MyMemory, World's Largest Translation Memory
Click to expand

Language pair: Click to swap content  Subject   
Ask Google

You searched for: traductor bing    [ Turn off colors ]

Human contributions

From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.

Add a translation

Spanish

English

Info

Bing traductor

pierce the veil

Last Update: 2014-03-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Bing

Bing

Last Update: 2014-03-30
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

traductor Kızı

A Systematic Review of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation Part I: Continuous Passive Motion, Early Weight Bearing, Postoperative Bracing, and Home-Based Rehabilitation Rick W. Wright, MD Emily Preston, PT Braden C. Fleming, PhD Annunziato Amendola, MD Jack T. Andrish, MD John A. Bergfeld, MD Warren R. Dunn, MPH, MD Chris Kaeding, MD John E. Kuhn, MD Robert G. Marx, MD Eric C. McCarty, MD Richard C. Parker, MD Kurt P. Spindler, MD Michelle Wolcott, MD Brian R. Wolf, MD Glenn N. Williams, PhD, PT, ATC ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) recon- struction is a common surgical knee procedure that requires intensive postoperative rehabilitation by the patient. A variety of randomized controlled trials have investigated aspects of ACL reconstruction rehabilita- tion. A systematic review of English language level 1 and 2 studies identified 54 appropriate randomized controlled trials of ACL rehabilitation. Topics dis- cussed in this part of the article include continuous passive motion, early weight bearing in motion, post- operative bracing, and home-based rehabilitation. [J Knee Surg. 2008;21:217-224.] IntroductIon Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure to allow patients to return to their for- mer active lifestyle. Rehabilitation of the reconstructed knee is critical for the successful return to risky cutting and jumping activities. Although many of the individual aspects of ACL rehabilitation have been evaluated using randomized trials, few reviews have used an evidence- based approach to create an overall protocol for ACL rehabilitation. Previous systematic reviews were not in- clusive of all possible aspects of rehabilitation (ie, brac- ing) and did not encompass many recently published studies.19,22 The goal of this systematic review was to assemble the available randomized controlled trials in ACL re- habilitation to facilitate the development of evidence- based rehabilitation protocols. This article is the first in a 2-part series systematically reviewing the level 1 and 2 evidence regarding ACL reconstruction rehabili- tation. Dr Wright is from the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washing- ton University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St Louis, Mo; Ms Preston and Drs Dunn, Kuhn, and Spindler are from the Van- derbilt Sports Medicine Center, Nashville, Tenn; Dr Fleming is from the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brown Medical School, Provi- dence, RI; Drs Amendola, Wolf, and Williams are from the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa; Drs Andrish, Bergfeld, and Parker are from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, and Dr Kaeding is from the Ohio State Sports Medicine Center, Columbus, Ohio; Dr Marx is from the Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY; and Drs McCarty and Wolcott are from the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colo. Correspondence: Rick W. Wright, MD, 1 Barnes-Jewish Plaza, Ste 11300, St Louis, MO 63110. 218 THE JOURNAL OF KNEE SURGERY July 2008 / Vol 21 No 3 Methods PubMed 1966-2005, Embase 1980-2005, and the Co- chrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for arti- cles appropriate to this study. Bibliographies of identified studies also were searched, and a hand review of the past 6 months of appropriate journals was performed. For the database search, terms included anterior cruciate ligament, ACL, rehabilitation, randomized trials, and clinical trials. This search identified 82 potential studies for inclusion. Inclusion criteria included English-language randomized clinical trials involving ACL reconstruction rehabilita- tion. Exclusion criteria included non-English language, no true randomization, and subject matter not pertaining to ACL reconstruction rehabilitation. This resulted in 54 studies included in this systematic review. Studies under- went worksheet appraisal for methodologic quality with emphasis on identifying biases present in each study. All studies were level 1 or 2 evidence. Topics included in this review are continuous passive motion (CPM), rehabilita- tive bracing, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, early weight bearing, home versus supervised physical therapy, open versus closed chain kinetic exercise programs, and accelerated rehabilitation, as well as a variety of miscel- laneous topics assessed by only 1 randomized trial. contInuous PassIve MotIon Six randomized controlled trials have been performed assessing the efficacy of CPM in the rehabilitation of ACL reconstructions. In a 1991 study, Richmond et al17 com- pared short-term versus longer-term CPM use. Twenty pa- tients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 used CPM 6 hours per day for 4 days during hospitalization. Group 2 used CPM 6 hours per day for the first 14 days postoperatively. Both groups underwent additional reha- bilitative activities. The study was prospective, but the randomization method was not discussed. Some selection bias was pres- ent by exclusion of patients whose insurance would not pay for a CPM machine. Otherwise, the 2 groups were similar. Reconstruction methods were identical for both groups. Swelling, atrophy, range of motion, and instrumented laxity were assessed postoperatively. Swelling, atrophy, and range of motion were assessed at 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. No significant difference was noted in any of these values at these time points. A statistically significant difference was noted on KT-1000 89 N testing at 42 days. The 14-day CPM group had statistically significant less anterior translation compared with the 4-day CPM group (0.4 mm versus 2.4 mm, P = .04). The authors concluded longer-term CPM use, given its higher cost, was not ben- eficial and also did not increase the risk of laxity in the knee. Rosen et al,20 in a 1992 study, compared early active motion versus CPM in patients undergoing autograft pa- tellar tendon reconstruction. Seventy-five patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A patients under- went early active motion during hospitalization followed by outpatient physical therapy (PT) 3 times per week, group B patients used a CPM machine 20 hours per day during hospitalization (mean, 2.9 days) followed by CPM use 6 hours per day for 4 weeks and outpatient PT 3 times per week, and group C patients performed early active motion during hospitalization and followed the group B CPM protocol but did not participate in outpatient physi- cal therapy for the first month. The study was prospective, and randomization was performed by a lottery. In general, there was minimal selection bias, with the groups equiva- lent except for gender. Group B had 42% women versus 24% and 20% in groups A and C, respectively. Exclusion criteria included extracapsular procedures and meniscal repairs. Range of motion and instrumented knee laxity were the most important determinants of outcome for the study. Range of motion was determined at hospital discharge, 1 week postoperatively, and then monthly for the first 6 months. No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the groups at any time. KT-1000 data were ob- tained at completion of the surgical procedure and at 2 and 6 months postoperatively. No difference in stability was noted between any group at any time point. In addition, no difference was noted in analgesic use, hemovac drainage, or length of hospital stay. The authors concluded the use of CPM in the first 30 days after ACL reconstruction re- sulted in similar results as early active motion. The CPM added an additional cost to treatment. In another 1992 study, Yates et al26 evaluated the ef- fects of 2 weeks of CPM following patellar tendon au- tograft ACL reconstruction. Using random sampling, 30 patients were randomized to either CPM 16 hours per day for the first 3 postoperative days followed by 6 hours per day for a total of 14 days use or an identical rehabilita- tion protocol without CPM. The authors concluded there was decreased hemarthrosis, decreased narcotic use, and decreased swelling in the CPM group. Active and passive flexion was noted to be improved at days 3 and 7 in the CPM group. McCarthy et al,11 in a 1993 study, assessed the effects of CPM on anterior laxity following ACL reconstruction. Twenty patients who underwent patellar tendon autograft ACL reconstruction were randomized to either CPM 16 hours per day for the first 3 days followed by 6 hours per day until postoperative day 14 or an identical rehabilita- tion protocol without CPM. KT-1000 testing at 12 months 219 ACL Reconstruction Rehabilitation: Part I www.JournalofKneeSurgery.com postoperatively demonstrated an identical average side-to- side difference of 0.4 mm in both groups, and all patients had side-to-side differences <3 mm. The authors con- cluded CPM did not result in increased anterior laxity. In another 1993 study, McCarthy et al12 compared 3 days of CPM versus no CPM on pain and narcotic re- quirements. Thirty patients who underwent bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction were randomized to 2 groups: group 1 began physical therapy on postoperative day 1 and group 2 began using a CPM machine immedi- ately postoperatively and continued its use for 16 hours per day for 3 days in addition to routine physical therapy similar to group 1. The randomization methods were not discussed. Patient-controlled analgesia use during the first 24 hours postoperatively, oral narcotic use on postoperative days 2 and 3, and graphic pain scales were used to assess results. The 2 groups were similar but no narcotic dose correc- tion for patient body weight was performed to standard- ize results. Total narcotic dose and the number of times the patient-controlled analgesia button was pushed were significantly increased in the non-CPM group (P , .05). Oral narcotic use on postoperative days 2 and 3 was sig- nificantly increased in the non-CPM group. Graphic pain scales were similar in all groups at all time periods. The authors concluded CPM is beneficial following autog- enous bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction to decrease narcotic use. Engström et al,3 in a 1995 study, compared CPM versus active motion in the early postoperative period. Thirty-four patients were randomized to 2 groups: group 1 started active motion on postoperative day 1 following ACL reconstruction and group 2 started CPM 6 hours per day for 6 days in addition to active motion beginning on postoperative day 1. The method of randomization was not discussed. Parameters evaluated included swelling, range of motion, and atrophy at 6 weeks postoperatively. Selection bias was present in the fact that the active mo- tion group had more acute ACL reconstructions (9 versus 3) and these patients had a much larger extension lag of 7.8° versus 0.8° in the CPM group. Otherwise, the groups were similar. There was no statistically significant difference at 6 weeks in range of motion or atrophy between the 2 groups. Midpatellar and base of patella circumference was increased in the active motion group at 6 weeks (P , .05). The authors attributed this difference to the fact that the active motion group contained more acute ACL recon- structions and had increased swelling preoperatively. The authors concluded there were no benefits of CPM after ACL reconstruction. All 6 of these studies included small numbers of pa- tients. Every study had at least 1 parameter that was de- termined not to be statistically different between groups. Selection bias by randomization method potentially ex- isted in all but the Rosen study.20 Blinding of examiners was not addressed in any study. Dropouts and compliance were not addressed in any study. None of the studies pre- sented power calculations to determine the size of group that would have been necessary to potentially demonstrate a difference if it did exist. Thus, these potentially have a type II error. Based on this review, there is no substantial advantage for CPM use except for a possible decrease in pain. Therefore, its use cannot be justified with its addi- tional insurance and patient costs. early WeIght bearIng and MotIon One randomized trial has been performed evaluating the efficacy of immediate weight bearing versus delayed weight bearing following ACL reconstruction. Tyler et al,24 in a 1998 study, compared immediate weight bearing as tolerated versus a delay of 2 weeks. Forty-nine patients were prospectively randomized following endoscopic au- tograft bone-patellar tendon-bone reconstructions. The randomization technique was not discussed. Independent examiners assessed the results, but blinding was not dis- cussed. Group 1 was instructed to discard their crutches as soon as possible and to bear as much weight as possible. Compliance with weight bearing was not determined. Group 2 was instructed to remain nonweight bearing for the first 2 weeks following reconstruction. They were in- structed to not wear a shoe to improve compliance. Two patients in each group were lost to follow-up. Parameters evaluated included range of motion, sta- bility, vastus medialis oblique electromyogram, Lysholm and Tegner scores, and anterior knee pain. KT-1000 test- ing demonstrated no difference at final follow-up, which ranged from 6 to 14 months. Range of motion showed no statistical difference at 2 weeks or final follow-up of 6 to 14 months (mean, 7.3 months). Vastus medialis oblique activity was significantly increased in the weight-bearing group at 2 weeks (P = .002); however, at final follow-up, vastus medialis oblique activity was equal in both groups. At final follow-up, a statistically significant difference in anterior knee pain was noted. Seven of 20 nonweight- bearing patients (35%) and 2 of 25 weight-bearing pa- tients (8%) reported pain (P = .03). Anterior knee pain was evaluated using questions from the Lysholm scale that described pain with routine exertion, stair climbing, or squatting. Lysholm scores demonstrated a significantly greater improvement from preoperatively in the weight- bearing group (P = .03). The authors concluded there were no deleterious ef- fects of early weight bearing on stability or function and anterior knee pain may be decreased by earlier recruit-

Last Update: 2013-10-28
Subject: Medical
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

bling del traductor

she's simply over him

Last Update: 2013-06-09
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

bing translator

Abstract. Purpose Qigong as a complementary and alternative modality of traditional Chinese medicine is often used by cancer patients to manage their symptoms. The aim of this systematic review is to critically evaluate the effectiveness of qigong exercise in cancer care. Methods Thirteen databases were searched from their inceptions through November 2010. All controlled clinical trials of qigong exercise among cancer patients were included. The strength of the evidence was evaluated for all included studies using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was also evaluated using the Jadad Scale. Results Twenty-three studies including eight RCTs and fifteen non-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were identified. The effects of qigong on physical and psychosocial outcomes were examined in 14 studies and the effects on biomedical outcomes were examined in 15 studies. For physical and psychosocial outcomes, it is difficult to draw a conclusion due to heterogeneity of outcome measures and variability of the results in the included studies. Among reviewed studies on biomedical outcomes, a consistent tendency appears to emerge which suggests that the patients treated with qigong exercise in combination with conventional methods had significant improvement in immune function than the patients treated with conventional methods alone.

Last Update: 2012-11-30
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

contratá un traductor

fabric

Last Update: 2012-12-13
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

ibook traductor

casting

Last Update: 2014-02-14
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Traductor ven realmente don.

i really don.t understand sorry

Last Update: 2012-11-15
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

traductor inteligente en linea

a qualitative study to develop a greater understanding of “intentional” unprotected anal intercourse among drug using gay and bisexual men, also known colloquially as barebacking. In our present analysis, we investigated this behavior in a subset of 12 HIV-negative men in the early adulthood stage of life to disentangle factors which functioned as facilitators of barebacking, a behavior which

Last Update: 2014-03-31
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

holabusca un traductor

looking for a translator

Last Update: 2013-12-01
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

traductor inteligente en linea

nozzle

Last Update: 2013-08-12
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

traductor inteligente en linea

Cannot deal with the excitement for the video and the album

Last Update: 2013-03-21
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

traductor inteligente en linea

How to analyse such a system? The ingenious device of the classical authors to see through the complexities of the modern economy consisted in distinguishing between the ‘actual’ values of the relevant variables – the distributive rates and prices – and their ‘normal’ values. The former were taken to reflect all kinds of influences, many of an accidental or temporary nature, about which no general propositions were possible, whereas the latter were conceived of as expressing the persistent, non-accidental and non-temporary factors governing the economic system, which could be systematically studied. The method of analysis adopted by the classical economists is known as the method of ‘long-period positions’ of the economy. Any such position is the situation towards which the system is taken to gravitate as the result of the self-seeking actions of agents, thereby putting into sharp relief the fundamentalforces at work. In conditions of free competition the resulting long-period position is characterized by a uniform rate of profits (subject perhaps to persistent inter-industry differentials reflecting different levels of risk and of agreeableness of the business; see Kurz and Salvadori, 1995, ch. 11) and uniform rates of remuneration for each particular kind of primary input. Competitive conditions were taken to engender cost-minimizing behaviour of profit-seeking producers. Alfred Marshall(1920) had interpreted the classical economists as essentially early and somewhat crude demand and supply theorists, with the demand side in its infancy. It was this interpretation and the underlying continuity thesis in economics that Sraffa challenged. As he showed, the classical economists' approach to the theory of value and distribution was fundamentally different from the later marginalist one, and explained profits in terms of basically two data:(a) the system of production in use and (b) a given real wage rate (or, alternatively, a given share of wages). Profits (and rents) were thus conceived of as a residual income. Whereas in marginalist theory wages and profits are treated symmetrically, in classical theory they are treated asymmetrically. On a still deeper methodological level the divide between the classical and the later marginalist authors could hardly be more pronounced. While the classical authors took the economic system to exist independently of the single agent and actually exert a considerable influence upon the latter depending upon the role ascribed to him as worker, capitalist or landowner, the marginalist authors advocated one version or another of ‘methodological individualism’, which takes a set of assumedly optimizing agents who exist independently of the system as a whole and who shape the system rather than the other way round. Let us now examine more closely the scope, content and analyticalstructure of classical theory. The classical economists proceeded essentially in two steps. In the first step they isolated the kinds of factors that were seen to determine income distribution and the prices supporting that distribution in specified conditions, that is, in a given place and time. The theory of value and distribution was designed to identify in abstracto the dominant factors at work and to analyse their interaction. In the second step they turned to an investigation of the causes which over time affected systematically the factors at work from within the economic system. This was the realm of the classical analysis of capital accumulation, technical change, economic growth and socio-economic development.

Last Update: 2013-02-19
Subject: History
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

traductor inteligente en linea

get sick

Last Update: 2013-02-19
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

traductor inteligente en linea

1-The years in office had made some difference in john kennedy. He was older looking now. There were lines in his face and gray hair in the thick red-brown hair. He still moved quickly and gracefully, however, and his confidence and humor had not diminished. 2-On November 21, 1963, three years after his election, he left Washington for a tour of Texas. Mrs. Kennedy went with him. one city on the tour was Dallas. Most of the business leaders of Dallas were protestants and strongly conservative. Many were bitterly against Kennedy. A month ago, Adlai Stevenson, an aide to President Kennedy, had gone to Dallas. During his speech, he had been heckled. When he had come out of the hall, a crowd of pickets had pushed against him. A woman had hit him on the head with a sign and a man had spit in Stevenson's face. 3-Because of these incidents, these was concern for the President's safety. However, all went well in Texas as the tour began. Cheering crowds greeted the President in San Antonio, Houston, and Fort Worth. On Friday, November 22, the President left Fort Worth and flew To Dallas for a parade and dinner. 4-Shortly before noon in Dallas, the parade began. It was a beautiful day: "Kennedy weather," it was later said. Cheering crowds lined the streets and increased in number as the parade neared the center of the town. Only a few anti-Kennedy signs were seen. 5-The President rode in the first car with Mrs. Kennedy, who looked beautiful in a bright pink suit and hat to match. Texas Governor Connally and his wife were in the same car. Secret service men protecting the President rode in his car the next one: The Bubble top of the president's car had been removed and the bullet-proof windows were open. He stood up most of the time waving to the crowd. As the parade slowed to make a turn, Kennedy sat down and began to Talk with the connallys. "You can't say that Dallas is not friendly to you today," said Mrs. Connally. 6-There was a sharp crackling sound. The President jerked and clutched his neck. Governor Connally turned around. The sound could have been a motorcycle backfiring. Then the sound was repeated. There was no mistaking it. Someone was shooting at the President’s car. 7-There was a burst of blood from the back of President Kennedy’s head and he fell forward into the arms of Mrs. Kennedy’s. Governor Connally was shot at the same time and tumbled into the arms of his wife. It happened in about six seconds. “Oh, my God!” cried Mrs. Kennedy. “They have shot my husband. Jack! Jack!” 8-When the limousine came to Parkland Hospital, the President lay unconscious in the arms of his wife. In minutes, both the President and Governor Connally were being carried on stretchers into emergency rooms. 9-Doctors worked desperately to save the President’s life, but there was no hope. Mrs. Kennedy stood quietly in the room as they worked, but her eyes were filled with tears. In the meantime, Governor Connally was also being examined. His wounds were serious, but not fatal. 10-At 1:33 p.m., a press aide, red-eyed and with a sharking voice, told the waiting reporters, “President John F. Kennedy died at approximately 1:00 p.m. here in Dallas. He died of a gunshot wound in the brain.” 11- There was a stunned hush for a moment after the statement was read. Then the reporters rushed to the telephone. All over the country, people listening or watching as the news was broadcast had the same stunned, unbelieving reaction. 12- That afternoon, Dallas police arrested a man named Lee Harvey Oswald, who was suspected of being the assassin. Oswald, however, was never brought to trial, for two days later, he himself was killed. As he was being moved from the city jail to the county jail, a Dallas man named Jack Ruby jumped from the crowd of newspapermen and shot Pswald. Ruby died in prison three years later. 13- The full details of the assassination may never be known. After Johnson became President, he appointed a commision led by Supreme Courrt Justice Earl Warren to investigate John Kennedy’s death. The Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was the killer, and that he acted alone and was not part of a conspiracy. There were conflicting reports, however, of how many shots were fired and where they came from, and the results of the investigation were much disputed.

Last Update: 2012-11-26
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

traductor inteligente en linea

It's Aeria Browser's 3rd Anniversary! To celebrate, we're asking you to get involved! We love getting cards for special events, which is why we're asking for a card by you! How to Participate! Design a card celebrating our Anniversary and take a picture of it! Make sure you put our logo somewhere on the card so we know it's for us! After you take a picture, host it to an image hosting website! Then find the link to submit your entry on our Facebook Page, found by clicking here! We'll pick our favorite and reward the best ones with AP and a profile badge!

Last Update: 2013-08-30
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Bingen

Bingen am Rhein

Last Update: 2014-02-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Bingo

Bingo

Last Update: 2014-01-24
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Binga

Mbenga people

Last Update: 2013-12-12
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Traductores

Translation

Last Update: 2013-08-27
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Add a translation