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road safety rules
This was brought into effect from July 1, 1989. It serves as a basic guide for the Indian driver, showcasing the rules which he has to follow, while on the roads. It deals with basic facts such as overtaking, traffic signals, towing, speed limits, the necessary documents to be carried while driving and other such neglected, but imperative points nonetheless.
Short Title And Commencement
(a)These regulations may be called the Rules Of The Roads Regulations, 1989.
(b) They shall come into force from July 1, 1989.
The driver of a motor vehicle shall drive the vehicle as close to the left side of the road as may be expedient and shall allow all traffic which is proceeding in the opposite direction to pass on his left hand side.
Turning to Left And Right
The driver of a motor vehicle shall:
-- when turning to the left, drive as close as maybe to the left hand side of the road from which he is making the turn and of the road which he is entering.
-- when turning to the right draw as near as near as may be to the centre of the road which the driver is entering.
Passing to The Right
Except as provided in regulation 5, the driver of a motor vehicle shall pass to the right of all traffic proceeding in the same direction as himself.
Passing to The Left
The driver of a motor vehicle may pass to the left of a vehicle, the driver of which having indicated an intention to turn to the right has drawn to the centre of the road and may pass on either side, a tram car or other vehicle running on fixed rails whether travelling in the same direction as himself or otherwise provided that in no case shall he pass a tram car at a time or in a manner likely to cause danger or inconvenience to other users of the road including persons leaving or about to enter tram cars.
Overtaking Prohibited In Certain Cases
The driver of a motor vehicle shall not pass a vehicle travelling in the same direction as himself:
(a) if his passing is likely to pass inconvenience or danger to other traffic proceeding in any direction;
(b) if he is near a point, a bend or corner or a hill or other obstruction of any kind that renders the road ahead not clearly visible;
(c) if he knows that the driver who is following him has not signaled that he may be overtaken.
Overtaking Not To Be Obstructed
The driver of a motor vehicle shall not, when being overtaken or being passed by another vehicle, increase speed or do anything in any way to prevent the other vehicle from passing him.
Caution at Road Junction
The driver of a motor vehicle shall slow down when approaching a road intersection, a road junction, pedestrian crossing or a road corner, and shall not enter any such intersection, junction or crossing until he has become aware that he may do so without endangering the safety of persons thereon.
Giving Way to Traffic At Road Junction
The driver of a motor vehicle shall, on entering a road interjection at which traffic is not being regulated, if the road entered is a main road designated as such, give way to the vehicles proceeding along the road, and in any other case give way to all traffic approaching to the intersection on his right hand.
Fire Service Vehicles and Ambulances To Be Given Free Passage
Each driver shall on the approach of a fire service vehicle or an ambulance allow it free passage by drawing it to the side of the road.
Right of Way
Pedestrians have the right of way at uncontrolled pedestrian crossings. When any road is provided with a footpath or cycle track especially for other traffic, except with permission of a police officer in uniform, a driver shall not drive on such footpath or track.
Taking 'U' Turn
No driver shall take a 'U' turn where 'U' turn is especially prohibited and on a busy traffic road. If a 'U' turn is allowed the driver shall slow signal by hand as for a right turn, watch in the rear view mirror and turn when safe to do so.
Signals to Be given by Drivers
The following signals shall be used by drivers of all motor vehicles namely:-
(a) When about to slow down, a driver shall extend his right arm with the palm downward and to the right of the vehicle and shall move the arm so extended up and down several times in such a manner that the signal can be seen by the driver of any vehicle which maybe behind him.
(b) When about to stop, the driver shall raise his right forearm vertically outside of and to the right of the vehicle, palm to the right.
(c) When about to turn to the right or to drive to the right hand side of the road in order to pass another vehicle or for any other purpose, a driver shall extend his right hand in a horizontal position outside of and to the right of his vehicle with the palm of the hand turned to the front.
(d) When about to turn to the left or to drive to the left to the left hand side of the road a driver shall extend his right arm and rotate it in an anticlockwise direction.
(e) When a driver wishes to indicate to a driver of a vehicle behind him that he desires to overtake him he shall extend his right hand and arm horizontally outside of and to the right of the vehicle and shall bring the arm backward and forward in a semi- circular motion.
The signals referred to in regulation 12, may be simplified also by mechanical or electrical devices.
Parking of The Vehicle
(a) Every driver of a motor vehicle parking on any road shall park in such a way that it does not cause or is not likely to cause danger, obstruction or undue in convenience to other road users and if the manner of parking is indicated by any sign board or markings on the road side, he shall park the vehicle in such a manner.
(b) A driver of a motor vehicle shall not park his vehicle:-
(i) At or near a road crossing, a bend, top of a hill or a humpbacked bridge;
(ii) On a footpath;
(iii) Near a traffic light or pedestrian crossing;
(iv) In a main road or one carrying fast vehicle;
(v) Opposite another parked vehicle or as obstruction to other vehicle;
(vi) Alongside another parked vehicle;
(vii) On roads or at places where there is a continuous white line with or without a broken line;
(viii) Near a bus stop, school or hospital entrance or blocking a traffic sign or entrance to a premises or a fire hydrant;
(ix) On the wrong side of the road;
(x) Where parking is prohibited;
(xi) Away from the edge of the footpath
Last Update: 2014-09-15
free online english to The increasing legal and customer demands on passive safety of automobiles have to be fulfilled under the conditions of shortened development times coupled with reduction in cost. The international regulations for buses are not very specific about the protection of occupant and driver during the frontal crashes. Some regulations such as ECE R 80, FMVSS 208 and AIS 31 deal with the strength of seat structure and their anchorages. This thesis attempts to improve the safety of the bus structure in frontal crashes by using different structural modifications such of change of cross sections of the structural member of existing bus body, providing the notches in the structure and also introducing crush box in the frontal structure so that the energy during frontal type of accidents are absorbed to a greater extent.
The objective of the research is to make a computational assessment of a chassis type bus body structure for frontal impact analysis with a view to improve its design, and also to develop a reliable methodology for improving the structure.
In this research an attempt has been made to develop and validate the model of a chassis type bus for frontal impact. A geometric model of a bus structure was created by using CATIA cad package, discritized using Hypermesh and the analysis was made by using explicit solver LS-Dyna. The cost of actual testing of a bus for frontal impact and the time frame involved coupled with lack of facility necessitate the recourse to computer simulations.
Today the design process of a bus with regard to its crashworthiness function is driven by a virtual development. This thesis examines how the bus will behave during the full frontal crash with a rigid barrier. The technique of finite element analysis was used for estimating the damage to the structure of the passenger bus due to the frontal crash. The simulation study was carried out to find the behavior of the original structure of the bus made of square cross section and the results were referred as the base line results. Complete structure of the bus was replaced with circular cross sections and the results indicated that the sectional change did not withstand the frontal crash, because the intrusion was more as compared with the original sections used by one of the manufacturer.
A preliminary study was carried out on crack initiators and also diffrent sections for crush bx. Based on the preliminary analysis, design modifications were incorporated for the frontal structure viz using square section with V – notch, crush box of hexagonal cross section and incorporation of both. These alternatives were tested using simulation. Displacement of H – point of the driver and centre of gravity (CG) before and after impact of each alternatives –vis- base line model evaluated.
The design modifications introduced in the structure are mainly to improve the energy absorbing capabilities of the frontal structure. Intrusion of the frontal structure has been minimized compared to the original design and also the acceleration of the structure reduced considerably. This results in reduction of severity due to frontal accidents. This research work deals mainly with the design aspect of a bus frontal impact behavior of a chassis mounted bus body and the model has been validated using the existing standards and the procedures followed by the industry. As not many studies involving this type of bus bodies, this work will be an useful contribution in this field.
Last Update: 2014-09-05
Since April 2014, the PSI has included a sixth pollutant - fine particulate matter (PM2.5). With this addition, there will be more days with Moderate air quality even though actual pollution levels remain the same. There’s no need to worry, though, because understanding the air quality indicators will help us stay aware and alert during haze periods.
Last Update: 2014-08-28
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