into the part of the stem of the rootstock to replace the piece of bark that is removed or where cuts are made to allow union. Correct polarity should be observed, that is, the patch of bark is oriented upward. 4. Tying or wrapping. The stem-bud union is tied or wrapped to hold the components firmly together but generally leaving the growing point exposed. If also wrapped, it must be opened about 15 days later or at the time when the rootstock is cut back. There are various ready-to-use wrapping materials. A specialized wrapping strip made of rubber expands as the rootstock grows and naturally deteriorates after several weeks. But for practical usage, a thin, transparent polypropylene (PP) plastic bag can be cut into strips about 2-3 cm wide. These plastic strips have to be elastic and do not easily break when stretched; 5. Cut back of the rootstock. The rootstock must be decapitated, preferably with the use of a pruning shear, at the part of the stem immediately above the union to eliminate apical dominance. As a result, a new shoot will emerge from the growing point on the inserted bark which will then acquire apical dominance. Cut back is done when it becomes certain that there is union which may take 15 days or more. The inserted patch of bark will remain green or otherwise brownish depending on the natural color of the budstick. If union is not successful, it will turn black and rot; and 6. Care of clones. This involves activities that are normally performed to hasten rapid growth of nursery plants and trees. It also includes debudding and desuckering, the removal of offshoots that may emerge from the stem below the union. These are done to ensure that the propagated plants will exhibit only the characters of the mother plant. Likewise, wrapping materials that take time to deteriorate, like PP plastic strips, must be removed at the earliest time possible to prevent strangling effect. (Ben G. Bareja. November 2011) s example

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