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Digital

Digital data

Last Update: 2014-02-08
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Reference: Wikipedia

alat penimbang

scales

Last Update: 2014-08-01
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

alat penimbang ikan

fish scales

Last Update: 2014-08-03
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous

Televisyen digital

Digital television

Last Update: 2014-07-21
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Reference: Wikipedia

Perpustakaan digital

Electronic library

Last Update: 2012-10-13
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Reference: Wikipedia

Digital signal processing (DSP) lanjutan
http://www.nokia.co.id/cari [...] eadset-bh-504

Advanced digital signal processing (DSP)
http://www.nokia-asia.com/f [...] eadset-bh-504

Last Update: 2011-03-17
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* Jika anda tidak mempunyai pengimbas ataupun failnya belum lagi siap, sebaliknya, anda boleh menggunakan kamera telefon mudah alih atau kamera digital.
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Last Update: 2011-06-05
Subject: Finances
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1.0 INTRODUCTION Labisia pumila (Myrinaceae), is a subherbaceous plant with creeping stems and found mainly in the lowland and hill forests of Peninsular Malaysia at an altitude between 300 and 700 m (Burkill 1966). Decoction of L. pumila has been traditionally used by generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth, as well as being a post-partum medication to help contract the birth channel, to tone the abdominal muscles, maintain a healthy female reproductive system, to treat menstrual irregularities and to regain body strength (Burkill 1966; Wan Ezumi et al. 2007). The ability to enhance the contraction of the uterus has been proven (Cheong 2007). Increasing request for high yielding material of this plant from the herbal industry serve as catalyst for researchers to establish high quality planting materials to fulfill the industrial demand. Therefore, in order to produce high quality raw materials to support Malaysian herbal industries, it is important to select genotype which either produced the maximum bioactivity and/or contained high quality active ingredients (Ibrahim et al. 1990) before it can be domesticated. FRIM has established a germplasm of 300 genotypes for both varieties L. pumila var. pumila and L. pumila var. alata (Farah Fazwa et al., 2010, 2012) with high total phenolic content which is more related to antioxidant activities. In order to produce high quality planting materials with traditional claim of L. pumila, a study will be conducted on the ability of the species to enhance contraction of the uterus. Furthermore, literature and patent search indicated that production of high yielding accessions based on uterus contraction activity has not been investigated and registered cultivar of L. pumila is unavailable. In this study, aqueous extraction is one of the methods will be use for the extraction of the fresh leaves of the herbs. This method offers several advantages over conventional solvent extraction-less initial capital investments, safer operation, capability of discontinuous operation, and production of a variety of products. Another advantage of aqueous processing is the capability for utilization of certain chemicals to remove or inactivate undesirable substances (Carl M. Cater, 1974). A study showed that water extracts of L.pumila were able to displace estradiol binding to antibodies raised against estradiol, making it similar to other estrogens such as estrone and estradiol. The extract has also been found to produce a dose-response effect on the reproductive hormones of female rats, notably on the estradiol and free testosterone level. For the planting part, the planting stocks are usually raised from seeds. The dependence on seeds as source of planting materials is inadequate as seeds are difficult to obtain due to depletion of mother plants. Propagation by seeds alone will not be able to meet the large number of planting stock required. Propagation technique by cuttings can be one of the alternative methods used (Hartman & Kester 1983). This method of propagation also offers useful tool for propagating the superior genotypes which will help to maximise quality and productivity. Rozihawati (2008) has reported the propagation techniques by cuttings, factors affecting rooting and nursery techniques of this species. Aminah et al. (2009) also reported the suitability of using cutting to propagate L. pumila using different leaf parts and areas. Research on propagating superior accessions of L. pumila based on total phenolic content has also been carried out (Farah Fazwa et al. 2013). As a conclusion, this study will be carried out to to select high yielding accessions of L. pumila from established germplasm based on uterus contraction activity for breeding purposes; to propagate the selected high yielding accessions using vegetative techniques and to establish clonal bank from the selected high yielding accessions of L. pumila. It is expected that at the end of the study high yielding planting materials of L. pumila will be made available and transfer of technology conducted. These outputs are important to ensure sustainable supply of high yielding planting materials for the production of high quality materials to meet future industry demand. 1.1 Problem Statement Phytochemical extraction is important for the selection of high yielding accessions of Labisia pumila. Literature and patent search indicate the selection of high yielding accessions based on uterus contraction activity have never been tested before. 1.2 Objective (s); I. To select high yielding accessions of L. pumila from established germplasm based on uterus contraction activity for breeding purposes. II. To propagate the selected high yielding accessions by vegetative techniques. III. To establish clonal bank from the selected high yielding accession of L. pumila 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW Labisia pumila, commonly known as Kacip Fatimah in Malaysia, is a small herbaceous and slightly woody plant (Karimi et al., 2011). The habitat of this plant is in lowland primary forests at shady places or in secondary forests on humus-rich soils (Sunarno, 2005). There are three varieties of Kacip Fatimah had been recognized namely var. alata, var. pumila and var. lanceolata and each variety have its own use and function (Stone, 1988). Stone (1988) also identified that these varieties can be distinguished from each other by their petiole and leaf characteristic. Traditionally, Labisia pumila have been widely used as medicinal plant especially related to women health care. It is locally known to be used for induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post partum medication to help contract the birth channel, to tone the abdominal muscles and to regain body strength by traditional uses (Wan Ezumi et al., 2007). Other traditional uses include treatment for dysentery, flatulence, rheumatism, dysmenorrheal and gonorrhea (Mohamad Norhaiza et al., 2009; Burkil, 1996). Recently, it was reported that the bioactive compounds of L. pumila consisted mainly resorcinols, flavonoids and phenolic acids (Ibrahim, 2010). Polyphenolic contain in L. pumila have the ability to prevent cancer and heart disease (Tsao & Deng, 2004). The main objective of this study is to select the high yielding of Labisia pumila based on contraction activity. The uterine contractility activity was carried out using procedure by Ayinde et.al. Estrus in the uterus of female Sprague Dawley rats will be induced using diethylstilbestrol (i.p.). The effects of L. pumila on the uterus contraction activity will be measured using Powerlab system (ADIntruments Pty. Ltd.) and compared to oxytocin as the positive control drug. The high yielding accessions of L. pumila will be selected based on of the highest contraction activity. The selected L.pumila will undergo propagation using vegetative techniques to ensure sustainable supply of high quality planting material which benefit the producer as well as the consumer. 3.0 METHODOLOGY Objective 1: To select high yielding accessions of L. pumila from established germplasm based on uterus contraction activity for breeding purposes. a) Phytochemical Extraction and Chemical fingerprinting of L. pumila aqueous extract Plant leaf will be cleaned and leave to dry in at oven at controlled temperature until reached desired moisture content. 300 g dried and ground leaf will be extracted by refluxing using hot distilled water. The filtrate is then concentrated and dried using freeze-dryer. The crude obtained will be divided into two analysis, bioactivity and chemical fingerprint analysis (UV, HPLC and HPTLC). While, the FTIR fingerprint will be carried out on the dried and ground leaves. PCA analysis also will be carried out. b) Uterus contraction activity of L. pumila The uterine contractility activity will be carried out using procedure by Ayinde et al. 2006. Estrus in the uterus of female Sprague Dawley rats will be induced using diethylstilbestrol (i.p.). The effects of L. pumila on the uterus contraction activity will be measured using Powerlab system (ADIntruments Pty. Ltd.) and compared to oxytocin as the positive control drug. The high yielding accessions of L. pumila will be selected based on of the highest contraction activity. This bioactivity facility will be established in FRIM. Objective 2: To propagate the selected high yielding accessions by vegetative techniques. a) Multiplication of high yielding accession by vegetative technique Multiplication of high yielding accessions of L. pumila will be done by cuttings. This method will be used to produce the high yielding materials of L. pumila. From each of selected accessions, 60 ramets will be further produced. These clones will be raised and maintained at FRIM’s nursery for six to eight months before they can be transplanted to field. The survival rate and growth performance (e.g height, leaf number, biomass) of these rooted plants will also be monitored and assessed during this stage Objective 3: To establish clonal bank from the selected high yielding accession of L. pumila a) Establishment of clonal bank plot The clonal bank plot will be laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD). These selected clones will be arranged per replicate in three experimental blocks. For each replicate, the size of planting bed will be 1 meter x 2 meter. This experimental design will be applied to both varieties. Expected outcome Upon completion of this project: 1. Phytochemical Extraction and Chemical fingerprinting of L. pumila aqueous extract and also test for uterus contraction activity of L. pumila on rats 2. Multiplication of high yielding accession by vegetative technique 3. Establishment of clonal bank plot from the selected high yielding accession of L.pumila

pekerja binaan visa

Last Update: 2014-07-22
Subject: General
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Reference: Anonymous
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google transleThe company originated in 1927 in Dallas, Texas, when an employee of Southland Ice Company, John Jefferson Green, started selling milk, eggs, and bread from an improvised storefront in one of the company's ice houses.[7] Although small grocery stores and general merchandisers were present in the immediate area, Joe C. 'Jodie' Thompson, Jr., the manager of the ice plant, discovered selling convenience items, such as bread and milk, was popular due to the ice's ability to preserve the items. This significantly cut back on the need to travel long distances to the grocery stores for basic items. Thompson eventually bought the Southland Ice Company and turned it into Southland Corporation, which oversaw several locations which opened in the Dallas area.[6] In 1928, one of the managers brought back a totem pole from Alaska and placed it in front of his store. Due to the attention received by the totem pole, additional totem poles were placed at each of the store locations and all of the stores began operating under the name "Tot'em Stores" (a word play on the totem poles as well as the idea that customers "toted" (carried) away their purchases).[6][7] In that same year, many locations also began selling gasoline. Although the Great Depression caused the company to go bankrupt in 1931, it still managed to continue operations. In 1946, in an effort to continue the company's post war recovery, the name of the stores was changed to 7-Eleven to reflect their hours of operation—7 a.m. to 11 p.m., which at the time was unprecedented. By 1952, 7-Eleven opened its 100th store. It was incorporated as Southland Corporation in 1961.[7] In 1962, 7-Eleven first experimented with a 24-hour schedule in Austin, Texas after an Austin store was forced to remain open all night due to customer demand.[6] By 1963, 24-hour stores were established in Fort Worth and Dallas, Texas as well as Las Vegas, Nevada.[8] The Southland Corporation in the late 1980s was threatened by a corporate takeover, prompting the Thompson family to take steps to take the company private by buying out public shareholders in a tender offer. In 1987, John Philp Thompson, the Chairman and CEO of 7-Eleven, completed a $5.2 billion management buyout of the company his father had founded.[9] The buyout suffered from the 1987 stock market crash, and after failing initially to raise high yield debt financing, the company was required to offer a portion of the company's stock as an inducement to invest in the company's bonds.[10][11] Operating in this period with exceptionally high interest costs, the Company, now private, encountered financial difficulties with the high debt load, and as part of the re-structuring, sold various divisions, such as ice division and Chief Auto Parts - an auto parts franchise, which was acquired by Southland in 1979 to provide the convenience of a 7-Eleven store, was divested in 1990 to General Electric and later purchased by AutoZone. In 1998, the company was rescued in bankruptcy by the Japanese corporation Ito-Yokado, its largest franchisee. This downsizing also resulted in numerous metropolitan areas losing 7-Eleven stores to rival convenience store operators. The Japanese company gained a controlling share of 7-Eleven in 1991,[6] during the Japanese asset bubble of the early 1990s. Ito-Yokado formed Seven & I Holdings Co., and 7-Eleven became its subsidiary in 2005. In 2007, Seven & I Holdings announced it would be expanding their American operations, with an t

google tThe company originated in 1927 in Dallas, Texas, when an employee of Southland Ice Company, John Jefferson Green, started selling milk, eggs, and bread from an improvised storefront in one of the company's ice houses.[7] Although small grocery stores and general merchandisers were present in the immediate area, Joe C. 'Jodie' Thompson, Jr., the manager of the ice plant, discovered selling convenience items, such as bread and milk, was popular due to the ice's ability to preserve the items. This significantly cut back on the need to travel long distances to the grocery stores for basic items. Thompson eventually bought the Southland Ice Company and turned it into Southland Corporation, which oversaw several locations which opened in the Dallas area.[6] In 1928, one of the managers brought back a totem pole from Alaska and placed it in front of his store. Due to the attention received by the totem pole, additional totem poles were placed at each of the store locations and all of the stores began operating under the name "Tot'em Stores" (a word play on the totem poles as well as the idea that customers "toted" (carried) away their purchases).[6][7] In that same year, many locations also began selling gasoline. Although the Great Depression caused the company to go bankrupt in 1931, it still managed to continue operations. In 1946, in an effort to continue the company's post war recovery, the name of the stores was changed to 7-Eleven to reflect their hours of operation—7 a.m. to 11 p.m., which at the time was unprecedented. By 1952, 7-Eleven opened its 100th store. It was incorporated as Southland Corporation in 1961.[7] In 1962, 7-Eleven first experimented with a 24-hour schedule in Austin, Texas after an Austin store was forced to remain open all night due to customer demand.[6] By 1963, 24-hour stores were established in Fort Worth and Dallas, Texas as well as Las Vegas, Nevada.[8] The Southland Corporation in the late 1980s was threatened by a corporate takeover, prompting the Thompson family to take steps to take the company private by buying out public shareholders in a tender offer. In 1987, John Philp Thompson, the Chairman and CEO of 7-Eleven, completed a $5.2 billion management buyout of the company his father had founded.[9] The buyout suffered from the 1987 stock market crash, and after failing initially to raise high yield debt financing, the company was required to offer a portion of the company's stock as an inducement to invest in the company's bonds.[10][11] Operating in this period with exceptionally high interest costs, the Company, now private, encountered financial difficulties with the high debt load, and as part of the re-structuring, sold various divisions, such as ice division and Chief Auto Parts - an auto parts franchise, which was acquired by Southland in 1979 to provide the convenience of a 7-Eleven store, was divested in 1990 to General Electric and later purchased by AutoZone. In 1998, the company was rescued in bankruptcy by the Japanese corporation Ito-Yokado, its largest franchisee. This downsizing also resulted in numerous metropolitan areas losing 7-Eleven stores to rival convenience store operators. The Japanese company gained a controlling share of 7-Eleven in 1991,[6] during the Japanese asset bubble of the early 1990s. Ito-Yokado formed Seven & I Holdings Co., and 7-Eleven became its subsidiary in 2005. In 2007, Seven & I Holdings announced it would be expanding their American operations, with an ranslet

Last Update: 2014-07-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous
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Building Team Owner: Chicago Park District, Chicago Architect: Adrian Smith Gordon Gill Architecture LLP, Chicago Structural Engineer: Thornton Tomasetti, Inc., Chicago General Contractor: Carbon Day Automotive, Chicago Photographer: Steinkamp Photography The Solar Canopy is an 11-foot-tall prototype structure consisting of 6,000 pounds of architecturally exposed structural steel (AESS). It is designed to harvest solar energy for use in powering electric/hybrid vehicles. Conceived by Carbon Day Automotive to promote sustainability initiatives in Chicago, the structure was unveiled in a temporary location in Douglas Park as one of the focal points of the International Olympic Committees visit to the city during the selection process for the site of the 2016 Olympics. Owned by the Chicago Park District, the canopy found its permanent home on Northerly Island near the city’s museum campus and has been actively charging electric vehicles. With a construction cost of $67,000, the structure employs a cost-efficient, aesthetically pleasing and sustainable design that was achieved through integrated structural solutions, streamlined fabrication, and simplified coordination. The canopy seamlessly blends into the background of any park and artistically complements neighboring buildings. The elegant design includes a tree-like steel superstructure that can support up to 900 pounds of solar equipment, a 300-sf canopy featuring photovoltaic panels, and a subterranean concrete foundation anchoring the structure to the ground. The prototype design is adaptable to integrate a range of photovoltaic technologies at varying orientations, providing sustainable solutions to any location around the world. The team aimed to create a flexible design that could accommodate a single structure or multiple structures linked back-to-back, creating a shaded corridor for users in the interstitial space. In large-scale applications of the solar canopy, parking lots can be converted into giant plug-in charging stations, with the possibility of surplus energy being donated to the power grid. Bolstering its sustainable appeal, the structure has the potential to collect, store, filter and reuse rainwater to irrigate adjacent agricultural or park lands. All of the canopy’s components and connections provided a cost-efficient structural design without compromising the architectural aesthetics. To achieve this solution, the smallest diameter pipes possible were bent with compound curves. The slender pipes were visually preferred both for a graceful appearance and to limit encroachment on parking spaces. 3D CAD and 3D analysis were used to design the complex curves that give this structure its tree-like form. Since an integrated conduit is required to transfer energy from the photovoltaic panels to an underground battery pack, small access holes were provided at the top and bottom of the pipes to conceal the electrical wiring as well as to drain water. Bolted connections were minimized in favor of welds to achieve the architectural design intent. Because of the increased use of welds, the canopy’s structural engineer sought to decrease field work by performing as much of the fabrication in the steel shop as possible. This process helped to reduce costs and allowed for better quality control of the end product. The canopy was shop fabricated as seven pieces that were limited in size to fit on a standard truck bed, streamlining shipping. Once on site, the base was set and the columns erected. The roof structure was delivered as two pieces and connected on the ground. The solar array was then installed and the roof lifted into position and set on the bolted seat connections found at the tops of the columns. The connections were designed so that the roof structure concealed the bolts from view. Located on Chicago’s lakefront, the canopy’s design accommodates the wind and snow loads of the city’s infamous weather, while providing an imaginative addition to the landscape. Creating the appearance of sprouting from the ground, the canopy is anchored to a concrete foundation located 1’ 4” below grade. The base connection and foundation were designed to resist a significant permanent overturning moment created by the unbalanced sprouting columns that asymmetrically cantilever from the base. To diminish deterioration of the structure, the concealed foundation allows for the heaviest of parking lot wearing surfaces, and hot-dipped galvanized steel prevents corrosion to the components exposed to the elements. Extensive collaboration was necessary among a team consisting of nine firms to realize the unique architectural design of the canopy, while still achieving a cost-sensitive, functional structure. With only three face-to-face meetings, the majority of communication was accomplished electronically. Team members shared ideas and designs effectively through virtual communication methods, creating an efficient design process. From concept to working prototype, the solar canopy design was completed in 25 days. As a prototype structure, the canopy is not only versatile with its ability to integrate multiple applications at a variety of sites, but it is also unique in its striking yet simplistic appearance. Whether it is used to fuel electric cars, bikes, or scooters, the canopy is a distinct addition to any landscape.

Penterjemahan

Last Update: 2014-04-15
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Reference: Wikipedia

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Last Update: 2011-08-01
Subject: Finances
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