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Natural disaster

இயற்கைப் பேரழிவு

Last Update: 2014-10-07
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Natural resource

இயற்கை வளம்

Last Update: 2014-10-11
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Natural rubber

இயற்கை மீள்மம்

Last Update: 2014-10-07
Usage Frequency: 18
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Natural number

இயல் எண்

Last Update: 2014-09-28
Usage Frequency: 1
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Natural resource

Natural resource

Last Update: 2014-09-12
Usage Frequency: 7
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bingVampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy. Three bat species feed solely on blood: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata), and the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi). All three species are native to the New World, ranging from Mexico to Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. Species Due to differences among the three species, each has been placed within a different genus, each consisting of one species. In the older literature, these three genera were placed within a family of their own, Desmodontidae, but taxonomists have now grouped them as a subfamily, the Desmodontinae, in the American leaf-nosed bat family, Phyllostomidae.[1] Because the three known species of vampire bats all seem more similar to one another than to any other species suggests that sanguivorous habits (feeding on blood) evolved only once, and the three species share a common ancestor.[1] Anatomy and physiology A vampire bat skeleton, showing the distinctive incisors and canines Unlike fruit-eating bats, the vampire bat has a short, conical muzzle. It also lacks a nose leaf, instead having naked pads with U-shaped grooves at the tip. The common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, also has specialized thermoreceptors on its nose,[2] which aid the animal in locating areas where the blood flows close to the skin of its prey. A nucleus has been found in the brain of vampire bats that has a similar position and similar histology to the infrared receptor of infrared-sensing snakes.[3][4] A vampire bat generally has small ears and a short tail. Its front teeth are specialized for cutting and the back teeth are much smaller than in other bats. The inferior colliculus, the part of the bat's brain that processes sound, is well adapted to detecting the regular breathing sounds of sleeping animals that serve as its main food source.[5][6] While other bats have almost lost the ability to maneuver on land, vampire bats can also run by using a unique, bounding gait, in which the forelimbs instead of the hindlimbs are recruited for force production, as the wings are much more powerful than the legs. This ability to run seems to have evolved independently within the bat lineage.[7] Vampire bats use infrared radiation to locate blood hotspots on their prey. A recent study has shown that common vampire bats tune a TRP-channel that is already heat-sensitive, TRPV1, by lowering its thermal activation threshold to about 30 °C. This is achieved through alternative splicing of TRPV1 transcripts to produce a channel with a truncated carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain. These splicing events occur exclusively in trigeminal ganglia, and not in dorsal root ganglia, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious heat in somatic afferents.[8] The only other vertebrates capable of detecting infrared radiation are boas, pythons and pit vipers, all of which have pit organs. Ecology and lifecycle Vampire bats tend to live in colonies in almost completely dark places, such as caves, old wells, hollow trees, and buildings. They range in Central to South America and live in arid to humid, tropical and subtropical areas. Vampire bat colony numbers can range in the thousands in roosting sites. The basic social structure of roosting bats is made of harems, which are composed of females and their offspring and a few adult males, known as "resident males" and a separate group of males, known as "nonresident males".[9] In hairy-legged vampire bats, the hierarchical segregation of nonresident males is less strict than in common vampire bats.[9] Nonresident males are accepted into the harems when the ambient temperature lowers. This behavior suggests social thermoregulation.[9] Resident males mate with the females in their harems, but it is common for outside males to copulate with the females.[10] Female offspring usually remain in their natal groups unless their mothers die or move.[10] Several matrilines can be found in a group, as unrelated females regularly join groups.[10] Male offspring tend to live in their natal groups until they are about two years old, sometimes being forcefully expelled by the resident adult males.[10] Vampire bats are believed to be the only species of bats in the world to "adopt" another young bat if something happens to the bat's mother.[11] Vampire bats also share a strong family bond with members of the colony, which is believed to be why they are the only bats to take up this adoption characteristic. Another unique adaptation of vampire bats is the sharing of food. A vampire bat can only survive about two days without a meal of blood, yet they cannot be guaranteed of finding food every night. This poses a problem, so when a bat fails to find food, it will often "beg" another bat for food. The "host" bat may regurgitate a small amount of blood to sustain the other member of the colony. This has been noted by many naturalists as an example of reciprocal altruism in nature.[12] It was previously thought that food sharing depended equally on relatedness and reciprocation.[13] However, it has recently been discovered that the predictive capacity of reciprocity surpasses that of relatedness.[14] This finding suggests that vampire bats are capable of preferentially aiding their relatives, but that they may benefit more from forming reciprocal, cooperative relationships with relatives and non-relatives alike.[14] Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated that donor bats were more likely to approach starving bats and initiate the food sharing. These findings contradict the harassment hypothesis—which claims that individuals share food in order to limit harassment by begging individuals.[14] All considered, vampire bat research should be interpreted cautiously as much of the evidence is correlational and still requires further testing.[15] For example, researchers question vampire bats’ ability to identify kin when past association, or interaction, is controlled.[15] Similarly, scientists question if bats modify investments based on how other bats cooperate.[15] Another ability that some vampire bats possess is identifying and monitoring the positions of conspecifics (individuals of the same species) simply by antiphonal calling.[16] Vampire bats also engage in social grooming.[17] It usually occurs between females and their offspring, but it is also significant between adult females. Social grooming is mostly associated with food sharing.[17] Feeding A vampire bat feeding on a pig (taxidermy specimens) Vampire bats hunt only when it is fully dark. Like fruit-eating bats, and unlike insectivorous and fish-eating bats, they emit only low-energy sound pulses. The common vampire bat feeds mostly on the blood of mammals (occasionally including humans), whereas both the hairy-legged vampire bat and white-winged vampire bat feed on the blood of birds. Once the common vampire bat locates a host, such as a sleeping mammal, it lands and approaches it on the ground. It then likely uses thermoception to identify a warm spot on the skin to bite. They then create a small incision with their teeth and lap up blood from the wound. As noted by Arthur M. Greenhall: “ The most common species, the common vampire (Desmodus) is not fastidious and will attack any warm-blooded animal. The white-winged vampire (Diaemus) appears to have a special preference for birds and goats. In the laboratory it has not been possible to feed Diaemus on cattle blood.[18] ” If there is fur on the skin of the host, the common vampire bat uses its canine and cheek teeth like a barber's blades to shave away the hairs. The bat's razor-sharp upper incisor teeth then make a 7mm wide and 8mm deep cut. The upper incisors lack enamel, which keeps them permanently razor sharp.[19] The bat’s saliva, left in the victim's resulting bite wound, has a key function in feeding from the wound. The saliva contains several compounds that prolong bleeding, such as anticoagulants that inhibit blood clotting,[20] and compounds that prevent the constriction of blood vessels near the wound. Digestion A typical female vampire bat weighs 40 grams and can consume over 20 grams (1 fluid ounce) of blood in a 20-minute feed. This feeding behaviour is facilitated by its anatomy and physiology for rapid processing and digestion of the blood to enable the animal to take flight soon after the feeding. The stomach lining rapidly absorbs the blood plasma, which is quickly transported to the kidneys, and on to the bladder for excretion.[21] A common vampire bat begins to expel urine within two minutes of feeding. While shedding much of the blood's liquid facilitates flight takeoff, the bat still has added almost 20–30% of its body weight in blood. To take off from the ground, the bat generates extra lift by crouching and flinging itself into the air.[22] Typically, within two hours of setting out in search of food, the common vampire bat returns to its roost and settles down to spend the rest of the night digesting its meal. Human health Vampire bat at the Louisville Zoo Although rare, infection of humans by rabies from vampire bat bites has been documented; for example in 2010 four children in Peru died after being bitten.[23] The highest occurrence of rabies in vampire bats occurs in the large populations found in South America. However, the risk of infection to the human population is less than to livestock exposed to bat bites.[24] Only 0.5% of bats carry rabies, and those that do may be clumsy, disoriented, and unable to fly.[citation needed] The unique properties of the vampire bats' saliva have found some positive use in medicine. A study in the January 10, 2003, issue of Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association tested a genetically engineered drug called desmoteplase, which uses the anticoagulant properties of the saliva of Desmodus rotundus, and was shown to increase blood flow in stroke Unlike fruit-eating bats, the vampire bat has a short, conical muzzle. It also lacks a nose leaf, instead having naked pads with U-shaped grooves at the tip. The common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, also has specialized thermoreceptors on its nose, which aid the animal in locating areas where the blood flows close to the skin of its prey. A nucleus has been found in the brain of vampire bats that has a similar position and similar histology to the infrared receptor of infrared-sensing snakes. A vampire bat generally has small ears and a short tail. Its front teeth are specialized for cutting and the back teeth are much smaller than in other bats. The inferior colliculus, the part of the bat's brain that processes sound, is well adapted to detecting the regular breathing sounds of sleeping animals that serve as its main food source. While other bats have almost lost the ability to maneuver on land, vampire bats can also run by using a unique, bounding gait, in which the forelimbs instead of the hindlimbs are recruited for force production, as the wings are much more powerful than the legs. This ability to run seems to have evolved independently within the bat lineage. Vampire bats use infrared radiation to locate blood hotspots on their prey. A recent study has shown that common vampire bats tune a TRP-channel that is already heat-sensitive, TRPV1, by lowering its thermal activation threshold to about 30 °C. This is achieved through alternative splicing of TRPV1 transcripts to produce a channel with a truncated carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain. These splicing events occur exclusively in trigeminal ganglia, and not in dorsal root ganglia, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious heat in somatic afferents. The only other vertebrates capable of detecting infrared radiation are boas, pythons and pit vipers, all of which have pit organs. Ecology and lifecycle Vampire bats tend to live in colonies in almost completely dark places, such as caves, old wells, hollow trees, and buildings. They range in Central to South America and live in arid to humid, tropical and subtropical areas. Vampire bat colony numbers can range in the thousands in roosting sites. The basic social structure of roosting bats is made of harems, which are composed of females and their offspring and a few adult males, known as "resident males" and a separate group of males, known as "nonresident males". In hairy-legged vampire bats, the hierarchical segregation of nonresident males is less strict than in common vampire bats. Nonresident males are accepted into the harems when the ambient temperature lowers. This behavior suggests social thermoregulation. Resident males mate with the females in their harems, but it is common for outside males to copulate with the females. Female offspring usually remain in their natal groups unless their mothers die or move. Several matrilines can be found in a group, as unrelated females regularly join groups. Male offspring tend to live in their natal groups until they are about two years old, sometimes being forcefully expelled by the resident adult males. Vampire bats are believed to be the only species of bats in the world to "adopt" another young bat if something happens to the bat's mother. Vampire bats also share a strong family bond with members of the colony, which is believed to be why they are the only bats to take up this adoption characteristic. Another unique adaptation of vampire bats is the sharing of food. A vampire bat can only survive about two days without a meal of blood, yet they cannot be guaranteed of finding food every night. This poses a problem, so when a bat fails to find food, it will often "beg" another bat for food. The "host" bat may regurgitate a small amount of blood to sustain the other member of the colony. This has been noted by many naturalists as an example of reciprocal altruism in nature. It was previously thought that food sharing depended equally on relatedness and reciprocation. However, it has recently been discovered that the predictive capacity of reciprocity surpasses that of relatedness. This finding suggests that vampire bats are capable of preferentially aiding their relatives, but that they may benefit more from forming reciprocal, cooperative relationships with relatives and non-relatives alike. Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated that donor bats were more likely to approach starving bats and initiate the food sharing. These findings contradict the harassment hypothesis—which claims that individuals share food in order to limit harassment by begging individuals. All considered, vampire bat research should be interpreted cautiously as much of the evidence is correlational and still requires further testing. For example, researchers question vampire bats’ ability to identify kin when past association, or interaction, is controlled. Similarly, scientists question if bats modify investments based on how other bats cooperate. Another ability that some vampire bats possess is identifying and monitoring the positions of conspecifics (individuals of the same species) simply by antiphonal calling. Vampire bats also engage in social grooming. It usually occurs between females and their offspring, but it is also significant between adult females. Social grooming is mostly associated with food sharing. Feeding Vampire bats hunt only when it is fully dark. Like fruit-eating bats, and unlike insectivorous and fish-eating bats, they emit only low-energy sound pulses. The common vampire bat feeds mostly on the blood of mammals (occasionally including humans), whereas both the hairy-legged vampire bat and white-winged vampire bat feed on the blood of birds. Once the common vampire bat locates a host, such as a sleeping mammal, it lands and approaches it on the ground. It then likely uses thermoception to identify a warm spot on the skin to bite. They then create a small incision with their teeth and lap up blood from the wound. As noted by Arthur M. Greenhall: “ The most common species, the common vampire (Desmodus) is not fastidious and will attack any warm-blooded animal. The white-winged vampire (Diaemus) appears to have a special preference for birds and goats. In the laboratory it has not been possible to feed Diaemus on cattle blood. ” If there is fur on the skin of the host, the common vampire bat uses its canine and cheek teeth like a barber's blades to shave away the hairs. The bat's razor-sharp upper incisor teeth then make a 7mm wide and 8mm deep cut. The upper incisors lack enamel, which keeps them permanently razor sharp. The bat’s saliva, left in the victim's resulting bite wound, has a key function in feeding from the wound. The saliva contains several compounds that prolong bleeding, such as anticoagulants that inhibit blood clotting, and compounds that prevent the constriction of blood vessels near the wound. Digestion A typical female vampire bat weighs 40 grams and can consume over 20 grams (1 fluid ounce) of blood in a 20-minute feed. This feeding behaviour is facilitated by its anatomy and physiology for rapid processing and digestion of the blood to enable the animal to take flight soon after the feeding. The stomach lining rapidly absorbs the blood plasma, which is quickly transported to the kidneys, and on to the bladder for excretion. A common vampire bat begins to expel urine within two minutes of feeding. While shedding much of the blood's liquid facilitates flight takeoff, the bat still has added almost 20–30% of its body weight in blood. To take off from the ground, the bat generates extra lift by crouching and flinging itself into the air. Typically, within two hours of setting out in search of food, the common vampire bat returns to its roost and settles down to spend the rest of the night digesting its meal. Human health Although rare, infection of humans by rabies from vampire bat bites has been documented; for example in 2010 four children in Peru died after being bitten. The highest occurrence of rabies in vampire bats occurs in the large populations found in South America. However, the risk of infection to the human population is less than to livestock exposed to bat bites. Only 0.5% of bats carry rabies, and those that do may be clumsy, disoriented, and unable to fly.[citation needed] The unique properties of the vampire bats' saliva have found some positive use in medicine. A study in the January 10, 2003, issue of Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association tested a genetically engineered drug called desmoteplase, which uses the anticoagulant properties of the saliva of Desmodus rotundus, and was shown to increase blood flow in stroke patients. -vaiharththan-

கனிப்பொருட்குவை

Last Update: 2014-10-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Kindness "Kindness is the language which the deaf can hear and the blind can see"- Mark Twain. Essay on kindness Right said 'Mark Twain'. Kindness is the universal language that is comprehended beyond the boundaries. Each and every individual understands and speaks this language. An act of kindness never goes futile. If you are kind to someone it will reflect in your and his behaviour. Being kind to others instils a positive feeling and makes this world a better place to live. Kindness is one of the seven virtues. It can be defined as the righteous and caring attitude towards other. But the definition of the kindness does not limit to these two words only. Kindness is a complex term to comprehend yet simplest to realise. Showing kindness towards others gives a feeling of joy and mirth to the recipient. The doer is also satiated by the feeling of warmth and compassion. Kindness is the basic driving force of the nature. The nature is so kind to us that it helps in flourishing the civilizations. The rising sun and the wandering clouds are all the miracles of nature only. Though, the perspective completely changes with the scientific reasoning, yet everyone agrees that the whole cosmos conspires to sustain life and hope. Kindness is taught by every religion. Be it Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism or Islam or any other religion to name, all teach to express kindness towards others. The term is not only restricted to human implementation. But cruelty against all the living creatures is a sin. Even the mute animals wave their tail as a return gesture to kindness shown to them. Similar response is shown by plants. They grow large and bear fruits as a response to the kind behaviour of their care taker. Nature has own ways of expressing gratitude and kindness. Kindness is not a virtue to be adopted or showcased in specific situations. Rather, it should be imbibed as the basic behavioural attribute by the human beings. Kindness is not only a religious virtue. But it can be very well adjusted in all spheres of life. Being kind to your siblings or peers helps to build a strong family foundation. Showing kindness to neighbours and colleagues help in developing a positive social environment. Even the small considerations and selfless acts of kindness may help in growing business in leaps and bounds. As said earlier, the language of kindness is comprehended by each and every living being. If you have been kind to someone by ignoring his small fault or simply said, 'never mind, take care next time', will always be remembered by that person. You never know! You might have hit the jackpot. As the most of the times selfless deeds result in the most favourable and flourishing deals of the life. 'What goes around comes around'. So, just be polite and kind in your behaviour and the same will come back to you. Being kind to self is equally important as being kind to others. Don't be harsh to yourself and give space to the trivial mistakes in life. As, we only learn by committing mistakes. Learn from the experience and move ahead in the positive direction.

அன்னை தெரசா

Last Update: 2014-10-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Karagaattam Karagam is a folk dance with musical accompaniment, performed balancing a pot on the head. Traditionally, this dance was performed by the villagers in praise of the rain goddess Mari Amman and river goddess, Gangai Amman, performed with literature with water pots balanced on their heads. In Sangam literature, it is mentioned as 'Kudakoothu'. This dance has two divisions - one, Aatta Karagam and the other 'Sakthi Karagam'. More often it is danced with decorated pots on the head and is known as 'Aatta Karagam' and symbolises joy and merriment. The former is performed only in temples, while the latter is mainly entertainment in nature. This is one of the more popular rural dances today. Earlier it was performed only with accompliment of the Naiyandi Melam but now it includes songs also. Karagams were once performed for mulaipari ceremony when the dancer carried a pot of sprouted grains on his/her head and danced, balancing it through intricate steps and body/arm movements. Today, the pots have transformed from mud pots to bronzeware and even stainless steel in modern times. The pots are decorated with a cone of flower arragements, topped by a paper parrot. The parrot rotates as the dancer swings along. This dance is very popular all over Tamilnadu, though its birth place is said to be Thanjavur. Most artistes hail from Thanjavur, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Pattukottai and Salem. This dance is danced by an individual or two persons. Both male and female performers participate in this. Acrobathreading a needle while bending backwards and so on

nattupura kalaigal அடிப்படையில் தமிழ் கட்டுரைகள்

Last Update: 2014-10-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

nature is a wonder

கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2014-10-09
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Nature

இயற்கை

Last Update: 2014-10-09
Usage Frequency: 3
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Reference: Wikipedia

Practice" with yourself. Masturbation is perfectly healthy and natural, and doing it regularly can help you build up your stamina, prevent premature ejaculation,[1] and even relieve stress and anxiety. Plus, the more time you spend with yourself, the more familiar you will become with your body so that you can more easily recognize when you get too excited. That way, during sex, you can know when to slow down or change positions before it's too late.

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சேவை இலவச ஆன்லைன் ஆங்கிலம்

Last Update: 2014-10-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Tamil Nadu (/ˈtæmɪl ˈnɑːduː/ TAM-il-NAH-doo; Tamil pronunciation (help·info); literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country) is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras), the largest city. Tamil Nadu[7] lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. It also shares maritime border with the country of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the sixth most populous state in India. The state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index in 2011.[4][8] It was the second largest state economy in India in 2012.[9] The state has the highest number (10.56 per cent) of business enterprises and stands second in total employment (9.97 per cent) in India,[10] compared to the population share of about 6 per cent. In the 2013 Raghuram Rajan panel report, Tamil Nadu was ranked as the third most developed state in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index".[11] The region has been the home of the Tamil people since at least 1500 BC.[12] Its official language is Tamil, which holds a status of being a classical language. Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 2500 years. Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, classical arts, classical music, classical literature, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[13

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சேவை இலவச ஆன்லைன் ஆங்கிலம்

Last Update: 2014-10-05
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Lemon is often used to treat dark skin patches and spots, and you can use it to naturally lighten dark lips, too. The bleaching property in lemon works well as a simple yet powerful remedy for dark lips. ◾Squeeze a lemon and apply the juice on your lips before going to bed. Follow this simple remedy daily for one to two months. ◾Take a thin slice of lemon, sprinkle a bit of sugar on top and rub it on your lips. It will exfoliate dead cells so new, fresh skin can appear. Use this remedy daily for a few weeks. ◾Alternatively, you can prepare a mixture of one-half teaspoon each of lemon juice, glycerine and honey. Apply it on your lips before going to bed. Do this daily until you see positive results.

nagta-type buong pangungusap sa iyong langage

Last Update: 2014-10-04
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

the nature and extent of such training shall be at the sole discretion of the company

ஆங்கில இலக்கணம்

Last Update: 2014-06-04
Usage Frequency: 1
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