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contoh report text fish dan artinya

sample fish report text and meaning

Last Update: 2014-10-31
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contoh text report bertema music

example text report themed music

Last Update: 2014-11-02
Subject: Music
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Human

Parent

Last Update: 2014-01-12
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About*

About*

Last Update: 2014-10-10
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something about you

Translation

Last Update: 2014-05-29
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Much Ado About Nothing

Much Ado About Nothing

Last Update: 2014-10-30
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contoh surat sign off kapal

letter sign off ship

Last Update: 2014-10-13
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contoh surat pembatalan polis asuransi

sample letter of cancellation insurance policy

Last Update: 2014-10-29
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What did you like least about your job and why?

google english translation indonesi

Last Update: 2014-07-21
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Some text missing

Flooding Throughout history humans have found it desirable to construct cities along streams. Streams are sources of water for consumption, agriculture, and industry. Streams provide transportation routes, energy, and a means of disposal of wastes. Stream valleys offer a relatively flat area for construction. But, human populations that live along streams also have the disadvantage that the flow of water in streams is never constant. High amounts of water flowing in streams often leads to flooding, and flooding is one of the more common and costly types of natural disasters. A flood results when a stream runs out of its confines and submerges surrounding areas. In less developed countries, humans are particularly sensitive to flood casualties because of high population density, absence of zoning regulations, lack of flood control, and lack of emergency response infrastructure and early warning systems. Bangladesh is one of the most susceptible countries to flood disasters. About one half of the land area in Bangladesh is at an elevation of less than 8 meters above sea level. Up to 30% of the country has been covered with flood waters. In 1991 more 200,000 deaths resulted from flooding and associated tropical cyclones. In industrialized countries the loss of life is usually lower because of flood control structures, zoning regulations that prevent the habitation of seriously vulnerable lands, and emergency preparedness. Still, property damage and disruption of life takes a great toll, and despite flood control structures and land use planning, floods still do occur. Causes of Flooding From a geological perspective, floods are a natural consequence of stream flow in a continually changing environment. Floods have been occurring throughout Earth history, and are expected so long as the water cycle continues to run. Streams receive most of their water input from precipitation, and the amount of precipitation falling in any given drainage basin varies from day to day, year to year, and century to century. The Role of Precipitation Weather patterns determine the amount and location of rain and snowfall. Unfortunately the amount and time over which precipitation occurs is not constant for any given area. Overall, the water cycle is a balanced system. Water flowing into one part of the cycle (like streams) is balanced by water flowing back to the ocean. But sometimes the amount flowing in to one area is greater than the capacity of the system to hold it within natural confines. The result is a flood. Combinations of factors along with exceptional precipitation can also lead to flooding. For example, heavy snow melts, water saturated ground, unusually high tides, and drainage modifications when combined with heavy rain can lead to flooding. Coastal Flooding Areas along coastlines become subject to flooding as a result of tsunamis, hurricanes (cyclonic storms), and unusually high tides. In addition, long term processes like subsidence and rising sea level as a result of global warming can lead to the encroachment of the sea on to the land. Dam & Levee Failures Dams occur as both natural and human constructed features. Natural dams are created by volcanic events (lava flows and pyroclastic flows), landslides, or blockage by ice. Human constructed dams are built for water storage, generation of electrical power, and flood control. All types of dams may fail with the sudden release of water into the downstream drainage. Spectacular and devastating examples of dam failures include that resulting in flooding downstream include: The St. Francis Dam, near Saugus, California, failed in 1929 killing 450 people. The Johnstown, Pennsylvania dam, built of earthen material (soil and rock) collapsed after a period of heavy rainfall in 1889. 2,200 people were killed by the flood. The Vaiont Dam in Italy (discussed in a previous lecture on mass-wasting) did not fail in 1963, but the landslides that moved into the reservoir behind the dam caused water to overtop the dam killing over 3,000 people. As we have seen during Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, levee systems designed to prevent flooding can also fail and lead to catastrophic flooding and loss of life. Stream Systems A stream is a body of water that carries rock particles and dissolved ions and flows down slope along a clearly defined path, called a channel. Thus streams may vary in width from a few centimeters to several kilometers. Streams are important for several reasons Streams carry most of the water that goes from the land to the sea, and thus are an important part of the water cycle. Streams carry billions of tons of sediment to lower elevations, and thus are one of the main transporting mediums in the production of sedimentary rocks. Streams carry dissolved ions, the products of chemical weathering, into the oceans and thus make the sea salty. Streams are a major part of the erosional process, working in conjunction with weathering and mass wasting. Much of the surface landscape is controlled by stream erosion, evident to anyone looking out of an airplane window. Streams are a major source of water and transportation for the world's human population. Most population centers are located next to streams.

Last Update: 2014-10-27
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when you talk about the evils of others I just want middle finger saying. . . . faak you very much !!

when you talk about the evils of others I just want middle finger saying. . . . faak you very much !!

Last Update: 2014-10-08
Subject: General
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pengertian dan contoh announcement text - announcement adalah wacana singkat yang berisi tentang informasi / mengumumkan suatu hal. Membuat announcement text lebih mudah jika dibandingkan dengan membuat iklan. Karena annoucement text hanya sekedar memberitahukan apa saja yang perlu diumumkan.Untuk lebih jelasnya, langsung saja kita simak contoh annnoncement text

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Last Update: 2014-10-30
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pengertian dan contoh announcement text - announcement adalah wacana singkat yang berisi tentang informasi / mengumumkan suatu hal. Membuat announcement text lebih mudah jika dibandingkan dengan membuat iklan. Karena annoucement text hanya sekedar memberitahukan apa saja yang perlu diumumkan.Untuk lebih jelasnya, langsung saja kita simak contoh annnoncement text

geogle terjemahan iGenerally, though, the best way to present oral material is to make an extemporaneous speech. This style takes advantage of the more casual atmosphere created by an informal presentation. Yet, when speaking extemporaneously, the speaker has prepared well for the presentation. Evaluate the situation and determine the best approach. Only after you have reviewed each and have decided on your style can the actual preparation begin. ndonesia-english

Last Update: 2014-10-30
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A Flood Sometimes a river receives a lot of extra water. When this happens, the water overflows from its normal path in the riverbed possibly onto dry land. This is called a flood. A flood that rises rapidly, with litle or no advance warning, is called a flash flood. Flash flood usually result from intense rainfall over a relatively small area, or if the area was already saturated from previous precipitation. Flooding is usually caused by a volume of water within a body of water, such as a lake, overflowing. The result is that sime of the water travels to land, and 'floods' the area. Floods can also occur in river, when the strength of the river is so high it flows out of the river channel, particularly at bends of meanders and causes damage to homes and businesses alongside the river. Indonesia has seen many causes of floods. One of them is the 2013/Jakarta floods that submerged two of the busiest streets in the business central district, halted transportation service and caused damage to many houses and buildings. STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT @ General Statement (What the writer is going to talk about) Sometimes a river receives a lot of extra water. When this happens, the water overflows from its normal path in the riverbed possibly onto dry land. This is called a flood. @ Explanation (In this part, the writer explains how a phenomenom occurs) Flooding is usually caused by a volume of water within a body of water, such as a lake, overflowing. The result is that sime of the water travels to land, and 'floods' the area. Floods can also occur in river, when the strength of the river is so high it flows out of the river channel, particularly at bends of meanders and causes damage to homes and businesses alongside the river. Closing Statement (Application or example of the phenomenom) Indonesia has seen many causes of floods. One of them is the 2013/Jakarta floods that submerged two of the busiest streets in the business central district, halted transportation service and caused damage to many houses and buildings.

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Last Update: 2014-10-29
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Chapter I Political Science: The Discipline Robert E. Goodin Hans-Dieter Klingemann RETROSPECTIVES are, by their nature, inherently selective. Many fascinating observations are contained within the wide- ranging surveys which constitute the New Handbook of Political Science. Many more emerge from reading across all of its chapters, collectively. But, inevitably, the coverage is incomplete and, equally inevitably, somewhat idiosyncratic. All authors are forced to leave out much of merit, often simply because it does not fit their chosen narrative structure. The New Handbook's contributors tell a large part of the story of what has been happening in political science in the last two decades, but none would pretend to have told the whole story. It is the task of this introductory chapter to set those chapters in a larger disciplinary context and to pull out some of their more interesting common threads. Just as the coverage of each of the following chapters is inevitably selective, that of this overview of the overviews is, inevitably, all the more so. Of the several themes and subthemes which emerge, looking across these chapters as a whole, we shall focus upon one in particular. The New Handbook provides striking evidence of the professional maturation of political science as a discipline. This development has two sides to it. On the one side, there is increasing differentiation, with more and more sophisticated work being done within subdisciplines (and, indeed, within sub-specialities within subdisciplines). On the other side, there is increasing integration across all the separate subdisciplines. Of the two, increasing differentiation and specialization is the more familiar story, integration the more surprising one. But dearly it is the case that there is, nowadays, an increasing openness to and curiosity about what is happening in adjacent subdisciplines. An increasingly shared -3- overarching intellectual agenda across most all of the subdisciplines makes it possible for theoretical innovations to travel across subdisciplinary boundaries. An increasingly shared methodological tool-kit makes such interchange easy. All of this is facilitated, in turn, by an increasing band of synthesizers of the discipline, often intellectually firmly rooted in one particular subdiscipline but capable of speaking to many subdisciplines in terms which they find powerfully engaging. Among the many things which strike us, reading across the chapters of the New Handbook as a Whole, these are the ones that strike us most forcefully and which we will elaborate upon in this chapter. I Political science as a discipline A central claim of this chapter is that political science, as a discipline, has become increasingly mature and professionalized.1 As an important preliminary to that discussion, we must address, necessarily briefly, a few threshold questions. What is it for political science to constitute a discipline? What is politics? In what sense can the study of politics aspire to the status of a science? A The nature of a discipline Inured as we are to speaking of the subdivisions of academic learning as "disciplines" it pays to reflect upon the broader implications of that phrase. According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary a discipline is variously defined as: "a branch of instruction; mental and moral training, adversity as effecting this; military training, drill . . .; order maintained among schoolboys, soldiers, prisoners, etc.; system of rules for conduct; control exercised over members of church; chastisement; (Ecclesiastical) mortification by penance." The last dictionary definition would seem to have only marginal application to academic disciplines, but most of the others have clear counterparts. An academic "discipline" may enjoy minimal scope to "punish," at least in the most literal senses ( Foucault 1977). Still, the community of ____________________ 1 Once "professionalized" might have equated, readily and narrowly, to "Americanized." But as alluded to in our Preface and as is evident from New Handbook contributors' affiliations, the profession itself is becoming more internationalized, both in its personnel and in its professional concerns. -4- scholars which collectively constitutes a discipline does exercise a strict supervisory function--both over those working within it and, most especially, over those aspiring to do so. The "order maintained" is not quite the same as that over soldiers or schoolboys, nor is the training strictly akin to military drill. Nonetheless, there is a strong sense (shifting over time) of what is and what is not "good" work within the discipline, and there is a certain amount of almost rote learning involved in "mastering" a discipline. All the standard terms used to describe academic disciplines hark back to much the same imagery. Many, for example, prefer to think of political analysis as more of an "art" or "craft" than a "science," strictly speaking ( Wildavsky 1979). But on that analogy the craft of politics can then only be mastered in the same manner in which all craft knowledge is acquired, by apprenticing oneself (in academic craftwork, "studying under") a recognized "master" Others like to speak of politics, as well as the academic study thereof, as a "vocation" ( Weber 1919/1946) or a "calling".2 But, tellingly, it is a vocation rather than an avocation, a job rather than a hobby; and as in the core religious meaning so too in the academic one, the "calling'' in question is to service of some higher power (be it an academic community or the Lord). Most of us, finally, talk of academic disciplines as "professions." In Dwight Waldo ( 1975: 123) delightful phrase "sciences know, professions profess." What scientists profess, however, are articles of the collective faith. Any way we look at them, then, disciplines are construed at least in large part as stern taskmasters. But the same received disciplinary traditions and practices which so powerfully mould and constrain us are at one and the same time powerfully enabling. The framework provided by the structure of a discipline's traditions both focuses research and facilitates collaboration, unintentional as well as intentional. A shared disciplinary framework makes it possible for mere journeymen to stand, productively, on the shoulders of giants. It also makes it possible for giants to build, productively, on the contributions of legions of more ordinarily gifted practitioners.3 Discipline, academic or otherwise, is thus a classic instance of a useful self-binding mechanism. Subjecting oneself to the discipline of a discipline--or in the case of Dogan's (below: chap. 3) hybrid scholars, of several--is conducive to more and indisputably better work, both individually ____________________ 2 Both Berger Invitation to Sociology ( 1963) and Medawar Advice to a Young Scientist ( 1989: esp. chap. 2) verge on this. Much the finest work in this genre remains F. M. Cornford justly celebrated Microcosmographia Academia ( 1908). 3 For powerful evidence of the way that certain discoveries are "on the cards" at some point in time, consider the cases of "multiple discoveries" discussed in Merton ( 1973). -5- and collectively. That is as true for the "chiefs" as the "indians" of the discipline, as true for the "Young Turks" as the "greybeards." Branches of academic learning are "professions" as well as disciplines. "Professional" connotes, first of all, a relatively high-status occupational grade; and the organization of national and international "professional associations" doubtless has to do, in no small part, with securing the status and indeed salaries of academics thus organized. But the term "professional'' also, and more importantly, indicates a certain attitude toward one's work. A profession is a self-organizing community, oriented toward certain well-defined tasks or functions. A professional community is characterized by, and to a large extent defined in terms of, certain self-imposed standards and norms. Incoming members of the profession are socialized into those standards and norms, ongoing members are evaluated in terms of them. These professional standards and norms not only form the basis for evaluation of professionals by one another; they are "internalized," with professionals themselves taking a "critical reflective attitude" toward their own performances in light of them.4 The specific standards and norms vary from profession to profession, of course. But across all professions there is a sense of "minimal professional competence," captured by the ritual of "qualifying examinations" for intending political scientists in North American post-graduate training programs. And across all professions there is a notion of particular "role responsibilities" attaching to membership in a profession. The professional ethics of academics do not touch on issues of life and death in quite the same way as those of doctors or lawyers, perhaps. But virtually all academic professions have increasingly formal codes of ethics, touching largely on matters to do with integrity in the conduct and promulgation of research; and all professionals are expected to adhere to them faithfully ( APSA 1991). One of our themes in this chapter is the increasing "professionalism" within political science as a whole. By this we mean, firstly, that there is increasing agreement to a "common core" which can be taken to define "minimal professional competence" within the profession. Secondly, there is an increasing tendency to judge work, one's own even more than others', in terms of increasingly high standards of professional excellence. While the minimal standards are largely shared ones, the higher aspirations are many and varied. But as in medicine so too in political science, each sub-speciality within the larger profession has its own internal stan ____________________ 4 In much the same way Hart ( 1961) depicts the norms of legal systems, more generally, being internalized. On the nature of professions and members orientation toward them, see Hughes ( 1958) and Parsons ( 1968). -6- dards of excellence, by which each member of that fraction of the profession is properly judged. And in political science just as in medicine, there is some broad sense across the profession as a whole as to how all the subspecialities sit together to form a coherent larger whole. B What is politics? The foregoing observations, by and large, pertain to academic disciplines quite generally. Disciplines are differentiated one from another in many ways, principally among them by their substantive concerns and by the methodologies that they have made their own. Although there are, as we shall argue, a number of useful "tricks" in political science's tool-kit which are shared by most members of most of its subdisciplines, Alker (below: chap. 35) is undeniably correct in saying that political science does not have--much less define itself in terms of--a single big methodological device all its own, the way that many disciplines do. Rather, political science as a discipline is defined by its substantive concerns, by its fixation on "politics" in all its myriad forms. "Politics" might best be characterized as the constrained use of social power. Following on from that, the study of politics--whether by academics or practical politicians--might be characterized, in turn, as the study of the nature and source of those constraints and the techniques for the use of social power within those constraints.5 When defining politics in terms of power, we follow many before us.6 "Power" is, by now, well known to be a fraught conceptual field.7 Respectful though we are of its complexities, we decline to let ourselves get bogged down in them. Dahl ( 1957) old neo-Weberian definition still serves well enough. In those terms, X has power over Y insofar as: (i) X is able, in one way or another, to get Y to do something (ii) that is more to X's liking, and (iii) which Y would not otherwise have done. Where our analysis departs from tradition is in defining politics in terms of the constrained use of power. To our way of thinking, unconstrained power is force, pure and simple. It is not a political power play at all, except perhaps in some degenerate, limiting-case sense. Pure force, literally ____________________ 5 This in turn gives rise to the dual foci of the discipline, identified by Almond (below: chap. 2), on "the properties of political institutions and the criteria we use to evaluate them." 6 Notable among them: Weber ( 1922/ 1978); Lassweil ( 1950; Lasswell and Kaplan 1950), Dahl ( 1963) and Duverger ( 1964/ 1966). We, like them, focus specifically on "social" power, the power of people over other people. 7 To classic texts such as Russell ( 1938), Jouvenel ( 1945/ 1948) and Dahl ( 1957; 1961b; 1963) have recently been added Lukes ( 1974), Barry ( 1989: esp. chaps. 8-11) and Morriss ( 1987). -7- speaking, is more the province of physics (or its social analogues: military science and the martial arts) than of politics.8 It is the constraints under which political actors operate, and strategic maneuvering that they occasion and that occurs within them, that seems to us to constitute the essence of politics.9 It is the analysis of those constraints--where they come from, how they operate, how political agents might operate within them--that seems to us to lie at the heart of the study of politics.10 We talk, broadly, about the use of social power (rather than, more narrowly, about its "exercise") as a gesture toward the multitude of ways in which political agents might maneuver within such constraints. We mean the term to cover intentional acts as well as unintended consequences of purposeful action ( Merton 1936). We mean it to cover covert manipulatory politics as well as overt power plays ( Schattschneider 1960; Goodin 1980; Riker 1986). We mean it to cover passive as well as active workings of power, internalized norms as well as external threats ( Bachrach and Baratz 1963; Lukes 1974). The infamous "law of anticipated reactions" non-decisions and the hegemonic shaping of people's preferences ( Laclau and Mouffe 1985) must all be accommodated in any decently expansive sense of the political. One further comment on concepts. In defining politics (and the study of it) as we do, we explicitly depart from the purely distributional tradition of Lasswell ( 1950) classic formulation of "politics" as "who gets what, when and how''11 Perhaps it is true that all political acts ultimately have distributional consequences; and perhaps it is even true that therein lies most of our interest in the phenomenon. But in terms of the meaning of the act to the actor, many political acts are at least in the first instance distinctly non- distributional. And even in the final analysis, much of the social significance--objective as well as subjective--of certain political interactions might never be reducible to crass questions of dividing up the social pie. Distributive, regulative, redistributive ( Lowi 1964) and identity ( Sandel 1982) politics may all have their own distinctive styles. ____________________ 10 In saying this, we are following (loosely) Crick 1962. 11 Or Easton ( 1965) of politics as the authoritative allocation of values--at least insofar as that is construed, first and foremost, as a matter of the allocation of"valued things" in a society. 8 Thus, an absolute dictator in quest of complete, unconstrained power would rightly be said to be engaged in an (inevitably futile) attempt to transcend politics. 9 Consider the following analogy drawn from a cognate discipline. Philosophers talk in terms of "strong" considerations, "compelling" arguments, and such like ( Nozick 1981: 4-6). But consider an argument such that if we did believe it we would die: that is about as compelling as an argument can get; but winning a point by means of such an argument seems the antithesis of real philosophical disputation, the essence of which is give-and-take. By the same token, the very essence of politics is strategic maneuvering ( Riker 1986); and irresistible forces, insofar as they leave no scope for such maneuvering, are the antithesis of politics (however successful they are at getting others to do what you want). -8- Distributional struggles are characterized, in welfare economists' terms, as squabbles over where we sit on the Paretian frontier; but getting to the Paretian frontier is itself a tricky problem, involving a lot of politicking of quite a different sort which is often distinctively non-distributional, at least in the first instance. Important though it undeniably is that our understanding of politics should be attuned to distributive struggles, then, it is equally important that it not be committed in advance to analyzing all else exclusively in terms of them. C The several sciences of politics Much ink has been sprit over the question of whether, or in what sense, the study of politics is or is not truly a science. The answer largely depends upon how much one tries to load into the term "science." We prefer a minimalist definition of science as being just "systematic enquiry, building toward an ever more highly-differentiated set of ordered propositions about the empirical world.''12 In those deliberately spartan terms, there is little reason to think that the study of politics cannot aspire to be scientific. Many, of course, mean much more than that by the term. A logical positivist might cast the aspirations of science in terms of finding some set of "covering laws" so strong that even a single counter-example would suffice to falsify them. Clearly, that sets the aspirations of science much too high ever to be attained in the study of politics. The truths of political science, systematic though they may be, are and seem inevitably destined to remain essentially probabilistic in form. The "always" and "never" of the logical positivist's covering laws find no purchase in the political world, where things are only ever "more or less likely" to happen. The reason is not merely that our explanatory model is incomplete, not merely that there are other factors in play which we have not yet managed to factor in. That will inevitably be true, too, of course. But the deeper source of such errors in the positivist model of political science lies in a misconstrual of the nature of its subject. A covering law model may (or may not: that is another issue) work well enough for billiard balls subject to the sorts of forces presupposed by models of Newtonian mechanics: there all actions can be said to be caused, and the causes can be exhaustively traced to forces acting externally upon the "actors." But human beings, while they are undeniably subject to certain causal forces as well, are also in ____________________ 12 After the fashion o

pagi hari

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scientevid learning Originally Posted by Ocelot Hi Radrook, Thanks once again for your response. Indeed I was just checking that I'd located the one article amongst many that you thought addressed my claim. As I detailed, it doesn't. Well actually some people do make that claim. I've seen much talk from various brands of creationist that claim that MacroEvolution (evolution of new taxa of the species level and above) is impossible. They use similar arguments as you do so please forgive me for my presumption. I do apologise. Of course the fact that new species have been observed to evolve both in the lab and in the wild, make this claim one of the more ridiculous creationist claims but it is nonetheless one that I have encountered. I asgee that speciation does and has occurred. It's interesting to me that you have raised the bar. You accept that not all individual species need to have been created. Presumably you accept that Lions, Tigers and the domestic Cat all have a common ancestor? Am I correct in my estimation of your beliefs. Yes. If so do you also accept the more controversial conclusion that Homo Sapiens has a common ancestor with Chimps, Bonobos, Gorillas and Orang Utans. It may be more controversial for it's broad implications to theology and philosophy but perhaps because of this added interest it is a conclusion backed by even greater quantities of genetic evidence. No, that's where we diverge. Of course the genetic evidence that all placental mammals share a common ancestor more recent than the one they share with marsupials is as compelling as the evidence for a common ancestor amongst other Genus, Family, Order or Classes. If your theory is true, it would be interesting to see if the genetic evidence could tell us what the original common ancestors were beyond which we can find no further link. For example lets take for want of a better choice a red kangaroo named Charles. You and I both agree that Charles shares a common ancestor with all other red kangaroos, the genetic evidence backs this up. I see no reason to object. According to the genetic evidence Charles also shares a more distant common ancestor with other species of kangaroo such as grey kangaroos, and antilopine kangaroos. Ok. The genetic evidence suggests that further back in time these kangaroos shared a common ancestor with a variety of other species of kangaroo, wallaby and walleroo of the macropus genus. Would you agree? Sure. If so then the genetic evidence further indicates that the macropus genus shares a common ancestor with all other members of the macropod family including various other Kangaroos and Wallabies, the quokka and pademelons. Would you agree that these are all of the same "kind" sharing a common ancestor. That might be acceptable. If so then the genetic evidence indicates that the macropod family share a more distant common ancestor with all members of the order diprodontia. This includes possums koalas and wombats. Is it conceivable to you that the genetic evidence is correct and that these creatures all share a common ancestor with one another? Could they all be of the same "kind"? If they are of the same kind. In fact could all the australidelphia super order of marsupials share a common ancestor as the genetic evidence would suggest, if so are they collectively a "kind" Or do they, as the empirical evidence would suggest, all share a common ancestor with all other marsupials. Are marsupials a kind? I presume that you do not accept that some time in the cretaceous there was an early mammal type reptile or therapsid from whom both you and Charles can claim lineage. However how do you explain why when the genetic evidence is so clear? Because I believe that the data is being interpreted to fit into a preconceived notion. It doesn’t matter where you place the bar, the genetic evidence is clear, there is only one "kind" currently on planet earth we are all descended from the same single common ancestor. I too have no problem when seriously considering a theory of intelligent design that the designer might choose to vary their techniques. What I have a problems with is why the techniques should so closely match a picture of common descent with particular variations being more closely clustered amongst species that appear to be more closely related. Creationists did not make this prediction. Evolutionary biologists did. The examination of the evidence continues to uphold the prediction of the evolutionary biologists. Unless Creationism can explain this remarkable coincidence it is deficient as a theory. I'm afraid your meaning here is not entirely clear to me. However the assumption that evolution is true is rather the point. If you make that assumption you make a prediction that turns out to be true. If you don't make that assumption you need an alternative explanation for the prediction. I offer the analogy once more. If you assume that I am related to my son you will expect a roughly 50% match between the various genes in highly variable alleles. If you do not make that assumption and otherwise find the 50% match you must find another explanation (perhaps we are brothers...) If you find more genetic matches amongst placental mammals than between placental mammals and marsupials this is explained by assuming that placental mammals sharing a more recent common ancestor amongst themselves than the one they might share with marsupials. If you reject that assumption then it would benefit your case to offer an alternative that fits the known facts at least as well. I agree that certain animals share more genetic material in common than other kinds. As I said previously, some of that sharing is due to a common ancestor called a kind in Genesis. What I don't agree with is the transformation of one kind into another or that all living things are ultimately related. Or that my ancestor was a one celled creature which slowly turned into a fish, and later into a reptile, and later into some type of piglike animal as the evolutionist interpretations of data say. Not simply because it is repulsive thought, but because it all depends on a mindless process which I and most human beings on this earth, including human beings who are scientists, find unbelievable due to its inherent improbability and based on the cause and effect phenomena we perceive which indicates that machinelike complex things do not make themselves but are the product of mind or else are programmed to replicate themselves by a mind. Hi again Radrook, It's good to hear back from you. This appears to be a derail from my original question of how do you account for the genetic evidence of common descent if not through common descent. Originally Posted by Radrook It's not the frequency it's the mutation process itself that is a dubious choice for the organization of complex organisms. Originally Posted by Radrook I never denied the occurrence of neutral or beneficial mutations. It is the unlikelyhood of a mindless process with its high probability of being harmful to an organism being said to ultimately lead to the intricate organization as is evident in the human eye with its iris, to adjust the entry of light, the lens to focus that light, on a screen called the retina which is connected to an optic nerve, which reacts to the radiation by coding it into neural impulses, which in turn arrives at a specialized part of the brain which can decode those impulses and turn them into the perception of images. Sorry but in the presence of such strong evidence to the contrary, I just can't buy into the mindless mutation explanation First let me congratulate you on your acceptance of the existence of small positive mutations. This is a major step towards your understanding of what evolution is truly about. It is a step that some creationists are not prepared to make even in the face of reproducible empirical evidence. It appears that you are not sufficiently aware of the intricate complexity that can be produced by undoubtedly mindless processes. Snowflakes, have complexity, a rock arch has irreducible complexity, the water cycle is a steam engine. There is nothing you have demonstrated to be beyond the reach of a mindless process. Are you familiar with John Conway's Game of Life. Draw a random pattern in this very simple purely mechanical 2D universe. The odds that within a few generations you'll see a small glider pattern. It looks designed but you know that you didn't design it. Genetic recipes for life allow new increases in complexity to build upon previous ones. This allows many small mutations to add up to a bigger one. As such it offers us the possibility for a pinnacle of "mindless design" It is in fact so good at design that genetic algorithms have been put to good use by human designers in computer simulations. For example a genetic algorithm produces a shape which is tested virtually for various structural properties. Those algorithms which produce the best designs are then used as the seeds for the next generation of designs. It is not uncommon for such a mindless process to produce "designs" superior in structural efficiency to any of intelligent origin. What evolutionary theory accepts can never evolve is a feature than cannot be broken down into many small neutral or positive stages. The discovery of such a feature would indeed be a problem for evolution. However it is difficult to demonstrate that a feature could not be the result of an appropriate evolutionary path. To do so would probably require examination of an infinite number of possible paths. Instead we get argument for incredulity: "I cannot see how this feature could have evolved, therefore it could not have evolved." I'm sure you don't need me to point out the flaw in this logic. In all cases that I'm aware of, biologists have made progress in discovering possible evolutionary paths for the formation of seemingly problematic features. You bring up the example of the eye as one candidate. This has of course been much discussed and I'm surprised that you do not acknowledge that the solution to this apparent conundrum has already been provided. In fact it was a topic discussed by Darwin himself, who also provided a solution. From here The gradual steps listed are briefly... • photosensitive cell • aggregates of pigment cells without a nerve • an optic nerve surrounded by pigment cells and covered by translucent skin • pigment cells forming a small depression • pigment cells forming a deeper depression • the skin over the depression taking a lens shape • muscles allowing the lens to adjust From the same page you can find links detailing how each stage has been observed in the natural world. Since you accept that small positive mutation can occur and be subject to natural selection it should now be clear to you that the evolution of the eye can be broken down into a series of such steps.

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Flooding Throughout history humans have found it desirable to construct cities along streams. Streams are sources of water for consumption, agriculture, and industry. Streams provide transportation routes, energy, and a means of disposal of wastes. Stream valleys offer a relatively flat area for construction. But, human populations that live along streams also have the disadvantage that the flow of water in streams is never constant. High amounts of water flowing in streams often leads to flooding, and flooding is one of the more common and costly types of natural disasters. A flood results when a stream runs out of its confines and submerges surrounding areas. In less developed countries, humans are particularly sensitive to flood casualties because of high population density, absence of zoning regulations, lack of flood control, and lack of emergency response infrastructure and early warning systems. Bangladesh is one of the most susceptible countries to flood disasters. About one half of the land area in Bangladesh is at an elevation of less than 8 meters above sea level. Up to 30% of the country has been covered with flood waters. In 1991 more 200,000 deaths resulted from flooding and associated tropical cyclones. In industrialized countries the loss of life is usually lower because of flood control structures, zoning regulations that prevent the habitation of seriously vulnerable lands, and emergency preparedness. Still, property damage and disruption of life takes a great toll, and despite flood control structures and land use planning, floods still do occur. Causes of Flooding From a geological perspective, floods are a natural consequence of stream flow in a continually changing environment. Floods have been occurring throughout Earth history, and are expected so long as the water cycle continues to run. Streams receive most of their water input from precipitation, and the amount of precipitation falling in any given drainage basin varies from day to day, year to year, and century to century. The Role of Precipitation Weather patterns determine the amount and location of rain and snowfall. Unfortunately the amount and time over which precipitation occurs is not constant for any given area. Overall, the water cycle is a balanced system. Water flowing into one part of the cycle (like streams) is balanced by water flowing back to the ocean. But sometimes the amount flowing in to one area is greater than the capacity of the system to hold it within natural confines. The result is a flood. Combinations of factors along with exceptional precipitation can also lead to flooding. For example, heavy snow melts, water saturated ground, unusually high tides, and drainage modifications when combined with heavy rain can lead to flooding. Coastal Flooding Areas along coastlines become subject to flooding as a result of tsunamis, hurricanes (cyclonic storms), and unusually high tides. In addition, long term processes like subsidence and rising sea level as a result of global warming can lead to the encroachment of the sea on to the land. Dam & Levee Failures Dams occur as both natural and human constructed features. Natural dams are created by volcanic events (lava flows and pyroclastic flows), landslides, or blockage by ice. Human constructed dams are built for water storage, generation of electrical power, and flood control. All types of dams may fail with the sudden release of water into the downstream drainage. Spectacular and devastating examples of dam failures include that resulting in flooding downstream include: The St. Francis Dam, near Saugus, California, failed in 1929 killing 450 people. The Johnstown, Pennsylvania dam, built of earthen material (soil and rock) collapsed after a period of heavy rainfall in 1889. 2,200 people were killed by the flood. The Vaiont Dam in Italy (discussed in a previous lecture on mass-wasting) did not fail in 1963, but the landslides that moved into the reservoir behind the dam caused water to overtop the dam killing over 3,000 people. As we have seen during Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, levee systems designed to prevent flooding can also fail and lead to catastrophic flooding and loss of life. Stream Systems A stream is a body of water that carries rock particles and dissolved ions and flows down slope along a clearly defined path, called a channel. Thus streams may vary in width from a few centimeters to several kilometers. Streams are important for several reasons Streams carry most of the water that goes from the land to the sea, and thus are an important part of the water cycle. Streams carry billions of tons of sediment to lower elevations, and thus are one of the main transporting mediums in the production of sedimentary rocks. Streams carry dissolved ions, the products of chemical weathering, into the oceans and thus make the sea salty. Streams are a major part of the erosional process, working in conjunction with weathering and mass wasting. Much of the surface landscape is controlled by stream erosion, evident to anyone looking out of an airplane window. Streams are a major source of water and transportation for the world's human population. Most population centers are located next to streams.

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The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 35 3 The focus of the DP planning and control activity (moving from a primarily internal focus in the first three stages to an external focus in the latter stages), and 4 The level of user awareness [moving from a primarily reactive stance (reactive, that is, to centralized DP initiatives) in the first two stages, to being a driving force for change in the middle stages, through to a partnership in maturity]. Nolan argues that the information systems management focus is very much concerned with technology per se during the earlier stages of growth, with a transformation point occurring at the completion of stage three, after which the focus is on managing the organization’s data resources, utilizing database technology and methods. As indicated earlier, the model has been criticized because it has not proved possible to substantiate its claims to represent reality, either as a means to describe the phases through which organizations pass when utilizing IT, or as a predictor of change (Benbasat et al., 1984; King and Kraemer, 1984). In addition, its focus on database technology clearly dates the model. Earl (1989), for example, argues that organizations will pass through a number of different learning curves with respect to different ITs, as illustrated in Figure 2.3. In addition, it is now clear that different parts of a single organization may well be at different stages of growth with respect to a particular IT. Figure 2.2 Nolan’s six-stage growth model (amended from Nolan, 1979) 36 Strategic Information Management The Earl model Unlike Nolan’s model, Earl’s concentrates attention on the stages through which organizations pass in planning their information systems. First described in 1983 (Earl, 1983), the model has been revised on a number of occasions (Earl, 1986, 1988, 1989). The version presented here is based on the two earlier versions, as amended by Galliers (1987a, 1989), bearing in mind Earl’s own subsequent changes. As can be seen from Table 2.1, Earl illustrates the changing agenda for information systems planning by concentrating attention on what is seen as the primary task of the process: its major objective, the driving forces of the planning process (in terms of those involved), the methodological emphasis, and the context within which the planning takes place. Following research on current information systems planning practice, Galliers adds to this a supplementary early stage of planning (which is essentially ad hoc in nature) and an additional factor, concerning the focus of the planning effort. In the latter context, he argues that the focus has tended to change over the years from a predominantly isolated, Information Systems function orientation, through an organizational focus, to a competitive, environmental focus. Earl’s argument is essentially that organizations begin their planning efforts by the first attempting to assess the current ‘state of play’ with respect to information systems coverage and IT utilization. Increasingly, the focus shifts Figure 2.3 Multiple learning curves (amended from Earl, 1989, p.31) Table 2.1 Earl’s planning in stages model (amended from Earl, 1986, 1988, 1989) and Galliers (1987a, 1989) Factor Stages I II III IV V VI Task Meeting demands IS/IT audit Business support Detailed planning Strategic advantage Business-IT strategy linkage Objective Provide service Limit demand Agree priorities Balance IS portfolio Pursue opportunities Integrate strategies Driving force IS reaction IS led Senior management led User/IS partnership IS/executive led; user involvement Strategic coalitions Methological emphasis Ad hoc Bottom-up survey Top-down analysis Two-way prototyping Environmental scanning Multiple methods Context User/IS inexperience Inadequate IS resources Inadequate business/IS plans Complexity apparent IS for competitive advantage Maturity, collaboration Focus IS department Organization-wide Environment 38 Strategic Information Management to management concern for a stronger linkage with business objectives. Finally, the orientation shifts to a strategic focus, with a balance being maintained in relation to the make-up of planning teams (between information systems staff, management and users), environmental and organizational information (with the likelihood of inter-organizational systems being developed, cf. Cash and Konsynski, 1985), and the range of approaches adopted (with multiple methods being accepted). The Bhabuta model Based on earlier work by Gluck et al. (1980), which proposes a four-stage process of evolution towards strategic planning, and a somewhat similar model of IT assimilation and diffusion postulated by McFarlan et al. (1982, 1983), Bhabuta (1988) developed a model which attempts to map the progress towards formal strategic planning of information systems. This is illustrated in Table 2.2. Underpinning Bhabuta’s argument is the contention that strategies based on productivity improvement (and the information systems needed to support them) ‘will become the dominant paradigm in the turbulent and fiercely competitive markets of the next decade’ (Bhabuta, 1988, p.1.72). His model is more widely focused than either the Nolan or Earl models, in that it attempts to bring together elements of, for example, strategy formulation, information systems, and the mechanisms by which the information systems function is managed. The value systems associated with each phase of the model are also identified (cf. Ackoff, 1981). In interpreting the Bhabuta model, it should be noted that the categories used are not distinct nor absolute. With the maturing of IT utilization, and managerial sophistication with respect to IT, it can be expected that some of the attributes associated with, for example, Phase 3 and 4 organizations will emerge within Phase 1 and 2 organizations. This point takes account of some of the criticism of the Nolan model (Benbasat et al., 1984), which is itself based on earlier work by Greiner (1972), regarding the discontinuities that organizations experience in growth. The Hirschheim et al. model The Hirschheim et al. (1988) model also builds on the earlier work of Nolan (1979) and arises from research, undertaken during the first half of 1986, into the evolution and management of the IT function in a number of British organizations. As a result of this research. Hirschheim and his colleagues contend that in companies where top management had begun to realize that information systems are vital to their business, organizations move through three evolutionary phases in their management of the IS/IT function. The three Table 2.2 Bhabuta’s model linking the evaluation of strategic planning with information systems and the organization of the information systems function (amended from Bhabuta, 1988, p.1.76; Sutherland and Galliers, 1989, p.10) Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Evolutionary phases of strategic planning Basic financial planning Forecast-based planning Externally oriented planning Strategic management Value System Meet the budget Predict the future Think strategically Create the future Competitive strategy mechanisms Operational level productivity and diffuse innovation Focused (niche) innovation and operational/tactical level productivity Focused innovation and strategic productivity (quality focus) Systemic innovation and productivity Led by Top management Top and senior management Entrepreneurial managers (top/senior/middle) Corporate-wide employees Application of IT/IS Resource management Efficient operations Transaction processing Exception monitoring Planning and analysis Effectiveness of divisional operations IT infrastructure Support key division makers IT-based products and services Communications network Direct competitive tool Inter-organizational IS (link buyers, suppliers, manufacturers, consumers). Facilitate organizational learning Formalized IS and decision making Processing of internal data Ad hoc processing of external data Systematic external data analysis Link tactical/operational activities to external data analysis Management of IT, location in hierarchy and scope Technology management Individual projects Middle management responsibility Formal planning of IS Data sharing and administration Focus on IT infusion Senior management responsibility Couple IT and business planning IT planning at SBU/ corporate level Senior/Top management responsibility Systemic support of organizational processes IT planning at SBU/ portfolio level Top management responsibility 40 Strategic Information Management phases are labelled ‘delivery’, ‘reorientation’ and ‘reorganization’ (see also Earl, 1989, p.197). The ‘delivery’ phase is characterized by top management concern about the ability of the IS/IT function to ‘deliver the goods’. Senior executives have begun to take the subject very seriously, but there is often dissatisfaction with the quality of the available information systems and the efficiency of the IS/IT function, together with mounting concern regarding IT expenditure and the consistency of hardware and infrastructure policies. It would appear that often this phase is initiated by replacing the DP manager with an external recruit with a good track record and substantial computing experience. The emphasis in this phase is on the ‘delivery’ of information systems and, accordingly, the newly appointed IS executive spends most of the time on matters internal to the IS department. The primary role is to restore credibility to the function and/or to create confidence in user/top management that the function really is supporting current needs and is run efficiently. During this phase, IS education is sparse, but where it is provided, it is targeted on DP personnel with a view to improving skills, techniques and project management. In the ‘reorientation’ phase, top management (or the Director ultimately responsible for IS) changes the focus of attention from the delivery of basic IS services to the exploitation of IT for competitive advantage. An attempt is made to align IS/IT investment with business strategy. In short, it is in this ‘reorientation’ phase that ‘the business is put into computing’. With this change of direction/emphasis, it is common to appoint an IS executive over the DP Manager. The new post is filled, typically, by an insider: a senior executive who has run a business unit or been active in a corporate role, such as marketing or strategy formulation. They are likely to have only limited experience of DP, but are respected by top management for an ability to bring about change. The focus during this second phase is on the marketplace; on the external environment of the enterprise; on using IT for competitive advantage, and in extending the value chain through inter-organizational systems (cf. Cash and Konsynski, 1985). In the ‘reorganization’ phase, the senior IS executive (by now the IT Director) is concerned with managing the interfaces or relationships between the IS function and the rest of the organization. Some areas will be strategically dependent on IS, others will be looking to IS more in a support role. Some will have significant IT capability, particularly with the advance of end-user computing, and some business executives will be driving IT and IS development. Increasingly IS will be managed along ‘federal’ lines (Edwards et al., 1989) with IS capability in the centre and in business units/functions. These changed and changing relationships require careful management and often ‘reorganization’, and once again attention is focused on internal (organizational), as opposed to external (marketplace), concerns. The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 41 The concerns and considerations associated with each of the phases of the Hirschheim et al. model are summarized in Table 2.3. Towards a revised ‘stages of growth’ model The major inadequacies of the early Nolan models relate to their lack of organizational and management focus, and the overly simplistic and subjective assumptions on which they were based. More importantly, they provided little help for the beleaguered DP manager attempting to create a successful IS function within the organization. This, as has been demonstrated, has been remedied in part by the subsequent work of Earl, Bhabuta and Hirschheim et al. In all but the latter case, however, the models described how an organization could place itself within a particular stage of IT planning maturity, rather than describing what is needed to be done in order to progress through to the more mature stages of growth. The models that have been discussed thus far describe elements (technical, managerial and organizational) in the growth of ‘computing’ within an organization. Were these to be arranged and combined with a structure describing the important elements of an organization generally, then a model depicting the kinds of activities and organizational structures needed for an enterprise to move through IT growth stages (a more comprehensive and useful model) would result. Such a model, dealing as it would with the growing maturity in the management and use of IT in an organization, would indicate how an organization might develop its use of the technology and its organization of the IS function. However, a means has to be found of bringing together a range of key elements associated with the operation and management of an organization generally in order that the revised model could be developed. Table 2.3 The Hirschheim et al. model of changing considerations towards information systems management (amended from Hirschheim et al., 1988, p.4.33; Sutherland and Galliers, 1989, p.11) Phase/factor Delivery Reorientation Reorganization IS executive External IS recruit Inside business Same person Management focus Within IS/DP Into the business The interfaces Education needs Credibility Strategy Relationship CEO posture Concerned Visionary/champion Involved Leadership The board The function Coalition 42 Strategic Information Management After some considerable literature searching, the so-called Seven ‘S’s used by McKinsey & Company in their management consultancy (Pascale and Athos, 1981) were used to assist in the development of the model. The Seven ‘S’s used in analysis of organizational processes and management are summarized in Table 2.4. Research method As a first step, the elements of each of the Seven ‘Ss’ were considered in the context of each stage in the growth of IT utilization and management, according to the models described. In other words, a description of each of the ‘S’ elements was attempted in terms of the IT function and the provision of IT services generally, rather than the organization overall. Following a description of each of the ‘S’ elements in each stage of the model, an indication of what might be done to move into the next stage of the model can be provided. These indicators are based on what constitutes the Seven ‘S’s in the next stage. Having produced a tentative model, it was then applied to four Perth-based organizations, and amendments made. The approach was to interview four or five senior executives from different areas in each of the organizations studied. These executives were, typically: Table 2.4 The Seven ‘S’s (Pascale and Athos, 1981, p.81) Strategy Plan or course of action leading to the allocation of a firm’s scarce resources, over time, to reach identified goals Structure Characterization of the organization chart (i.e. functional, decentralized, etc.) Systems Procedural reports and routine processes such as meeting formats Staff ‘Demographic’ description of important personnel categories within the firm (i.e. engineers, entrepreneurs, MBAs, etc.). ‘Staff’ is not meant in line-staff terms Style Characterization of how key managers behave in achieving the organization’s goals; also the cultural style of the organization Skills Distinctive capabilities of key personnel or the firm as a whole Superordinate goals The significant meanings or guiding concepts that an organization imbues in its members. Superordinate goals can be also described as the shared values or culture of the organization The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 43 (a) the Chief Executive Officer, or the Deputy (b) the Head of a Strategic Business Unit (SBU) (c) the IT Director, or Head of the IS function (d) the Head of Corporate Planning, or equivalent. In some instances, for example, where the particular circumstances warranted broader coverage, more than one SBU head was interviewed. The interviews focused on the experiences of each organization in planning, managing and utilizing IT, and on their preparedness to utilize IT strategically. As a result of these interviews, the tentative model was continually refined and each organization eventually assessed in the context of the revised model. As a result of this assessment, conclusions were drawn as to what steps each organization might take (in relation to each of the Seven ‘S’s) in order to move on to later growth stages. Since then, the model has been ‘tested’ by numerous participants at conferences and short courses, and by clients both in the UK and Australia. As a result it has been further refined. Revised stages of growth model The growth in IT maturity in an organization can be represented as six stages, each with its particular set of conditions associated with the Seven ‘S’s. These stages are described in Table 2.5. The following sections describe each of the stages in the model in detail, using each of the Seven ‘S’s as a basis for the description. Each of the elements constitute an important aspect of how the IT function within the organization might operate at different stages of growth. The stages described are not intended to include any overt (nor covert) negative overtones associated with the early stages of the model. Some of the descriptions may Table 2.5 Stages of IT growth in organizations (Sutherland and Galliers, 1989, p.14) Stage Description One ‘Ad Hocracy’ Two

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TelepatDearest Susani Siregar. I thank God for given me the strength to read your mail and also write this mail to you. My heart found joy in you beloved brother. I do believe that the Jehovah Almighty will surely use you to make my dreams comes through so that even in death my soul shall rest in peace. As I am writing to you now the right arm of my breast is seriously paining me and my medical doctor has given his words that I will be in for surgical operation by Friday next week. My heart is seriously beating every second I don't know if it is going to be my last letter to you, but I pray to the lord that it will not be and as such I am using this opportunity to give you all the information about this fund. My late husband deposited this fund in one of the prime bank here in Burkina Faso, which he wished to invests the fund after the problem in the country before he met his untimely death and since then I have been seriously sick. beloved . God Knows I will be very happy for you to be honest with God because he is the person that has chosen you for this tarsk.I will write to Mr Michelle now the bank Remittance Director been the account officer to my late husband and give your information to proceed with the transfer of the fund to your bank account as soon as possible and i will also give you his contact address to enable you reach him. Loving brother in christ. ,sometimes in life, money is not important, but your good heart worth more than every other thing, please HOLD ON TO MY DREAMS so that blessings will be for us human while Glory goes to the lord. I will like you also to write and call Mr Michelle the bank remittance director been also My Late Husband aacount manager in order to facilitate the transfer without wasting of time because i want to be alive to see that you have receive this fund in your bank account before my operation so that even in death my soul shall rest in peace. This is the contact of the bank foreign Remittance Director, i want you to contact him now and call him that i have directed you to contact him on how my fund the sum of 4million dollars in their bank will be transfer to your bank account in your country for my charity foundation and gospel work. GROUPE BANK OF AFRICA. Department International Remittances. 770, Av. du Président Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana 01 BP 1319 01 Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso Mr. Kwame Michelle. boa_bank_accountant@accountant.com 226 77856960 Do not worry how i found you it was God himself that found you. please do not be discuraged for the lord is with us. If you want to come here and see me i will give you my hospital address. May the blessing of our lord jesus christ be with you and your family. Mrs suzan

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Product Type: Garment Labels Material: 100% polyester yarn Label Type: Main Labels Technics: weave Feature: Eco-Friendly, Washable Use: Garment, Shoes, Bags Place of Origin: Guangdong, China (Mainland) Brand Name: YoungLion Model Number: YLW-127 quality: white machine damask material: 50D denier damask fold: end fold sample time: 3-4 days delivery time: about 5 days

Product Type: Garment Labels Material: 100% polyester yarn Label Type: Main Labels Technics: weave Feature: Eco-Friendly, Washable Use: Garment, Shoes, Bags Place of Origin: Guangdong, China (Mainland) Brand Name: YoungLion Model Number: YLW-127 quality: white damask machine material: 50D denier damask fold: Fold end sample time: 3-4 days delivery time: about 5 days

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