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Malay

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jawi

madsud mati syahid

Last Update: 2014-10-25
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Seni khat

Calligraphy

Last Update: 2014-10-22
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

dan sebaliknya

and otherwise

Last Update: 2014-06-16
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

dan bukannya

break communication

Last Update: 2012-02-14
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Kedelai, dan
http://www.cargill.co.id/in [...] ins/index.jsp

Soybeans, and
http://www.cargill.co.id/in [...] ins/index.jsp

Last Update: 2011-03-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: co.id (Source - Target)

Azan dan Iqamat

Adhan

Last Update: 2014-10-21
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Pengesahan dan penentusahan

Verification and validation

Last Update: 2014-10-26
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Kehomogenan dan keheterogenan

Homogeneity and heterogeneity

Last Update: 2014-10-21
Usage Frequency: 11
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Reference: Wikipedia

Laila dan Majnun

Layla and Majnun

Last Update: 2014-10-18
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

Deferen dan epikitar

Deferent and epicycle

Last Update: 2014-10-09
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

luka terbuka dan tertutup

open and closed wounds

Last Update: 2014-09-27
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik

Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Last Update: 2014-10-24
Usage Frequency: 4
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Reference: Wikipedia

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

Latent factor structures affecting the occupational profile construct of the training needs analysis scale Joanna Carlisle, Ramudu Bhanugopan* and Alan Fish School of Business, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia This study evaluates the latent factor structure of the occupational profile construct of the training needs analysis (TNA) scale proposed by Hicks, Hennessy and Barwell (1996). Data were collected from 72 Australian nurses. Principal component analysis and multi-dimensional scaling methods were employed to delineate a five-factor model. This study demonstrates a good fit of data as opposed to asymmetrical disposition of factor structures as promulgated by previous studies. This research confirms the original latent factor structures; however, validation using a confirmatory framework to analyse the TNA scale is required in future. This study suggests some practical implications for human resource managers. Keywords: Australia; nurse; occupational profile; training needs Introduction The implementation of appropriate human resource practices can benefit the performance of an organisation (Denby 2010). This is no different for the health-care industry. In Australia, there are several issues, including patient/nurse ratios, pay levels and work conditions among other things, affecting health-care organisations. The issue of adequately identifying training needs and understanding the importance of occupational profile in performance is under-represented in the research conducted to date. Despite a significant degree of academic and practitioner interest, the topic of training needs analysis (TNA) for nurses remains underdeveloped. It is difficult to consistently conduct thorough TNA within the health-care industry, as there are often other issues for the organisation to focus on, such as nurse shortages. Gould, Kelly, White and Chidgey’s (2004) literature review focuses on empirical research concerned with the need to conduct TNA within the health-care profession. This review finds ‘of 266 articles identified, only 23 (8.6%) contained empirical findings’ (Gould et al. 2004, p. 473), and most of the studies were conducted in the UK. This highlights the need for further empirical research to provide greater understanding of the TNA process and the benefits that can result from appropriate implementation of TNA in the training and development cycle. To further support this, Furze and Pearcey’s (1999) review of nurses’ continuing professional development concludes that provision is fragmented, inequitable, poorly funded and the cyclic process of the training strategy is often incomplete. Although much of the research carried out on TNA for nurses has been conducted in the UK, some research has been conducted involving training needs of nurses in Australia. ISSN 0958-5192 print/ISSN 1466-4399 online q 2012 Taylor & Francis http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.665073 http://www.tandfonline.com *Corresponding author. Email: bramudu@csu.edu.au The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23, No. 20, November 2012, 4319–4341 However, these studies do not focus on a TNA using a psychometrically valid scale nor do they consider the factors that may influence the training needs of particular nurses or organisations. Consequently, this current study looks at both these factors by conducting a TNA using the occupational profile construct of the scale developed by Hicks, Hennessy and Barwell (1996). Furthermore, it takes into account the qualifications and education of participants by considering how these factors may influence the perception of nurses in Australia in defining their job role and training needs. It is hoped this will fill the gap in empirical research conducted into the TNA of nurses in Australia and promote further research to provide deeper understanding of this topic to Australian nurses and the organisations they work for. Review of literature A growing demand for professional training within the Australian health service has created a proliferation of post-registration courses, many of which fail to reach appropriate training objectives of organisations. This situation is reflected in a number of studies conducted within Australia into the training needs of nurses (Farrell 1998; Hicks and Hennessy 1998, 1999; Halcomb, Meadley and Streeter 2009). Whilst these studies offer useful insights into understanding training needs in general, they create particular problems for understanding the training needs of Australian nurses. These include (1) Australian nurses were not their main focal point; (2) the TNA was for a different purpose than that covered in this research or (3) they do not actually conduct a TNA for establishing these needs. Also, two of these three studies (Farrell 1998; Hicks and Hennessy 1998) were carried out over 10 years ago, thus the results may now be outdated and the scale may need to be re-validated. The paucity of recent, relevant research to address the contemporary and emerging training needs of Australian nurses draws attention to a research gap; a gap that the research reported in this paper has started to fill. It is difficult to consistently conduct a thorough TNA in the health-care industry. The need for and importance of TNA is often underestimated in many industries; however, the nursing sector seems to have a poor record of developing and implementing TNA strategies (Hennessy and Hicks 1998). Gould et al. (2004) highlighted two key TNA areas requiring attention in the health-care industry. First, the importance of using TNA strategically to obtain maximum benefit to the organisation and the individuals involved. Second, the urgent need for further research into the application of TNA in health care, particularly in relation to nurses: ‘The climate of rapid change against the background of nursing recruitment difficulties in the health service magnifies the need for TNA to be used appropriately’ (Gould et al. 2004, p. 472). Unfortunately, TNA often maximises the benefits to the organisation while making it difficult for nurses to access training resources. A study conducted in Ireland that found lack of employer’s support was the main cause of nurses being unwilling to participate in continuing professional education: ‘Although respondents understand and accept the positive outcomes, they believe that continuing professional education is essentially a job related activity, specific to their employing organisation’ (Murphy, Cross and McGuire 2006, p. 378). This shows that nurses who want training and further education often go without simply because the organisation offers insufficient encouragement. A study conducted in Europe also found an unsupportive workplace and ineffective leadership within health-care organisations results in low job satisfaction, which in turn 4320 J. Carlisle et al. raises the likelihood of nurses intending to leave within 1 year (Van der Heijden, Van Dam and Hasselhorn 2009). This research highlights the need for appropriately trained staff, which requires a TNA that will ensure who employees are suited for their jobs, one are competent and receive the training necessary to further build the competencies they require in their workplace. The benefits of TNA can be immense; however, often the TNA process for nurses is not implemented appropriately to maximise the benefits. Gould et al. (2004, p. 474), when reappraising empirical research, concluded that ‘smaller scale (micro level) TNA concerned with staff in a single organisation (or similar smaller organisations) emerged as the most useful in practical terms as well as having the most to contribute towards theory’. On the other hand, the macro level TNA, concerned with more than one large organisation, did very little to address organisational goals and training needs. Despite this, of the 23 empirical research studies reviewed by Gould et al. (2004) only seven fell into the category of micro level. This emphasises the need for TNA to be implemented to provide maximum benefit to both the nurses and the organisation they work for. Issues facing rural hospitals There are many issues that regional Australian nurses must contend with over and above the current issues facing the Australian health-care industry. Issues, such as stress, burnout, nurse shortages, lack of resources and limited access to information and specialist advice, all impact on the job satisfaction and retention of nurses working in rural settings. These concerns are not specific to Australia, with several researchers contending that this is an international issue (Hannigan, Edwards, Coyle, Fothergill and Burnard 2000; Kidd, Kenny and Meehan-Andrews 2012). A study conducted in Wales, regarding the burnout of rural mental health nurses, states that one in two respondents indicated that they were highly emotionally exhausted, one in four possessed a negative attitude towards clients and one in seven experienced little or no sense of achievement in or satisfaction with their work (Hannigan et al. 2000). Kidd et al. (2012, p. 1) stated that ‘rural nurses often work outside of their professional scope of practice and cite isolation and maintaining professional competency as their greatest difficulty’. Further, the sustainability of rural services is threatened by workforce shortages due to inadequate funding (Kidd et al. 2012). Rural nurses also face a higher workload, less support and higher dissatisfaction with their jobs. A Victorian study on rural psychiatric nurses and stress found that a mean of 82.7% of respondents (n ¼ 136) saw workload as a primary stressor, 61.3% cited lack of support and inadequate preparation as a stressor and 82.4% saw the job role itself as a stressor (Pinikahana and Happell 2004). This is further shown in a study conducted on Queensland rural practice nurses, which cites management practices, workload, workplace support and job satisfaction as among the top 10 most important influences on their decision to leave rural nursing (Hegney, McCarthy, Rogers-Clark and Gorman 2002). The job description of the rural nurse has also expanded, causing burnout, stress, job dissatisfaction and a feeling by nurses that they are inadequately trained and supported (Hannigan et al. 2000; Hegney et al. 2002; Pinikahana and Happell 2004; Hegney 2007). The health of rural Australians is poorer than those living in metropolitan areas, with higher rates of illness or injury such as diabetes, heart disease, pulmonary disease and motor vehicle accident injuries (Hegney 2007); the issues facing rural nurses need to be urgently addressed. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 4321 Previous studies conducted using a psychometrically valid TAN scale Hicks et al. (1996, p. 262) developed a ‘psychometrically valid training needs analysis tool for use with primary health care teams’. The TNA scale was shown to be valid – it has significant reliability – and appears to be unique. The scale incorporates 30 items where participants are asked to rate four aspects: (1) how important certain tasks are in order to successfully perform their jobs, referred to as ‘rating A’ in Hicks et al. (1996, p. 268), and used to provide an occupational profile; (2) how well they currently perform their responsibilities, referred to as ‘rating B’ in Hicks et al. (1996, p. 268), and which identifies particular training needs and (3) whether it is likely that their performance of these activities will be improved by organisational change or training, referred to as ‘rating C and D’ in Hicks et al. (1996, p. 268), and used to determine the most appropriate means of improving performance. This scale is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be modified to suit different health-care scenarios, and second, it is translatable for employment in different cultures without appearing to compromise its validity and reliability. For example, the scale has been employed in many studies conducted both in Australia and overseas in various cultural settings including the UK (Hicks et al. 1996), the USA (Hennessy and Hicks 1998), Australia (Hicks and Hennessy 1999), Greece (Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks and Lionis 2007) and Indonesia (Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan and Kawonal 2006a; Hennessy, Hicks and Koesno 2006c). Whilst the scale has primarily been used in the UK, several studies in different cultural contexts also show its high reliability, its construct validity and its accuracy (see Table 1). Nevertheless, the majority of studies have been conducted in the UK, yielding a five-factor solution, namely (1) research and audit; (2) communication and teamwork; (3) management and supervisory tasks; (4) administrative tasks and (5) clinical tasks. Importantly, the Greek study (Markaki et al. 2007) establishes that the scale can be translated, and employed in quite a different cultural setting from where it was originally developed, while maintaining its validity and reliability (a 0.98). This was also shown to be true for Indonesia, where the reliability of the scale in an Asian context also demonstrates its validity and reliability in identifying the training and professional development needs of midwives (a 0.91 highest factor, 0.71 lowest factor). Significant for its cross-cultural application, the scale was altered with a number of identified central themes cross-referenced with the original five central themes. Any themes not covered were then converted to additional items, to ensure that all items relevant to Indonesia were represented (Hennessy et al. 2006a). Hence, additional 10 items were employed to not only establish the training needs of midwives, but also compare the different training needs of midwives among different grades of nurses, and in the different provinces of Indonesia. Furthermore, in a study conducted by Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan and Kawonal (2006b), a six-factor solution was derived. This led to yet another study (Hennessy et al. 2006c) that discerned a three-factor solution. Hence, the factorial structures thus far inferred in all these studies were asymmetrical. Of key importance to the study reported here though, is that these studies highlight the potential adaptability of the scale, and the ability to use this scale in multiple cultural settings, and in the process, retain the scale’s reliability and validity. The TNA scale was also used in a comparative study between the UK, USA and Australia (Hennessy and Hicks 1998), as well as in a study that aimed to define the role of the nurse practitioner (Hicks and Hennessy 1999). The comparative study (Hicks and Hennessy 1998) was one of the first studies involving TNA for nurses conducted in Australia. The results show that when 4322 J. Carlisle et al. Table 1. Summary of latent factor structure anomalies in previous studies. Previous studies Country Subject and sample size Items Factors Cronbach a Hennessy and Hicks (1998) UK, USA and Australia Primary and secondary care nurses 216 30 Latent factor structure unclear Unknown Hicks and Hennessy (1998) UK Nurse practitioner 420 31 Latent factor structure unclear Unknown Hicks and Hennessy (1999) Australia Nurse practitioner 46 30 Latent factor structure unclear Unknown Hicks et al. (1996) UK Health-care workers 198 30 6 0.70 Hennessy et al. (2006a) Indonesia Nurses and midwives 856 40 6 Factor 1: 0.86, Factor 2: 0.85, Factor 3: 0.42, Factor 4: 0.84, Factor 5: 0.77, Factor 6: 0.71 Hennessy et al. (2006b) Indonesia Nurses 524 40 3 Factor 1: 0.91, Factor 2: 0.89, Factor 3: 0.79 Hennessy et al. (2006c) Indonesia Midwives 332 40 3 Factor 1: 0.89, Factor 2: 0.87, Factor 3: 0.49 Markaki et al. (2007) Greece Health-care workers 55 30 7 0.98 The International Journal of Human Resource Management 4323 compared to the USA and the UK, Australian nurses placed higher training needs importance on clinical tasks such as (1) treating patients; (2) planning and organising patient’s care and (3) undertaking health promotion activities. In addition, the study demonstrates the need for higher training needs in research and audit, such as (4) identifying viable research topics; (5) writing research studies reports and (6) designing a research study. However, the results of this study cannot generally be applied to nurses Australia-wide as the results merely indicate between-group differences regarding higher or lower training needs, with no clear indication about the training gaps between countries. Hicks and Hennessy (1999) also conducted a second Australian study, using their original TNA scale. This study was conducted in a Victorian not-for-profit hospital and involved 46 nurses. The results show that training needs were apparent in the research and audit area; however, this was not perceived as important to the nurse’s role. Key areas where training needs did exist included (1) communicating with patients and their carers and (2) supervision of colleagues. The focus of this study was, however, on defining the role of a nurse practitioner, rather than on their training needs. The study ‘indicates that the instrument is appropriate for use in the Australian context, to determine specific service delivery according to locally determined needs’ (Hicks and Hennessy 1999, p. 32). While this study does not provide good insight into the training needs of nurses in Australia, it does establish the reliability and validity of the TNA scale for use in an Australian context; this is of great help for further research, including the current study. A summary of the latent factor structure anomalies found in previous studies is presented in Table 1. Research objectives Considering the indistinct disposition of the factor structure and dimensionality of the TNA scale, this study was undertaken to explore and examine the latent factor structures of the occupational profile construct of the scale through nurses’ perceptions of those activities, which constitute their successful performance. The study focuses on the occupational profile aspect of the TNA scale, and examines the perceived importance that particular activities have on the successful performance of nurses. The purpose of this current study then is to analyse the perceptions of registered Australian nurses by employing Hicks et al.’s (1996) TNA scale, and to identify those activities affecting nurses’ on-the-job performance which are perceived to be critical to their occupational performance. Hypotheses%0

Last Update: 2014-10-21
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

GLOBALIZATION

Last Update: 2014-10-19
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

Nombor genap dan ganjil

Parity (mathematics)

Last Update: 2014-10-19
Usage Frequency: 10
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Reference: Wikipedia

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. The following review presents an overview of the different biodegradable polymers that are currently being used and their properties, as well as new developments in their synthesis and applications.

Last Update: 2014-10-18
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

Information sharing in organization has been considered as an important approach in increasing organizational efficiency, performance and decision making. With the present and advances in information and communication technology, sharing information and exchanging of data across organizations has become more feasible.

Last Update: 2014-10-16
Subject: Computer Science
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

Sumbing bibir dan lelangit

Cleft lip and palate

Last Update: 2014-10-16
Usage Frequency: 3
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Reference: Wikipedia

Jualan dan perancangan operasi

Sales and operation planning

Last Update: 2014-10-10
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

peranan dan sumbangan fomca

role and contribution FOMCA

Last Update: 2014-10-24
Subject: General
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