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Salawikain

Filipino proverbs

Last Update: 2014-11-08
Usage Frequency: 24
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Salawikain

Proverb

Last Update: 2014-11-08
Usage Frequency: 4
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

Salawikain

filipino word mapagdangat

Last Update: 2014-11-04
Usage Frequency: 8
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

mga halimbawa Ng mga salitang denotasyon

Yume demo, gozen-chū ni, anata ga yarigaida

Last Update: 2014-11-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

pakimkim enlish translation?

pakimkim Enlish translation?

Last Update: 2014-11-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

kasalungat ng salitang nasyonalismo

opposite of the word nationalism

Last Update: 2014-11-07
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

kasalungat ng salitang matillllllll

opposite word agenda

Last Update: 2014-11-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

salitang mahal kita sa ibat-ibang wikang ibat ibang relihiyon5

words I love you in different languages ​​different relihiyon5

Last Update: 2014-11-06
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous

Education in India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012) This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. (May 2012) Education in the Republic of India Indian Department of Education Ministry of Human Resource Development Smriti Zubin Irani National education budget (2005–2012) Budget 991 billion(US$16 billion) General details Primary languages Hindi, English, or State language System type federal, state, private Established Compulsory Education 1 April 2010 Literacy (2011[2]) Total 74%[1] Male 82.2% Female 65.5% Enrollment (2011[3]) Total (N/A) Primary 93% Secondary 69% Post secondary 25% Attainment Secondary diploma 40%[citation needed] Post-secondary diploma 7%[citation needed] Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels:central, state, and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7-100 age group, by 2011.[4] India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[5] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group.[6] Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market.[7] As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 229 million students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 2.3 million students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 19% increase in girl's enrollment.[8] While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government run school system. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25 percent of teachers everyday.[9] States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.[10] In India's education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a minimum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest percentage of reservations in India. The University of Mumbai, established 1857, is one of the three oldest modern state universities in India. Contents [hide] • 1 Education system o 1.1 Overview o 1.2 Primary education o 1.3 Secondary education o 1.4 Private schools o 1.5 Homeschooling o 1.6 Higher education o 1.7 Technical education o 1.8 Open and distance learning • 2 Quality o 2.1 Literacy o 2.2 Attainment o 2.3 Public school workforce o 2.4 Higher education o 2.5 Vocational • 3 Women's education • 4 Rural education o 4.1 Vocational education o 4.2 Science education o 4.3 English as a second language • 5 Issues o 5.1 Facilities o 5.2 Curriculum issues o 5.3 Accreditation o 5.4 Employer training • 6 Central government involvement o 6.1 Initiatives o 6.2 Budget o 6.3 Public expenditure on education in India o 6.4 Legislative framework • 7 Historical • 8 See also • 9 References • 10 External links Education system[edit] Overview[edit] Children lining up for school in Kochi. A school bus in Indore The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education.[11]:3 In this pattern, study of 12 years is done in schools or in colleges,[11]:44 and then 3 years of undergraduate education for a bachelor's degree.[12] The first 10 years is further subdivided into 5 years of primary education, 3 years of upper primary, followed by 2 years of high school.[11]:5 This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.[13] The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for curriculum related matters for school education in India.[14] The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies.[15] Other curriculum bodies governing school education system are: • The state government boards, in which the majority of Indian children are enrolled. • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). CBSE conducts two examinations, namely, the All India Secondary School Examination, AISSE (Class/Grade 10) and the All India Senior School Certificate Examination, AISSCE (Class/Grade 12). • The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). CISCE conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE - Class/ Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC - Class/ Grade 12) and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE - Class/Grade 12). • The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) conducts two examinations, namely, Secondary Examination and Senior Secondary Examination (All India) and also some courses in Vocational Education. • International schools affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations. • Islamic Madrasah schools, whose boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband. • Autonomous schools like Woodstock School, The Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Auroville, Patha Bhavanand Ananda Marga Gurukula. In addition, NUEPA (National University of Educational Planning and Administration)[16] and NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education) are responsible for the management of the education system and teacher accreditation.[17] Primary education[edit] The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 5 to 14 years old.[18] The Indian government has also banned child labor in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.[18] However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions.[18] 80% of all recognized schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.[19] School children, Mumbai However, due to a shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher training. Figures released by the Indian government in 2011 show that there were 5,816,673 elementary school teachers in India.[20] As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school teachers in India.[21]Education has also been made free[18] for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.[22] There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Education Revitalization Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary education system.[23]85% of the DERP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15 percent was funded by the states.[23] The DERP, which had opened 160000 new schools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 3.5 million children, was also supported by UNICEF and other international programmes.[23] This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% for the last three years in some states.[23] Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme.[23] The current scheme for universalization of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low. Secondary education[edit] Secondary school students Senior School students in Punjab Secondary education covers children aged 14 to 18, a group comprising 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001. The final two years of secondary is often called Higher Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or simply the "+2" stage. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HDR ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses. UGC, NCERT and CBSE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to take board exams. Those at least fifteen years old by the 30th of May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those seventeen by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams. It further states that upon successful completion of Higher Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such as Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration. A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing.[24] A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.[25] A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education.[14] but which was converted into Inclusive Education at Secondary Stage[26] Another notable special programme, the Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, who are distributed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee's family has been transferred.[14] The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yogainto the Indian secondary school system.[27] Private schools[edit] According to current estimates, 29% of Indian children are privately educated.[6] With more than 50% children enrolling in private schools in urban areas, the balance has already tilted towards private schooling in cities; and, even in rural areas, nearly 20% of the children in 2004-5 were enrolled in private schools.[28] Most middle-class families send their children to private schools,[28] which might be in their own city or at distant boarding schools such as Rajkumar College, Rajkot, the oldest private school in India. At such schools, the medium of education is often English, but Hindi and/or the state's official language is also taught as a compulsory subject.[citation needed]Preschool education is mostly limited to organised neighbourhood nursery schools with some organised chains.[citation needed] Many privately owned and managed schools carry the appellation "Public", such as the Delhi Public Schools, or Frank Anthony Public Schools. These are modeled after British public schools, which are a group of older, expensive and exclusive fee-paying private independent schools in England. According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a multiple of the unit cost of government schools.[29][30][31] However, others have suggested that private schools fail to provide education to the poorest families, a selective being only a fifth of the schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation.[citation needed] In their favour, it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and drama.[32] The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for government schools) and more teachers in private schools are female.[citation needed]There is some disgreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to the latest DISE survey, the percentage of untrained teachers (parateachers) is 54.91% in private, compared to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schools receive inservice training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition in the school market is intense, yet most schools make profit.[32] However, the number of private schools in India is still low - the share of private institutions is 7% (with upper primary being 21% and secondary 32% - source : fortress team research). Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free. A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools.[31] Homeschooling[edit] Homeschooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option. The Indian Government's stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home, if they wish to and have the means. HRD Minister Kapil Sibal has stated that despite the RTE Act of 2009, if someone decides not to send his/her children to school, the government would not interfere.[33] Higher education[edit] Main article: Higher education in India See also: List of Indian institutions of higher education The Auditorium at Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Kolkata. Indian Institute of Management,Ahmedabad. VESIT, Engineering College underMumbai University The social sciences and business management departments are housed at the Alipore campus, University of Calcutta inKolkata After passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general degree programmes such as bachelor's degree in arts, commerce or science, or professional degree programmes such as engineering, law or medicine.[34]India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States.[35] The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state.[36] Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by theUniversity Grants Commission.[37] In India, education system is reformed. In the future, India will be one of the largest education hubs. As of 2012, India has 152[38] central universities, 316 state universities, and 191 private universities. Other institutions include 33,623[39] colleges, including 1,800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions,[36] and 12748 Institutions offering Diploma Courses. The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology.[40] Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes.[41] Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher education system.[41] The Government has launched Rashtriya Uchchattar Shiksha Abhiyan to provide strategic funding to State higher and technical institutions. A total of 316 state public universities and 13,024 colleges will be covered under it.[42] Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Science and University of Mumbai have been globally acclaimed for their standard of undergraduate education in engineering.[41][43] The IITs enroll about 10,000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India.[44] However the IIT's have not had significant impact on fundamental scientific research and innovation. Several other institutes of fundamental research such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Harishchandra Research Institute (HRI), are acclaimed for their standard of research in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce world class universities both in the private sector or the public sector.[45] Besides top rated universities which provide highly competitive world class education to their pupils, India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the sole objective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. Indian Government has failed to check on these education shops, which are run by big businessmen & politicians. Many private colleges and universities do not fulfill the required criterion by the Government and central bodies (UGC, AICTE, MCI, BCI etc.) and take students for a ride. For example, many institutions in India continue to run unaccredited courses as there is no legislation strong enough to ensure legal action against them. Quality assurance mechanism has failed to stop misrepresentations and malpractices in higher education. At the same time regulatory bodies have been accused of corruption, specifically in the case of deemed-universitie

Education in India

Last Update: 2014-11-08
Subject: General
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:
Reference: Anonymous
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Salawikain

Salawikain

Last Update: 2014-11-04
Usage Frequency: 5
Quality:
Reference: Wikipedia

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