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Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

reversed

Last Update: 2014-08-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

4. WHY WE TEACH IT: THE TYRANNY OF THE COMPUTABLE A sage once advised The important thing is to recognize the principle, not to do obeisance before one of the cogs of its mechanism." As a general directive, it's hard to argue with, but unfortunately, history shows that cogs and mechanisms have more to do with our choices than we might like. I've become convinced that a huge chunk of statistical theory was developed in order to compute things, or approximate things, that were otherwise out of reach. Until very recently, we had no choice but to rely on analytic methods. The computer has o ered to free us and our students from that, but our curriculum is at best in the early stages of accepting the o er. To appreciate the extent to which our thinking is kept on a tight leash by what we can compute, consider a pair of questions from the history of mathematics and statistics. The rst of the two questions deals with the history of calculus. More than two thousand years ago, Archimedes knew a version of integral calculus, and showed how to use limits to compute areas under curves. The question: If Archimedes knew about limits and how to use them to compute areas, back around 350 BCE, why did we have to wait another two thousand years for Newton and Leibniz to give us the modern version of calculus? The second question has a similar structure. Thomas Bayes did his work on what we now call Bayesian inference around 1760. Laplace did a lot with Bayesian methods in the 1770s. Yet roughly 200 years later, in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, hardly any statisticians were doing Bayesian data analysis. Several in uential statisticians, including Birnbaum (1962), De Finetti (1972), Good (1950), Lindley (1965),and Savage (1954), wrote many widely read papers and books addressing the logical foundations of statistics and containing proofs to the e ect that you had to be mentally de cient not to be a Bayesian in your orientation. Nevertheless, these impeccable arguments by in uential statisticians won few converts. Most of us read the proofs, nodded in agreement, and continued to practice our de ciencies. Three more decades passed. Then, just in the last 15 years or so, our world has experienced a Bayesian Renaissance. Why? I suggest that the answers to these two questions are similar. Consider rst the calculus question. The work of Archimedes, like all of Greek mathematics at the time, was grounded in geometry. The geometric approach had two major limitations: it didn't lend itself easily to generalization { nding the area under a parabola doesn't lead easily to nding the area under an arbitrary curve { and it didn't lead easily to a solution of the inverse problem { nding the slope of a tangent line. For two millennia, calculus remained largely dormant, a sleeping beauty, waiting for the magic awakening that was to begin in the watershed year of 1637. During the intervening two thousand years of dormancy, Arabic numerals made their way from the Al-Kaourine Madrassa in Fes, Morocco across the Mediterranean to the Vatican in Rome, brought by Pope Sylvester II (Landau 1958), and algebra made its way across North Africa to Gibraltar to Renaissance Italy. Finally, in 1637, Fermat and Descartes made geometry computable via the coordinate system of analytic geometry, and after that computational innovation it took a mere three short decades before Newton and Leibniz gave us the modern derivative. The core idea of calculus { taking a limit { was known to Archimedes two millennia earlier. What had held things up was not a missing idea so much as a missing engine, a missing crank to turn. The sleeping beauty was awakened not by a magic kiss, but by a cog in the mechanism.

Last Update: 2014-07-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous
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Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

ABSTRACT The research of this study is to discuss the distribution of pteridophytes at Muka Head Field Station, Pantai Acheh, Pulau Pinang. From the study, there were 265 individuals been observed throughout a total of 30 plots (20m x 20m). The mean of fern abundance at EA1M is 11.46 while the mean for EB1M is 9.23. 4 Species were found at the EA1M while 11 species were found at EB1M. The most number of species found is Taenitis blechnoides from the family Taenitidaceae. It can be found at both EA1M and EB1M. Dicranopteris curranii can also be found at both elevation but restricted to only 4 plots ; 1 at EA1M and 3 at EB1M. This is because of the geographical condition factor. Other than that, the species diversity and species evenness are higher at EB1M with a value of 1.392 and 0.605 respectively, while at EA1M the species diversity and species evenness is only 0.353 and 0.321 which is lower than that of EB1M. Taenitis blechnoides has the highest relative abundance and relative frequency in this study hence we can conclude that T. blechnoides were the dominant species found at Muka Head Field Station forest area. On the other hand, a correlation, R2 was calculated to determine the correlation between the fern abundance and the abiotic factors. The abiotic factors that were taken into account are humidity, temperature, light intensity and soil pH. From the data calculated, it shows that was a weak correlation between the two variables, which is the fern abundance and abiotic factors. By using Morisita’s index, the distribution pattern of the fern is clumping since the value is closed to one.

Last Update: 2014-05-28
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Inggeris ke Bahasa Malaysia

centrifugal machine

Last Update: 2014-08-05
Subject: Science
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Inggeris ke Bahasa Malaysia

contribution to multicultural counseling

Last Update: 2014-07-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Dewan pertuanan

Upper house

Last Update: 2014-08-12
Usage Frequency: 13
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Bahasa pengaturcaraan

DearProgramming language

Last Update: 2014-08-11
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Bahasa Yiddish

Yiddish language

Last Update: 2014-08-12
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Bahasa pertama

First language

Last Update: 2014-08-11
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Bahasa pertama

sarawak

Last Update: 2014-08-11
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Bahasa Kantonis

Cantonese

Last Update: 2014-08-11
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

kamus dewan

Wright did not get along well with Sullivan's other draftsmen; he wrote that several violent altercations occurred between them during the first years of his apprenticeship. For that matter, Sullivan showed very little respect for his employees as well.[15] In spite of this, "Sullivan took [Wright] under his wing and gave him great design responsibility." As an act of respect, Wright would later refer to Sullivan as Lieber Meister (German for "Dear Master").[16] Wright also formed a bond with office foreman Paul Mueller. Wright would later engage Mueller to build several of his public and commercial buildings between 1903 and 1923.[17] Wright's home in Oak Park, Illinois On June 1, 1889, Wright married his first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty" Tobin (1871–1959). The two had met around a year earlier during activities at All Souls Church. Sullivan did his part to facilitate the financial success of the young couple by granting Wright a five-year employment contract. Wright made one more request: "Mr. Sullivan, if you want me to work for you as long as five years, couldn't you lend me enough money to build a little house?"[18] With Sullivan's $5,000 loan, Wright purchased a lot at the corner of Chicago and Forest Avenues in the suburb of Oak Park. The existing Gothic Revival house was given to his mother, while a compact Shingle style house was built alongside for Wright and Catherine.[19] According to an 1890 diagram of the firm's new, 17th floor space atop the Auditorium Building, Wright soon earned a private office next to Sullivan's own.[17] However, that office was actually shared with friend and draftsman George Elmslie, who was hired by Sullivan at Wright's request.[20] Wright had risen to head draftsman and handled all residential design work in the office. As a general rule, Adler & Sullivan did not design or build houses, but they obliged when asked by the clients of their important commercial projects. Wright was occupied by the firm's major commissions during office hours, so house designs were relegated to evening and weekend overtime hours at his home studio. He would later claim total responsibility for the design of these houses, but careful inspection of their architectural style and accounts from historian Robert Twombly suggest that it was Sullivan who dictated the overall form and motifs of the residential works; Wright's design duties were often reduced to detailing the projects from Sullivan's sketches.[20] During this time, Wright worked on Sullivan's bungalow (1890) and the James A. Charnley bungalow (1890) both in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, the Berry-MacHarg House (1891) and Louis Sullivan's House (1892) both in Chicago, and the most noted 1891 James A. Charnley House also in Chicago. Of the five collaborations, only the two commissions for the Charnley family still stand.[21][22] The Walter Gale House (1893) is Queen Anne in style yet features window bands and a cantilevered porch roof which hint at Wright's developing aesthetics Despite Sullivan's loan and overtime salary, Wright was constantly short on funds. Wright admitted that his poor finances were likely due to his expensive tastes in wardrobe and vehicles, and the extra luxuries he designed into his house. To compound the problem, Wright's children — including first born Lloyd (born 1890) and John (born 1892) — would share similar tastes for fine goods.[18][23] To supplement his income and repay his debts, Wright accepted independent commissions for at least nine houses. These "bootlegged" houses, as he later called them, were conservatively designed in variations of the fashionable Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. Nevertheless, unlike the prevailing architecture of the period, each house emphasized simple geometric massing and contained features such as bands of horizontal windows, occasional cantilevers, and open floor plans which would become hallmarks of his later work. Eight of these early houses remain today including the Thomas Gale, Robert P. Parker House, George Blossom, and Walter Gale houses.[24] As with the residential projects for Adler & Sullivan, Wright designed his bootleg houses on his own time. Sullivan knew nothing of the independent works until 1893, when he recognized that one of the houses was unmistakably a Frank Lloyd Wright design. This particular house, built for Allison Harlan, was only blocks away from Sullivan's townhouse in the Chicago community of Kenwood. Aside from the location, the geometric purity of the composition and balcony tracery in the same style as the Charnley House likely gave away Wright's involvement. Since Wright's five-year contract forbade any outside work, the incident led to his departure from Sullivan's firm.[22] A variety of stories recount the break in the relationship between Sullivan and Wright; even Wright later told two different versions of the occurrence. In An Autobiography, Wright claimed that he was unaware that his side ventures were a breach of his contract. When Sullivan learned of them, he was angered and offended; he prohibited any further outside commissions and refused to issue Wright the deed to his Oak Park house until after he completed his five years. Wright could not bear the new hostility from his master and thought the situation was unjust. He "threw down [his] pencil and walked out of the Adler and Sullivan office never to return." Dankmar Adler, who was more sympathetic to Wright's actions, later sent him the deed.[25] On the other hand, Wright told his Taliesin apprentices (as recorded by Edgar Tafel) that Sullivan fired him on the spot upon learning of the Harlan House. Tafel also accounted that Wright had Cecil Corwin sign several of the bootleg jobs, indicating that Wright was aware of their illegal nature.[22][26] Regardless of the correct series of events, Wright and Sullivan did not meet or speak for twelve years.

Last Update: 2014-08-07
Subject: Architecture
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous
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Bahasa Melayu Pattani

Kelantan-Pattani Malay

Last Update: 2014-08-12
Usage Frequency: 5
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Dewan Rendah Ireland

Dáil Éireann

Last Update: 2014-05-01
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Kamus Dewan dalam ty

RAHSIAH HATI

Last Update: 2014-08-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

pongkes untuk bahasa inggeris

pongkes to english

Last Update: 2014-08-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur City Hall

Last Update: 2014-07-25
Usage Frequency: 3
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Kamus Dewan dan Bahasa

Author of Singapore best seller book

Last Update: 2014-07-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Almatsier S. 2009. Prinsip Dasar Ilmu Gizi. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

equivalent

Last Update: 2013-09-23
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Laras bahasa

Register

Last Update: 2014-04-29
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

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