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google translitex indonesia inggris USEFUL FOR MANY GOOD PEOPLE

CURRENT METHODS FOR MONITORING IAQ Diagnostic techniques used for IAQ evaluations are usually divided into a qualitative and a quantitative phase.73 Instrumentation used during the qualitative IAQ evaluation is limited and is intended primarily to supplement the investigators visual observations. Direct-reading instruments are used to measure relative humidity, room temperature, O3, CO, CO2, and particulate concentrations. The qualitative evaluation for microbial contaminants includes an assessment of the building and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for water damage and moisture problems, including condensation and the presence of visible mold or musty odors indicative of mVOCs.26 The qualitative evaluation for VOCs includes an observance of odors, building renovation, specialized office equipment, pressed wood products, and cleaning products used. Methodologies for collecting and culturing dust, bulk, and air sampling are discussed in more detail elsewhere.73,74 Environmental testing should be restricted to specific situations that warrant further assessment of the relationship between IAQ and clinical symptoms. HOW TO CREATE A HEALTHIER INDOOR ENVIRONMENT Building procedures The allergy specialist should have some familiarity with building a healthy home because patients are frequently presenting with health complaints related to poor IAQ attributed to their home or workplace. The 3 primary considerations in improving IAQ are (1) evaluation of construction failures that allow moisture into the walls of a building, (2) poor ventilation causing excessive humidity and accumulation of gaseous and/or chemical exposure from materials in the living space, and (3) poorly designed or failing HVAC systems that contribute to poor air circulation. An extensive overview of building sciences and the guidelines for new home construction can be found at http://www.healthhouse. org. Building a healthy home should take into account costs versus energy savings and improved health outcomes. Further studies are needed to confirm the health benefits of healthy home construction. IAQ standards In contrast with the industrial workplace setting, quantitative standards for chemical, biological, and particulate exposures as well as ventilation requirements have not been well established and are not routinely monitored. Although some government entities provide guidelines related to IAQ concerns, these generally take the form of recommendations for the control or elimination of sources and strategies for exposure reduction, rather than for achieving pollutant levels below some specific air concentration (Table I). Legislation such as Clean Indoor Air acts ban or restrict smoking in workplaces and in public places and reduce exposures to ETS for workers and patrons.75 The Environmental Protection Agencys IAQ Tools for Schools program addresses IAQ management in schools by providing guidance for those aspects of building maintenance, housekeeping, and daily school operations that can influence IAQ, such as the importance of preventing water intrusion; carefully selecting, using, and storing cleaning and pesticide products; and ensuring proper ventilation. This program also provides resources and strategies for remediation of allergen and irritant-induced IAQ problems and strategies to maintain good IAQ over time.76 These voluntary programs are gaining widespread acceptance.76 Conclusion This review was prepared with the goal of providing allergists with a balanced perception of indoor pollution and how to apply this information in the evaluation of individual patients who present with suspected symptoms arising from poor IAQ. As the patients foremost advocate, the allergy consultant should be prepared to acquire and maintain expertise in environmental factors that directly affect genetic susceptibilities inherent in allergic diseases. Evaluation of an individual patients exposure also requires that the allergist be familiar with methodologies for monitoring IAQ and interpreting results in the context of the patients exposure history. Finally, the allergist should be informed about existing indoor and outdoor air quality standards with the goal of advising patients about rational environmental control interventions.

Last Update: 2014-11-11
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Reference: Anonymous

Bank Danamon Indonesia

Bank Danamon

Last Update: 2014-11-11
Usage Frequency: 5
Reference: Wikipedia

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