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Englisch

human resource management system

Kanaresisch

Kannada

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-12-29
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

human resource management system

Kanaresisch

ಮಾನವ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲ ನಿರ್ವಹಣಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-07-11
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Human resource

Kanaresisch

ಮಾನವ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-12-18
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Japanese human resource management system

Kanaresisch

ಮಾನವ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲ ನಿರ್ವಹಣಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-10-28
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

What is human resource

Kanaresisch

ಮಾನವ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲ ಎಂದರೇನು?

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-12-15
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Human resources

Kanaresisch

ಮಾನವ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲಗಳು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-12-04
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Referenz: Wikipedia

Englisch

write an essay on water resource management in kannada language

Kanaresisch

ಕನ್ನಡ ಭಾಷೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಜಲ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಕುರಿತಾಗಿ ಪ್ರಬಂಧವೊಂದನ್ನು ಬರೆಯಬೇಕಾಗಿತ್ತು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-08-09
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Human resources planning

Kanaresisch

ಮಾನವ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲ ಯೋಜನೆ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-09-30
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

human resources i social progress

Kanaresisch

ಶಿಕ್ಷಣ ಮಕ್ಕಳ ಬಲಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ ಭಾಷಾಂತರಿಸಲು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-02-14
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Accidents and mishaps are unforeseen circumstances that can affect individuals and groups at any time and in any place. Most accidents are preventable, but the carelessness or negligence of the involved individuals leads to major injuries and grievances. Accidents can also occur in the workplace and seriously affect the ability and health of the involved workers. The objectives of this essay to discuss the safety and wellbeing of all workers are necessary for the organization not only for consistent productivity but also due to regulatory requirements. Workers and human resources are the necessary components of all organizations due to their role in the effective accomplishment of objectives. Corporations cannot achieve long-term success and sustainable growth in the absence of motivated, safe, healthy, and effective workers. The health and safety of all workers are necessary to ensure the enhancement of productivity and efficiency at all levels and areas. Lack of safety measures can create havoc for the organization and negatively affect the working criterion of an organization. The management has to devise and implement effective safety procedures to reduce hazards and prevent accidents in the workplace. The can motivate the employees through this perspective as employees admire working in organizations that prefer safe working conditions. Employees believe that safer working conditions enhance their ability work because they do not feel scared in troublesome situations. The management should coordinate with all the related stakeholders when they devise policies about safety at workplace, as this would enhance a positive change in an organization. Different legislations also depict that organizations should focus on these perspectives and they should attain self-sufficiency in providing workplace safety.

Kanaresisch

ಕೈಗಾರಿಕಾ ಸುರಕ್ಷತಾ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-03-17
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 4
Qualität:

Referenz: MAHENDRA.P

Englisch

essay on environment HOW TO CELEBRATE WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY A GUIDE TO MAKING 5 JUNE 2015 A SUCCESS! Who this toolkit is for. • Want to know what WED is about? • Need ideas on how to celebrate or start preparing? • Want to know what others are doing to celebrate this year? • Want to make your actions count? This toolkit is right for you! There is an alarmingly high rate of unsustainable consumption of resources as, exemplified in the areas of food, water and energy. Largely driven by increasing household incomes (particularly in cities), the current collective lifestyles of people all over the world exceed our planet’s regenerative capacity to replenish natural resources. Today the human race consumes resources the equivalent of 1.5 planets. This means it now takes one year and six months for the Earth to regenerate what we use in a year. If current consumption and production patterns remain the same, and with a rising population, we will need two planets by 2030 to sustain our ways of living and consumption. This year’s theme for WED – Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care – expresses the challenge of creating opportunities for inclusive and sustainable economic development while attempting to stabilise the rate of resource use and reduce environmental impacts. For all seven billion of us, our present and our future depend on the sustainable consumption of our planet’s resources. On WED, let us pledge one less thing we will do without, in order to restore our planet’s natural regenerative ability? This guide is designed to inspire you with exciting ideas and we’ll give you practical suggestions for organising your event. Make your environment efforts known by celebrating WED and registering them on our website – www.unep.org/wed WELCOME! Welcome to your quick guide to celebrating World Environment Day (WED) on 5 June, 2015. WHY CELEBRATE WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY? When we see or experience the negative effects of climate change, environmental degradation or resource depletion it is easy to blame others - governments for not prioritising environmental policy; corporate organisations for raising greenhouse gas emissions; NGOs for not lobbying strongly enough for the environment; and individuals for not taking action. World Environment Day however is a day we put aside our differences and instead celebrate the achievements we’ve made towards protecting the environment. By celebrating WED, we remind ourselves and others of the importance of caring for our environment. Remember that every action counts, so join us: every year, everywhere, everyone! THEME RATIONALE Sustainable consumption can be described as “the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life-cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations” (Oslo Symposium, 1994). ABOUT WED World Environment Day (WED) is the United Nations’ campaign for encouraging worldwide awareness and action for the environment. It was established by the United Nations General Assembly to mark the opening of the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. Over the years it has grown to be a global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated by stakeholders in over 100 countries. It also serves as the people’s day for doing something positive for the environment, inspiring individual actions into a collective power that generates an exponential positive impact on the planet. WED is celebrated around the world in many ways, including street rallies, bicycle parades, green concerts, essay and poster competitions in schools, tree planting, recycling efforts, clean-up campaigns and much more. CURRENT RATE OF NATURAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION By 2050, humanity could devour about 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year – three times its current appetite – unless economic growth rate is ‘decoupled’ from the rate of natural resource use. Over 60 percent of the ecosystems and their services upon which we rely are degraded, overexploited or already lost. With an additional 3 billion middle class consumers expected to enter the global economy by 2030, more natural resources will be lost forever if ‘business-as-usual’ prevails. Evidence is building that people are consuming far more natural resources than what the planet can sustainably provide. The well-being of humanity, the environment, and the functioning of the economy, ultimately depend upon the responsible management of the planet’s natural resources. Many of the Earth’s ecosystems are nearing critical tipping points of depletion or irreversible change, pushed by high population growth and economic development. The WED 2015 campaign therefore captures sustainable consumption in the context of the planet’s regenerative capacity. Supported by the slogan – Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care – WED this year therefore aims to raise awareness on the unsustainable rate at which we are consuming the planet’s resources, and shift individual and collective behaviour towards sustainable lifestyles. FOOD While substantial environmental impacts from food occur in the production phase (agriculture, food processing), households influence these impacts through their dietary choices and habits. This consequently affects the environment through food-related energy consumption and waste generation. ENERGY Despite technological advances that have promoted energy efficiency gains, energy use in OECD countries will continue to grow another 35%[ERROR] by 2020. Commercial and residential energy use is the second most rapidly growing area of global energy use after transport. In 2002 the motor vehicle stock in OECD countries was 550 million vehicles (75%[ERROR] of which were personal cars). A 32%[ERROR] increase in vehicle ownership is expected by 2020. At the same time, motor vehicle kilometres are projected to increase by 40%[ERROR] and global air travel is projected to triple in the same period. WATER Even though households are relatively low consumers of water, population growth and expanded water use have outweighed the effect of water saving technology and behaviour. THREE MAIN AREAS OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION Environmental pressures will intensify in three areas of household consumption. PLANNING FOR WED? 5 QUICK STEPS 1 DETERMINE THE INTERESTS FOR WED Discuss the possibility of organising an event around WED with your colleagues, your community, environmental co-ordinators, other NGOs and local government. Brainstorm on possible areas of interest. Review any past experiences with WED or similar events. See unep.org/wed 2 DETERMINE WHAT ACTIVITIES ARE PLANNED AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL Find out what is being prepared for celebrations at the international, regional and national levels – unep.org/wed/regional-features. Speak with organisers of these events and see how you can support them. 3 LINK THE WED THEME TO YOUR ACTIVITIES The official theme for 2015 is Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care. This theme reflects challenge of creating opportunities for inclusive and sustainable economic development while attempting to stabilise the rate of resource use and reduce environmental impacts. This year’s theme gives you plenty of room to be creative. Figure out clever ways to link your activities to the official theme! Think of punchy messaging that will attract the most attention and motivate others to get involved! 4 PREPARE A PLAN Early planning is essential to your success. Draw up a basic plan of action for discussion with friends, colleagues or senior management. Set objectives and determine a preliminary series of activities as well as a provisional timetable. Make sure you get permission or clearance from your relevant local authorities well in advance – especially if you are planning public demonstrations or other open activities – to avoid disappointment on the day of celebration. Seek partnerships and possible financial support for your activities (e.g. local companies to help you print t-shirts, caps, posters and banners with WED messaging). Download artwork from the WED website multimedia section. 5 CELEBRATE WITH US This is the most important step of your planning. Why celebrate alone? You can get instant visibility for your activities by registering them on our website. Also think of smart, quirky or funny ways to motivate people around you. Invite the local media to your event! Engage leaders, celebrities and government officials that will help attract the media! NEED TO USE THE WED LOGO? Download the WED logo and style guide from the multimedia section of unep.org/wed. The logo is available in the official UN languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish WHO DO I SPEAK TO IF I NEED MORE INFORMATION? Our website www.unep.org/wed is a great place to begin but feel free to talk to us in person. Contact: Ms. Lucita Jasmin Division of Communications and Public Information United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Tel: 254-20-7623401 /7621551 Email: worldenvironmentday@unep.org THIS SOUNDS EXPENSIVE Participation in World Environment Day does not require a huge financial investment. WED is a people’s event so the objective is to get everyone to participate in one way or another. By including local communities and other partners in your WED events, the possibilities of finding interested sponsors are more likely. All you need is passion for the cause, and well-planned activities. Good luck! SUGGESTED WAYS OF CELEBRATING WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY Various events and practical activities, identified below, highlight what actions can be taken to celebrate WED. This list is not exhaustive and many activities may spring to mind that will be better suited to your local needs and conditions. If each of us contributes a little to this celebration, it will be a far greater success. The most important goal of this day is to raise awareness on the rate of overconsumption in the areas of food, energy and water. • Arts and Crafts Exhibitions/ Film Festivals • Ceremonies and Celebrities • Competitions • Concerts • Demonstration Activities • Drama and Poetry • Environmental Education and Awareness-Raising • Flash Mobs • Information Kits • Online and Social Media Activities • Publicity and Media Coverage • Sports Activities • Other Ideas: create your own ideas and guidelines, and submit to us! ARTS AND CRAFTS EXHIBITIONS/ FILM FESTIVALS What is involved? Why support this activity? • Paintings related to any of the main areas of household consumption: food, energy and water. • Displays of pottery, wooden figurines, stone articles, grass baskets, clothes etc. • Demonstration on how energy-saving stoves are manufactured and maintained. • Crafts made with recycled materials, e.g. plastics or tins. • Posters and photo exhibitions carrying the essence of consumption levels in food, energy and water. • Screening of compelling films on the environment made by different communities. • Art uses symbolic messages to capture an audience and communicate a message in unconventional ways. What begins as an appreciation for art could develop into a true passion for the environment. • Many art forms use environmentally sustainable and natural resources that complement the objectives of your exhibit. • Film, as a medium, engages all people without necessarily being limited by literacy levels. Films can attract large crowds. How to organise it? • Decide what will happen with the artwork or films you will collect, whether the artists maintain rights or if you will use them for promotion afterwards. Seek legal advice concerning rights if you intend to use the artwork beyond your exhibition and especially if there will be a commercial aspect. • After you have decided on your theme and identified partners (including sponsors) publish a call for submissions in your local news outlets. • Consider a prize for winners. • Select a jury from reputable and or renowned artists and filmmakers. • Set up displays of arts and crafts of various cultural/local origins. ARTS AND CRAFTS EXHIBITIONS/ FILM FESTIVALS Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Invite your local community to submit artwork. • Encourage the participation of marginalised groups (e.g. women, children and orphans) by creating appropriate categories for their submissions. • If local authorities, government, implementing partners, or conservation agencies are receptive to your concept, bring them on board as partners. • Seek sponsorship from governments, agencies, museums, existing film festivals and the corporate sector (arts and crafts or ethnological museums/funds could be interested). • Invite the media, advertise, take pictures, and register activity on the WED website. • Download the WED logo and posters, and clearly display them on the day to give your event context – unep.org/wed. How to organise it? (continued) CEREMONIES AND CELEBRITIES What is involved? Why support this activity? • A speech on the environment, focusing on the WED theme and with special emphasis on the environmental challenges in the community and their possible solutions. • Identify and approach a goodwill ambassador that is well known by your target audience. • The involvement of prominent local personalities who are authoritative voices on the environment could lend credibility to your event. • You can reach a large number of people in a short time, which makes sponsorship and media coverage more likely. • The presence of a celebrity attracts attention from the media and a crowd. The media acts as a multiplier for your efforts through their ability to increase attention towards your efforts. How to organise it? • Your primary objective is to add significance to WED by encouraging governments, local authorities, communities or corporate organisations to announce new environmental commitments, targets, policies or programmes on the day itself. This means you must conduct ground research in order to make meaningful suggestions to your target authority. Once you have ‘sold them’ to your idea, convince them to announce it at a ceremony on World Environment Day. • It is common to mark a special event like WED with a ceremony or presentation. It can be short, with introductory speeches by celebrities, politicians or sponsors. • Invite government representatives, local authorities or respected persons from your local community. • Enlist your partners and sponsors to help organise and publicise the ceremony. • Make sure your celebrities are well-briefed in advance and that they re-iterate your planned messages. CEREMONIES AND CELEBRITIES Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Ideally, the speech venue should be open to all. • Partner with governments, ministries, implementing agencies, as well as with local businesses (present them with an opportunity to use their company logos). They may also be willing to provide some form of sponsorship. Investigate the core principles of each institution and ensure they tally with your ideas before requesting funding. • Invite the media! – unep.org/wed. Don’t expect them to show up on their own. Prepare a media pack: a few fact sheets or notes that you will give away to the media. If you have a specific message that you would like them to carry, make sure that you spell this out in the media pack. This way they will have the necessary details to write or film a piece on your event. Come up with catchy short phrases that the press can quote. Remember to give background information on your objectives, supported by facts. • Download the WED logo and posters, and clearly display them on the day to give your event context – unep.org/wed. How to organise it? (continued) What is involved? Why support this activity? How to organise it? Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Drawing, painting, films and essay competitions on issues of over consumption in areas of food, energy and water. Note: Where funds permit, small awards such as t-shirts, stickers or pens are ideal prizes for successful participants. Winners of contests should receive some sort of public recognition and prize. • Competitions are an ideal ways to engage and involve young people especially in celebrations of this nature. • Competitions encourage people to think of their own actions, how these might impact the environment, and what steps they might take to change their behaviour. Set guidelines and rules for the competition, stating who can participate. Ensure that your competition entry guidelines emphasize the WED theme. • Make sure you advertise widely in order to enrich the quality of your entries. Target schools, for example. • Decide on a reward for winners that will make it worthwhile for participants. • Set up a jury with, preferably, experts in the field of competition. • The process should be as transparent as possible ensure successful results. • Include students and youth groups in competitions. • Partnerships can be sought with agencies working with education, local schools and teachers. COMPETITIONS CONCERTS What is involved? Why support this activity? How to organise it? Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Performances of musicians and artists. • Green concerts: have low energy consumption or mechanisms to offset (such as asking audience to walk, cycle or take public transport to the event and using only food packaging that is recyclable). • Concert with musical instruments made from natural resources. • Play music related to the theme. • Music is a good way to attract people. • Music crosses barriers, and so it can help to open discussions on difficult issues. • Music enhances the ambience of a gathering. • Hire musicians and prepare a stage where they can perform. • Include a well-known musician from the hosting community or country. • Try to include other artists (e.g. acrobats and fire-walkers) while the music plays to make it an audio-visual show. • Include visibility material around the stage (like WED posters and banners, downloadable from the WED website) and include short speeches on the purpose of the event at the beginning of the show. • By inviting local musicians you can rally up a big crowd and foster goodwill with the local community. • Partnerships can be found within government or local businesses (display their logo on the stage, together with WED visibility material). • Seek sponsorship by partnering with organisations and availing advertising opportunities. • Charge an entry fee to offset the cost of your event. DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES What is involved? Why support this activity? • Display of posters on positive actions we can take to reduce food, energy and water consumption. • Awareness-raising of the value of natural resources (prevention of pollution, careful use/reuse of water, identifying certified forest products etc.) • Workshop on how different resources can be used in several ways and several times (e.g. washing, cleaning or watering plants with grey water, i.e. water that has already been used for something else and is no longer considered safe for consumption). • Demonstration can include the building of fuel-efficient stoves, alternative fuels, additional use of good cooking/fire management practices, the sustainable agriculture, sustainable use of forest resources; fish farming techniques, school or kitchen gardens. • Demonstration activities can be both instructive and entertaining, for local communities. • They are often the best way of introducing new ideas and sharing knowledge and experience: people are more comfortable using new techniques once they can see that others have benefited from them. • Demonstration a

Kanaresisch

ಪರಿಸರದ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-08-31
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: MAHENDRA.P

Englisch

SWACHH BHARAT ABHIYAN ESSAY 8 (1400 WORDS – LONG ESSAY) Introduction Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is started by the government to make India a completely clean India. Clean India was a dream seen by the Mahatma Gandhi regarding which he said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. During his time he was well aware of the poor and dirty condition of the country that’s why he made various efforts to complete his dream however could not be successful. As he dreamt of clean India a day, he said that both cleanliness and sanitation are integral parts of healthy and peaceful living. Unfortunately, India became lack of cleanliness and sanitation even after 67 years of independence. According to the statistics, it has seen that only few percentage of total population have access to the toilets. It is a programme run by the government to seriously work to fulfill the vision of Father of Nation (Bapu) by calling the people from all walks of life to make it successful globally. This mission has to be completed by 150th birth anniversary of Bapu (2nd October of 2019) in next five years (from the launch date). It is urged by the government to people to spend their only 100 hours of the year towards cleanliness in their surrounding areas or other places of India to really make it a successful campaign. There are various implementation policies and mechanisms for the programme including three important phases such as planning phase, implementation phase and sustainability phase. What is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a national cleanliness campaign established by the Government of India. This campaign is covering 4041 statutory towns in order to clean roads, streets, and infrastructure of the India. It is a mass movement has run to create a Clean India by 2019. It is a step ahead to the Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of swachh Bharat for healthy and prosperous life. This mission was launched on 2nd of October 2014 (145th birth anniversary of Bapu) by targeting its completeness in 2019 on 150th birth anniversary of Bapu. The mission has been implemented to cover all the rural and urban areas of the India under the Ministry of Urban Development and the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation accordingly. The first cleanliness drive (on 25th of September 2014) of this mission was started by the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi earlier to its launch. This mission has targeted to solve the sanitation problems as well as better waste management all over the India by creating sanitation facilities to all. Need of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Swachh Bharat mission is very necessary to run continuously in India until it gets its goal. It is very essential for the people in India to really get the feeling of physical, mental, social and intellectual well being. It is to make living status advance in India in real means which can be started by bringing all over cleanliness. Below I have mentioned some points proving the urgent need of swachh bharat abhiyan in India: • It is really very essential to eliminate the open defecation in India as well as making available toilets facility to everyone. • It is needed in India to convert the insanitary toilets into flushing toilets. • It is necessary in order to eradicate the manual scavenging system. • It is to implement the proper waste management through the scientific processes, hygienic disposal, reuse, and recycling of the municipal solid wastes. • It is to bring behavioral changes among Indian people regarding maintenance of personal hygiene and practice of healthy sanitation methods. • It is to create global awareness among common public living in rural areas and link it to the public health. • It is to support working bodies to design, execute and operate the waste disposal systems locally. • It is to bring private-sector participation to develop sanitary facilities all through the India. • It is to make India a clean and green India. • It is necessary to improve the quality of life of people in rural areas. • It is to bring sustainable sanitation practices by motivating communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions through the awareness programmes like health education. • It is to bring the dream of Bapu to really come true. Swachh Bharat Mission in Urban Areas The swachh bharat mission of urban areas aims to cover almost 1.04 crore households in order to provide them 2.6 lakhs of public toilets, 2.5 lakhs of community toilets together with the solid wastes management in every town. Community toilets have been planned to be built in the residential areas where availability of individual household toilets is difficult and public toilets at designated locations including bus stations, tourist places, railway stations, markets, etc. Cleanliness programme in the urban areas (around 4,401 towns) have been planned to be completed over five years till 2019. The costs of programmes are set like Rs 7,366 crore on solid waste management, Rs 1,828 crore on public awareness, Rs 655 crore on community toilets, Rs 4,165 crore on individual household toilets, etc. Programmes which have been targeted to be completed are complete removal of open defecation, converting unsanitary toilets into flush toilets, eradicating manual scavenging, bring behavioral changes among public, and solid waste management. Gramin Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin swachh bharat mission is a mission implementing cleanliness programmes in the rural areas. Earlier the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (also called Total Sanitation campaign, TSC) was established by the Government of India in 1999 to make rural areas clean however now it has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). This campaign is aimed to make rural areas free of open defecation till 2019 for which the cost has been estimated is one lakh thirty four thousand crore rupees for constructing approximately 11 crore 11 lakh toilets in the country. There is a big plan of converting waste into bio-fertilizer and useful energy forms. This mission involves the participation of gram panchayat, panchayat samiti and Zila Parishad. Following are the objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin): • To improve quality of life of people living in the rural areas. • Motivate people to maintain sanitation in rural areas to complete the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019. • To motivate local working bodies (such as communities, Panchayati Raj Institutions, etc) to make available the required sustainable sanitation facilities. • Develop advance environmental sanitation systems manageable by the community especially to focus on solid and liquid waste management in the rural areas. • To promote ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation in the rural areas. Swachh Bharat-Swachh Vidyalaya Campaign The swachh bharat swachh vidyalaya campaign runs by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development having same objectives of cleanliness in the schools. A big programme was organized under it from 25th of September 2014 to 31st of October 2014 in the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodaya Vidyalya Sangathans where lots of cleanliness activities were held such as discussion over various cleanliness aspects in the school assembly by the students, teachings of Mahatma Gandhi related to cleanliness, cleanliness and hygiene topics, cleaning activities (in the class rooms, libraries, laboratories, kitchen sheds stores, playgrounds, gardens, toilets, pantry areas, etc), cleaning of statue in the school area, speech over the contribution of great people, essay writing competition, debates, art, painting, film, shows, role plays related to hygiene including other many activities on cleanliness and hygiene. It has also been planned to held half an hour cleaning campaign in the schools twice a week involving the cleanliness activities by the teachers, students, parents and community members. Swachh Bharat cess: Swachh Bharat cess is an improvement in the service tax by .5% on all the services in India. It was started by the Finance Ministry to collect some fund from each and every Indian citizen for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in order to make it a successful campaign. Everyone has to pay extra 50 paise for each 100 rupees as service tax for this cleanliness campaign. Another Cleanliness Initiative in Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath (Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh), in March 2017, has banned chewing paan, paan masala, gutka and other tobacco products (especially in the duty hours) in the government offices to ensure cleanliness. He started this initiative after his first visit to the secretariat annexe building when he saw betel-juice stained walls and corners in that building. Conclusion We can say swachh bharat abhiyan, a nice welcome step to the clean and green India till 2019. As we all heard about the most famous proverb that “Cleanliness is Next to Godliness”, we can say surely that clean India campaign (swachh bharat abhiyan) will really bring godliness all over the country in few years if it is followed by the people of India in effective manner. So, the cleanliness activities to warm welcome the godliness have been started but do not need to be ended if we really want godliness in our lives forever. A healthy country and a healthy society need its citizens to be healthy and clean in every walk of life.

Kanaresisch

ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ swachh ಭಾರತ್ prabanda

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-06-18
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

WLE Austria Logo (no text).svg The beautiful white bengal tiger, Abhishek Chikile, CC BY-SA 4.0. Hide Participate in Wiki Loves Earth India 2016 Photo contest Upload Photos of Natural Heritage sites of India to help Wikipedia & win fantastic Prizes Check out the rules here Educational technology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "E-learning" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning. Education Disciplines Evaluation History Organization Philosophy Psychology (school) Technology (Electronic marking) International education School counseling Special education Teacher education Curricular domains Arts Business Early childhood Engineering Language Literacy Mathematics Science Social science Technology Vocational Methods Case method Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Factor analysis Factorial experiment Focus group Meta-analysis Multivariate statistics Participant observation v t e Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS) educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)". Contents 1 Definition 2 Related terms 3 History 4 Theory 4.1 Behaviorism 4.2 Cognitivism 4.3 Constructivism 5 Practice 5.1 Synchronous and asynchronous 5.2 Linear learning 5.3 Collaborative learning 6 Media 6.1 Audio and video 6.2 Computers, tablets and mobile devices 6.3 Social networks 6.4 Webcams 6.5 Whiteboards 6.6 Screencasting 6.7 Virtual classroom 6.8 E-learning authoring tools 6.9 Learning management system 6.10 Learning objects 7 Settings 7.1 Preschool 7.2 K–12 7.3 Higher education 7.4 Corporate and professional 7.5 Public health 7.6 ADHD 7.7 Disabilities 7.8 Identity options 8 Benefits 9 Disadvantages 9.1 Over-stimulation 9.2 Sociocultural criticism 10 Teacher training 11 Assessment 12 Expenditure 13 Careers 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading Definition Richey defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[2] The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning."[3][4][5] As such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, and in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology. Related terms Early 20th century abacus used in a Danish elementary school. Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology.[6] However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today.[7] Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI),[8] internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education. Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up potential distinctive features.[9] However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; for example, Fiedler's review of the literature found a complete lack agreement of the components of a personal learning environment.[10] Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle.[9] For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning;[11] nevertheless, its purpose and conceptual principles are those of educational technology.[9] In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology.[9] Initially, "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world,[12][13] for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[14][15] In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing.[16] As a further example, ubiquitous learning emphasizes an omnipresent learning milieu.[17] Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process: students may not have to do anything in order to learn, they just have to be there.[17][18] The combination of adaptive learning, using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodate to an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities in a range of places and at various times, has been termed smart learning.[19][20][21] Smart learning is a component of the smart city concept.[22][23] Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the "e" of e-learning should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic."[24] Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy".[25] These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology.[24] History Main article: Educational software 19th century classroom, Auckland Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls.[26][27] Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium.[28] From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th century[29] with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all multiple choice, large scale assessment was the Army Alpha, used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the aptitudes of World War I military recruits. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using films and other mediated materials, such as overhead projectors. The concept of hypertext is traced to description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. Cuisenaire rods Slide projectors were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s. In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely linked device like a television or audio device.[30] In the mid 1960s Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to elementary school students in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California.[31][32] Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction. Working with Stanford and others he helped develop computer-assisted instruction. Working with the Rand Corporation, Luskin's landmark UCLA dissertation in 1970 analyzed obstacles to computer-assisted instruction. Artistic portrait of Ivan Illich by Amano1. In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology[33] as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada.[34] In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. In the UK the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government's National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning[35] (1973–77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980–86). By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations. Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid-1980s. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge. Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with Museum Education. Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008-2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast, space becomes an issue; and specialised equipment is required for both the provider and the participant.[36] The Open University in Britain[34] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning,[37] making heavy use of web-based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students.[38] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995)[39] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks. With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for its students. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.[40] Improved Internet functionality enabled new schemes of communication with multimedia or webcams. The National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick lecture and assignment feedback. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, during the 2006-2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses; records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component.[41] In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.[42] Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT/CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator/tutor facilitation and requires scenarization of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks. Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media.[43][44] Major high-tech companies such as Google, Verizon and Microsoft have funded schools to provide them the ability to teach their students through technology, in the hope that this would lead to improved student performance.[45] Theory Main articles: Educational psychology, E-learning (theory), Learning theory (education) and Educational philosophies Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Behaviorism This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.[46] B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior[47][48] and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",[49][50] an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models. Cognitivism Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load, information processing and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.[51] Constructivism Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, and social constructivism. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012[52]). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.[53]:224 LOGO, a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology.[53][54] Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most contro

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population explosionDemographic transition explains a form of relationship between population and economic development. In the western countries it has been found that they have moved from a condition of high birth and death rates, to a condition of low birth and death rates which led to a slow rate of growth of population. This demographic change is known as 'Demographic Transition'. in other words, demographic transition describes the passage through which countries move from high birth and death rates to low ones. This has been the experience of countries going through a process of modernizing economic and social development. The growth rate of population is a function of migration, birth rate and death rate in a country. The change in population caused by net migration as a proportion of total population of the country is almost insignificant and, therefore, can be easily ignored. That leaves us with birth rate and death rate. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate measures the growth rate of population. The high population growth rates are due to high birth rate and fast declining death rates due to better sanitation and health facilities. However, the capacities to absorb increasing manpower are much weaker. Furthermore, the process of economic development tends to be more capital intensive under modern technological conditions, and hence, has less potential of employment generation in the short run. Since the total size of the population is already large, there is urgency for speedy achievement of demographic transition from high birth rate to low birth rate resulting in lower population growth. Let us list effects of the rapid population growth in India . They are: Providing employment to growing population: This is so because in developing economies majority of the population is illiterate. The burden of school age population has already shown signs of becoming unbearable. The proportion of children in schools is increasing fast and, vast numbers are still not covered. The absolute number or illiterate persons increases every year. This is only an indication of the wastage of human resources for want of appropriate development opportunities. Problem of utilisation of manpower: Better educated manpower aspires for occupations of greater prestige, which are opened up by the new development efforts. Because of its capital intensive nature, the ability, of the new economy for employment generation becomes restricted. Simultaneously, it renders many of the old occupations out of day and redundant. As a result, under-employment and unemployment, including unemployment of educated persons, increases. There is thus wastage of even developed human capital. Over-strained infrastructure: Facilities such as housing, transportation, health care, and education become inadequate. The worst symptoms of congestion in every aspect of living conditions are manifested in the urban areas. In countries such as India, a situation of "over urbanisation" prevails which puts unbearable strain on urban amenities. Overcrowded houses, slums and unsanitary localities, traffic congestion and crowded hospitals have become common features in the developing countries. Pressure on land and other renewable natural resources: Common properties such as forest and water are over-exploited. This results in deforestation and desertification with permanent damage to the renewable resources. Increased cost of production : Human ingenuity and technological advancement makes it possible to increase production of goods and services. But, it must be kept in mind that, the cost of production of the basic necessities of life, such as food, increases when the population is growing fast and worse lands are brought into cultivation with costly irrigation etc. Inequitable distribution of income: Both at the international and national levels income disparities increase. The increase in gross national product (GNP) is greatly reduced in per capita terms on account of the rapidly growing population. In the face of a rapidly growing population, the major concern of a developing country tends to be focused more on economic growth as such. Considerations of unequal distribution of income are pushed to background. So inequalities within the country tend to widen further.

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Demographic transition explains a form of relationship between population and economic development. In the western countries it has been found that they have moved from a condition of high birth and death rates, to a condition of low birth and death rates which led to a slow rate of growth of population. This demographic change is known as 'Demographic Transition'. in other words, demographic transition describes the passage through which countries move from high birth and death rates to low ones. This has been the experience of countries going through a process of modernizing economic and social development. The growth rate of population is a function of migration, birth rate and death rate in a country. The change in population caused by net migration as a proportion of total population of the country is almost insignificant and, therefore, can be easily ignored. That leaves us with birth rate and death rate. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate measures the growth rate of population. The high population growth rates are due to high birth rate and fast declining death rates due to better sanitation and health facilities. However, the capacities to absorb increasing manpower are much weaker. Furthermore, the process of economic development tends to be more capital intensive under modern technological conditions, and hence, has less potential of employment generation in the short run. Since the total size of the population is already large, there is urgency for speedy achievement of demographic transition from high birth rate to low birth rate resulting in lower population growth. Let us list effects of the rapid population growth in India . They are: Providing employment to growing population: This is so because in developing economies majority of the population is illiterate. The burden of school age population has already shown signs of becoming unbearable. The proportion of children in schools is increasing fast and, vast numbers are still not covered. The absolute number or illiterate persons increases every year. This is only an indication of the wastage of human resources for want of appropriate development opportunities. Problem of utilisation of manpower: Better educated manpower aspires for occupations of greater prestige, which are opened up by the new development efforts. Because of its capital intensive nature, the ability, of the new economy for employment generation becomes restricted. Simultaneously, it renders many of the old occupations out of day and redundant. As a result, under-employment and unemployment, including unemployment of educated persons, increases. There is thus wastage of even developed human capital. Over-strained infrastructure: Facilities such as housing, transportation, health care, and education become inadequate. The worst symptoms of congestion in every aspect of living conditions are manifested in the urban areas. In countries such as India, a situation of "over urbanisation" prevails which puts unbearable strain on urban amenities. Overcrowded houses, slums and unsanitary localities, traffic congestion and crowded hospitals have become common features in the developing countries. Pressure on land and other renewable natural resources: Common properties such as forest and water are over-exploited. This results in deforestation and desertification with permanent damage to the renewable resources. Increased cost of production : Human ingenuity and technological advancement makes it possible to increase production of goods and services. But, it must be kept in mind that, the cost of production of the basic necessities of life, such as food, increases when the population is growing fast and worse lands are brought into cultivation with costly irrigation etc. Inequitable distribution of income: Both at the international and national levels income disparities increase. The increase in gross national product (GNP) is greatly reduced in per capita terms on account of the rapidly growing population. In the face of a rapidly growing population, the major concern of a developing country tends to be focused more on economic growth as such. Considerations of unequal distribution of income are pushed to background. So inequalities within the country tend to widen further.

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Demographic transition explains a form of relationship between population and economic development. In the western countries it has been found that they have moved from a condition of high birth and death rates, to a condition of low birth and death rates which led to a slow rate of growth of population. This demographic change is known as 'Demographic Transition'. in other words, demographic transition describes the passage through which countries move from high birth and death rates to low ones. This has been the experience of countries going through a process of modernizing economic and social development. The growth rate of population is a function of migration, birth rate and death rate in a country. The change in population caused by net migration as a proportion of total population of the country is almost insignificant and, therefore, can be easily ignored. That leaves us with birth rate and death rate. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate measures the growth rate of population. The high population growth rates are due to high birth rate and fast declining death rates due to better sanitation and health facilities. However, the capacities to absorb increasing manpower are much weaker. Furthermore, the process of economic development tends to be more capital intensive under modern technological conditions, and hence, has less potential of employment generation in the short run. Since the total size of the population is already large, there is urgency for speedy achievement of demographic transition from high birth rate to low birth rate resulting in lower population growth. Let us list effects of the rapid population growth in India . They are: Providing employment to growing population: This is so because in developing economies majority of the population is illiterate. The burden of school age population has already shown signs of becoming unbearable. The proportion of children in schools is increasing fast and, vast numbers are still not covered. The absolute number or illiterate persons increases every year. This is only an indication of the wastage of human resources for want of appropriate development opportunities. Problem of utilisation of manpower: Better educated manpower aspires for occupations of greater prestige, which are opened up by the new development efforts. Because of its capital intensive nature, the ability, of the new economy for employment generation becomes restricted. Simultaneously, it renders many of the old occupations out of day and redundant. As a result, under-employment and unemployment, including unemployment of educated persons, increases. There is thus wastage of even developed human capital. Over-strained infrastructure: Facilities such as housing, transportation, health care, and education become inadequate. The worst symptoms of congestion in every aspect of living conditions are manifested in the urban areas. In countries such as India, a situation of "over urbanisation" prevails which puts unbearable strain on urban amenities. Overcrowded houses, slums and unsanitary localities, traffic congestion and crowded hospitals have become common features in the developing countries. Pressure on land and other renewable natural resources: Common properties such as forest and water are over-exploited. This results in deforestation and desertification with permanent damage to the renewable resources. Increased cost of production : Human ingenuity and technological advancement makes it possible to increase production of goods and services. But, it must be kept in mind that, the cost of production of the basic necessities of life, such as food, increases when the population is growing fast and worse lands are brought into cultivation with costly irrigation etc. Inequitable distribution of income: Both at the international and national levels income disparities increase. The increase in gross national product (GNP) is greatly reduced in per capita terms on account of the rapidly growing population. In the face of a rapidly growing population, the major concern of a developing country tends to be focused more on economic growth as such. Considerations of unequal distribution of income are pushed to background. So inequalities within the country tend to widen further.

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